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  1. 101

    What we have learned about family planning in the Calabar Rural MCH/FP Project (Nigeria).

    Weiss E; Udo AA

    [Unpublished] 1980. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver, Colorado, April 10-12, 1980. 34 p.

    The Calabar Rural Maternal and Child Health/Family (MCH/FP) Project ran from July 1975 to December 1980 funded by the Cross River State Government Ministry of Health with assistance from the Population Council (New York) and the UN Fund for Population Activities. Calabar met the following requirements: it is rural; population between 200,000-500,000; family planning and maternal and child health is integrated from the top level of administration to the delivery of services to the clients; the target population is all women who deliver within the area and their children up to 5 years; services are at levels that can be expanded to larger areas of the country; and attention is given to evaluation of both health benefits and results of family planning services. As a model of health care delivery services to be used throughout the developing world, maternal health services are most important because the level of preventable deaths is highest in preschool children and in women at childbirth and MCH is the most appropriate an effective vehicle for introducing family planning. At the end of the Calabar Rural MCH/FP Project, the office will be closed but the services will continue under the direction of the local governments in Cross River State. 6 health centers and 1 hospital served 275 villages. Knowledge of contraception was low but positively associated with education.
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  2. 102

    The international organization lawyer.

    De Moerloose J

    In: International Advisory Committee on Population and Law. Human rights and population from the perspectives of law, policy and organization. Medford, Massachusetts, Tufts University, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1973. 7-8. (Law and Population Book Series No. 5)

    There are 2 types of law encompassed in the area of public health. 1 involves the establishment of technical standards and the other concerns laws dealing with family health and population, an area where cultural, ethical, and economic factors come into play. In the field of family health and population law, public health experts must collaborate across dpartmental lines since the field is complex and politically sensitive. It is for this reason that population law is still in the early stages of codification and revision. WHO faces the task of coordinating national population-related laws with internationally-established policies. In 1948, WHO initiated a program to compile and publish the International Digest of Health Legislation, covering all legislation in the field. The International Labor Organization plays an important role in setting policy in fields such as the status of women, maternity benefits, and social security.
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  3. 103

    Economics and health policy.

    Roemer MI

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1980 Feb; 34(2):47-52.

    The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) devoted their 1979 conference to the subject of economics and health policy. The discussions were held in 4 main sessions: 1) economic context of health problems and services; 2) economic aspects of health service manpower and technology; 3) financial implications of health services organization; and, 4) conclusions on requirements for future research and policy. Summaries stressed the importance of primary care and the need for prudent use of advanced technologies to control rising health costs. In spite of great differences between free market and centrally planned economies, the trend is toward a convergence of all health care systems. Agreement was reached on the fundamental importance of socioeconomic factors in determining health status; need to eliminate waste and improve cost-effectiveness, including more downward delegation of tasks (paramedical personnel and midwives); and the principle of equal distribution of services in populations. Research is needed into the effects of financing and remunerations in developing countries, cost-effectiveness of health care procedures, better matching of skills to tasks, socioeconomics developments in improving health.
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  4. 104

    The role of health in socioeconomic development: WHO's Director-General makes an appeal to ECOSOC.

    Mahler H

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1979 Sep; 33(9):319-21.

    The Council is called upon to encourage governments to make determined efforts to formulate and implement national health strategies for attaining adequate health care for all by the year 2000. Important developments are discussed which have occurred over the last few years as a result of action taken by member states of WHO, developments which have emphasized the primary role the health sector must play in achieving national health goals. The declaration which came out of the 1978 International Conference on Primary Health Care, jointly organized by WHO and UNICEF, stated that an acceptable level of health for all by the year 2000 is an attainable goal and can be achieved through a fuller and better use of the world's resources. It is essential that national authorities make every effort to create the political climate and mechanisms needed for effective communication between decision makers and sectoral interests so that countries may reach health goals.
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  5. 105

    Family planning in tea plantations in India.

    Fernando L; Sircar KN; Chacko VI

    In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. 1st edition. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 55-67.

    Rapid population growth on the large Indian tea plantations, where people are afforded an economic security they seldom leave, first became a problem in the 1940's when infant morbidity and disease began to decline because of the conquest of malaria. The campus-style environment and system of medical and welfare services, as stipulated by the Plantation Labour Act, makes the rendering of family planning services quite easy. The Indian Tea Association's family planning program began in 1957; by 1963 the birth rate had dropped to 38.6/1000 from 43.4/1000 in 1960. Services are free; methods are by choice; cash incentives are granted those who accept sterilization. The United Planters' Association of Southern India began its family planning/health programs in 1971 on 3 estates. The program, known as the No Birth Bonus Scheme, was initiated after a series of 3 surveys and enacted a deferred incentive for motivating employees. The program was extended until 250,000 workers were covered under the Comprehensive Labour Welfare Scheme. The organizational structure includes liaison with State medical and health services and the District Health and Family Welfare officials of the Central Government. CLWS also has support from the Family Planning Association of India, which provides backup clinical services.
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  6. 106

    Population planning activities in the industrial and plantation sector in Bangladesh.

    Huq N

    In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 1-9.

    The per capita income in Bangladesh is $72 per year; the infant mortality rate is 140/1000. The rate of literacy is 24%. Family planning and population policy is one of the government's first priorities. The Population Planning Unit in the Directorate of Labour implements and coordinates all population activities in the labor sector. 3 pilot projects are being conducted with the technical and financial aid of ILO/UNFPA and IDA/IBRD: 1) Family Planning Motivation and Services in Industry and Plantation; 2) Population Education and Training for Labour Welfare Officers, Trade Union Officials, and Personnel; and, 3) Pilot Project for Population Planning in the Organized Sector. The government allows 3 days leave with full pay for those workers orspouses who undergo sterilization. Some industrial managements give additional benefits: housing, bonuses, medical care, education, and employjent opportunities to spouses. The long range objectives of the projects are to support the national program; facilitate the use of existing medical services; and to promote the concept of providing family planning services as part of other labor welfare services. The immediate objectives are to create an awareness of the population problem and family planning methods among industrial and plantation workers and encourage small family norms; and, to use existing services for family planning.
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  7. 107

    Progress in Colombia.

    PEOPLE. 1980; 7(1):33.

    In 1978 Profamilia, the IPPF affiliate in Colombia, attracted 77,263 new acceptors. Many thousands more obtained supplies through community-based distribution centers run by this nongovernmental family planning association. Government health centers reached 61,000 acceptors. The 1973 census and the 1976 National Fertility Survey indicated that Colombia began its demographic transition in the mid-1960s; the growth rate dropped from 3.3% in 1964 to a little over 2% in 1976. The average number of live births in a woman's lifetime dropped from over 7 in 1960 to 4.6 by 1976, and 3.9 in 1978. Two-thirds of married women did not want another child. 95% knew about contraception. In 1970 the President of Colombia, a country where the Catholic church has special rights, announced the government's aim to extend social and medical assistance to all classes of the country so that every family would have the freedom and responsibility to determine the number of its children. Measures promoting later age at marriage, gradual introduction of education relating to population, family life, and sex, and encouragement of education and expanded roles for women were enacted. Profamilia introduced a community-based distribution system. By 1978 the system had programs in the rural areas, in towns, through a community mail service and commercial outlets.
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  8. 108

    Use of epidemiology in primary health care.

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1980; 34(1):16-9.

    National programs aimed at implementing the goal of an acceptable level of health care for all by the year 2000 emphasize the strengthening of the roles of health workers at the periphery of the health care system. Epidemiology, i.e., the study of events in a population and the determination of explanations for their occurrence, has always been a basic community health care tool. Front-line health workers on the community level could be given the job of collecting epidemiological facts from their own communities and integrating this knowledge into their health work. Proper use of epidemiological methods will improve the quality and reliability of vital and health care statistics and facilitate improvement in the system by identifying weak spots. In this way, the community itself can participate in the prevention of disease and promotion of health on a local level. Health education, basic sanitation, mother and child health, immunization, promotion of mental health, and provision of essential drugs, are some areas of application for the knowledge to be gathered by epidemiological means. Such a program will also stimulate the community to participate. High-risk groups can be identified for special treatment. In order to promote this program, the national health program will have to provide training for the primary health workers and necessary specialists.
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  9. 109

    Drug policies for primary health care.

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1980; 34(1):20-3.

    In order to fulfill the goal of "health for all by the year 2000," the countries of Southeast Asia must be encouraged to establish comprehensive drug policies. This would remedy the present situation where access to life-saving drugs and essential drugs is limited and national health resources are wasted on less important medicines. The comprehensive drug policy could streamline every aspect of the pharmaceutical and supply system, ensuring high quality, safety and efficacy of the drugs. Each country's ministry of health should coordinate the program with aid from the WHO Regional Committee. Technical cooperation among the countries of the region is essential and establishment of eventual self-sufficiency with respect to essential drugs is encouraged. Traditional medicine and traditional medical practitioners should be integrated into the existing institutional system. Training of traditional practitioners in the preventive and promotive aspects of primary health care would improve the existing system. Since there is a lack of pharmacists in the region, the training of additional pharmacists should be a priority item in any new comprehensive drug program.
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  10. 110


    Mallick SA

    In: Bloch LS, ed. The physician and population change: a strategy for Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Bethesda, Maryland, World Federation for Medical Education, 1979 Mar. 149-67.

    The family planning program in Pakistan began in 1953 with the formation of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan. In 1960 the Second 5-Year Plan allocated 30.5 million rupees and attempted to provide services to 600,000 couples. The 1965 Plan attempted to reduce the crude birth rate from 50/1000 to 40/1000. 148.2 million rupees was allocated and indigenous midwives were incorporated into an autonomous 3-tiered administration with the district the main unit of operation. This program was the most successful, and the basic structure continues unchanged, with the addition of a "Continuous Motivation System" which has male-female teams assigned to local areas who contact clients and prospective clients. Population education has been introduced into school curricula. The 5th Plan hopes to deliver more services to rural areas. All MCH centers are involved in motivation, education, and providing contraceptives. Family planning clinics have been set up in established hospitals. Paramedical personnel man clinics in rural areas where services include family planning, MCH, and treatment of minor ailments. In 1978 the population of Pakistan was 75.6 million; the crude birth rate was 43.6, the death rate, 13.6. The sex ratio is 876 females to 1000 males. Approximately 19% of women are in the reproductive age group. The maternal mortality rate is 6.0/1000 females giving birth; the infant mortality rate is 115/1000 live births.
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  11. 111

    An attainable target?

    El Gamal A

    World Health. 1979 NOv; 6-9.

    Health is not just the absence of disease or infirmity but the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, according to the WHO Constitution. The presence and extent of endemic diseases, the environment, population increase, and health services available are predictable and controllable factors which need addressing. The foremost problem is the establishment of clean and safe water supplies. Immunization against diseases such as smallpox, diptheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles is needed along with nutrition education and pre and postnatal care for women and infants. Under the heading of "improved standards of living" comes literacy and economic welfare which can contribute to or impede efforts to attain good health for all by the year 2000. Political upheavals can hamper the implementation of health plans. The countries that most need political stability are the ones plagued by drastic and frequent changes of their political systems. Military hostilities may result in devastation, famine, epidemics, and other health influencing types of suffering. International organizations are required to play a leading role in affecting world public opinion and reducing the suffering resulting from military hostilities and oppressive regimes. If the target of Health for All is to be achieved, many groups will have to cooperate to attain it.
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  12. 112

    Women, health and human rights.

    Sipila H

    World Health. 1979 Aug-Sep; 6-9.

    The United Nations General Assembly adopted and proclaimed in their Universal Declaration of Human Rights that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services. Also, motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. Under certain conditions in developing countries food is not available for each child or adult to receive minimum requirements. Women often labor long hours in the field, which, coupled with the responsibility of family raising, leaves them tired and susceptible to disease affecting the entire family. 1975 was offically declared the International Year of the Woman by the United Nations. The objectives were equality of men and women, women's full involvement in societal development, and women's contributions to world peace. Economic development has become the top priority in the last 2 decades, but development cannot be accomplished by unhealthy individuals. The World Plan of Action of 1975 calls for governments to pay special attention to women's special health needs by provideng prenatal, postnatal, and delivery services; gynecological and family planning services during the reproductive years.
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  13. 113

    Helping people to help themselves.

    Tuchinda P

    World Health. 1979 Nov; 14-7.

    Although there have been significant advances in scientific disciplines in general and medical science in particular, 3/4 of the world's population is still without access to any permanent form of health care. Basic necessities which may be regarded as measures of a reasonable quality of life are also denied to the vast majority of rural communities and to the urban poor. In awareness of this situation, the World Health Assembly resolved in 1977 to make Health for All by the year 2000 the primary social target of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the coming decades. The historic Declaration of Alma-Ata, in September 1978, called upon all government health and social measures. The Conference urged each nation to make a strong and continuing commitment to primary health care at all levels of government and society and to ensure that primary health care is an integral part of community and national development. The 32nd World Health Assembly endorsed the report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1979, including the Declaration of Alma-Ata, and adopted a resolution on "Formulating Strategies for Health for All by the Year 2000" which is of great importance. In Thailand in 1977 the Ministry of Public Health launched the Primary Health Care Program with the objectives of expanding the coverage of health services, utilizing community resources and encouraging community participation, promoting the dissemination of health information to local people, making basic health services available, accessible and acceptable to the people, and decreasing malpractice.
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  14. 114

    Family planning [Editorial].

    Peel J

    PRACTITIONER. 1979; 223(1337):611-2.

    Since the term "family planning" was 1st introduced into medical terminology approximately 50 years ago, the movement has grown and expanded. What was originally intended as contraceptive services for married women, usually of high parity and low socioeconomic status, has spread to unmarried women. When family planning clinics were taken over by and incorporated into the National Health Service, the original role of the Family Planning Association became less clearly defined. Family planning services today include sex education, sexual sterilization, research into reversible methods of sterilization, research into the effect of oral contraceptives on general sex behavior, and infertility clinics. New technological advances in the field of fertility, e.g., artificial insemination, cannot be justified by the health needs of the parents or the social need to lower population. There is some question as to whether public funds should be spent to gratify what are sometimes selfish parental concerns.
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  15. 115

    Yozgat MCH/FP Project: Turkey country report.

    Coruh M

    [Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.

    An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
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  16. 116

    Kenya's project for the improvement of rural health services and the maternal child health and family planning programme.

    Kanani S

    In: Korte R, ed. Nutrition in developing countries. Eschborn, Germany, German Agency for Technical Cooperation, 1977. 29-37.

    This report focusses on a project for the improvement of rural health services and development of 6 rural health training centers in Kenya. The Ministry of Health has the responsibility of managing the health centers and dispensaries throughout the country. After a study by experts and funding by international agencies, a project to provide postbasic training to health center staff was undertaken. The major health conditions affecting the community were: family health problems; communicable disease; inadequate sanitation diseases; and, malnutrition and undernutrition. The most overwhelming problem was family health which necessitated a maternal and child/family planning project. The program is directed at women aged 15-49 with a "Super-Market" approach whereby all services (antenatal care, maternity care, postnatal care, child welfare, family planning and health education) will be available on a daily basis in an integrated system. 5 new training schools for nurses are being built. Education in both health and family planning will be emphasized in the project in the future. With a view to uplifting the general quality of life, the Kenya projects are seen as part of the total socioeconomic development of the country as a whole.
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  17. 117

    Science and technology for health promotion in developing countries: 1.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1979 Nov; 33(11):399-406.

    The World Health Organization's "health for all" goal by the year 2000 appears to be a formidable task. However, many possible obstacles have already been identified, and realistic appraisal of resources suggest that it is possible to overcome these obstacles. Science and technology, along with political commitment and appropriate social organizations have significant roles to play in achieving the health for all objective. For developing countries, political commitment means the allocation of a greater share of health resources to the underserved majority of the population. The current picture of the world health situation shows that approximately 4/5 of the world's population are disadvantaged because of grossly inadequate and sometimes inaccessible systems of health care. Some of the major health problems plaguing the developing world are: l) communicable diseases, including parasitic infections; 2) other diseases such as cancer; cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; mental disorders; 3) environmental health problems (contaminated water; inadequate sewage and waste disposal facilities; poor food hygiene; inadequate housing); 4) minimal standards of family health and planning; 5) inadequate provision of essential pharmaceuticals; 6) use of traditional medicine; 7) psychosocial factors; 8) high technology and costly materials; 9) a great lack of appropriately trained technicians; l0) unavailability of relevant health information; and ll) weak institutional infrastructure.
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  18. 118

    World population policies.

    Singh JS

    In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.

    The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
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  19. 119

    Auxiliaries in primary health care: an annotated bibliography.

    Elliott K ed

    London, Intermediate Technologies Publications, 1979. 126 p.

    This bibliography was compiled by the Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group Limited, an organization which functions as a clearing house for information on alternative forms of health care and which is also an official collaborating center of WHO. The bibliography provides references on the use of auxiliary health personnel in the delivery of primary health care services. There are 357 references and each one includes an abstract. The bibliography is divided into 2 sections. The 1st section contains references to 144 articles, books, and manuals which can serve as tools in education and training auxiliary health personnel. The documents provide information ranging from techniques to control houseflies and recipes for low cost weaning foods to techniques for disease diagnosis and methods for developing effective communication between health personnel and the community. The second section is entitled "Auxiliaries and Community Health and Development" and contains references to 213 documents. Most of these documents describe specific programs in which auxiliary health personnel participate or discuss the potential of using auxiliary health personnel to promote development programs. Names and addresses of a variety of organizations, universities, and agencies concerned with the training and utilization of nonprofessional health personnel are listed by country.
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  20. 120

    The International Confederation of Midwives: an overview.

    Hardy FM


    A brief summary of the historical development of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and a review of the organization's recent activities was presented. Efforts to develop an international association of midwives began in 1922. The 1st World Congress of Midwives was held in 1954 and since that time the Congress has met once every 3 years. National midwife associations from 51 countries belong to the ICM. The goals of the organization are 1) to improve the knowledge, training, and professional status of midwives; 2) to promote improved maternal and child care in member countries; and 3) to further information exchange. Since 1961 the ICM and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics have cooperated in a joint study of midwife training and practice. In 1966 the study group completed its 1st report on the status of maternal care around the world and made a number of recommendations for improving the training of midwives and for establishing uniform licensing requirements. It soon became apparent that these problems could not be dealt with on a worldwide basis, and 12 working parties in different regions were established to investigate the problem at the local level and also to make recommendation in regard to providing family planning services in the context of maternal and child health programs. Each working party has a Field Director who seeks to implement the recommendations of the group. Field Directors have also arranged seminars in reproductive health for rural health workers and especially for traditional birth attendants. The ICM also works in cooperation with the European Economic Community, WHO, IPPF, and several other international agencies. The activities of the working parties have received financial support from USAID.
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  21. 121
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care and traditional medicine: considering the background of changing health concepts in Africa.

    Bichmann W

    Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Sep; 13B(3):175-82.

    The stress placed on utilizing traditional medical practitioners in fulfilling the basic health needs for citizens of developing countries and the reasons behind the recent enthusiastic endorsement by international agencies and national governments of the primary health care strategy were examined in reference to Africa. In attempting to provide low cost alternative health care systems in Africa, considerable attention was given to developing schemes for integrating traditional medical practitioners into the health care system. Despite these efforts, little integration has occurred. The development of a collaborative form of integration between these two types of medical systems, except in such areas as the utilization of traditional birth attendants, is impossible. In the treatment and diagnosis of disease Western medicine demands the acceptance of the scientific etiology of disease, and this view clashes with traditional conceptions of disease etiology. Under these conditions the only type of integration that can occur is a structural one in which traditional medicine is placed in a subordinate position to Western medicine. Currently, this problem is reflected by the fact that most programs stress the recruitment of young men and women from rural areas for training programs in which only Western oriented medical concepts are taught. Despite the fact that the need to improve the health status of rural populations has been recognized for a long time, concerted efforts to deal with the problem have only recently been undertaken. These recent efforts are economically motivated. The economic value of rural populations as a source for fulfilling the labor needs of urban residents and as a market for the consumer goods produced by urban dwellers has only recently been realized. In order to preserve this labor and market resource, the health and well-being of rural dwellers must now be promoted. Furthermore, the initial emphasis on community involvement in health related decision making has all but disappeared. The seriousness of the committment of agencies and governments to promote community development must, therefore, be questioned.
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  22. 122

    Management of health services in developing countries.

    Bristow RA

    In: Adulbhan P, Sharif N, eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Modelling in Developing Countries, Bangkok, Thailand, May 8-11, 1978. Bangkok, Thailand, Asian Institute of Technology, 1978 May. 403-14.

    There has been recent recognition that developing countries need to utilize centralized planning and management in developing their national health systems. This new emphasis is particularly important with the advent of greater interest in the unserved or underserved health needs of rural areas. Improvement in the level of knowledge and awareness of senior health officials regarding the benefits of modern management tools is necessary. The development of major health planning on a national scale needs: 1) a strong political commitment to the ideal of provision of universal health services; 2) current health planning for future needs; 3) a clear organizational structure for health care systems; 4) adequate facilities and expertise for evaluation of the program; 5) realistic goals; and 6) uniform budgeting procedures. Various developing countries have achieved a degree of success in recent years as to health planning; the implementation process seems to falter. The reasons for the implementation failure center around the inexperience of the health planners. Implementation would be improved if operational rather than hypothetical plans were drawn. Public participation in health planning facilitates acceptance and implementation. Systems modelling is cited as an aid to development and management of health systems in developing countries. WHO has formulated such a development plan.
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  23. 123

    World population trends and policies: 1977 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)

    This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
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  24. 124

    Draft National Health Policy: comments and suggestions of the Indian Medical Association.

    Indian Medical Association

    JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 1979 Mar 16; 72(6):137-43, 148.

    The International Conference on Primary Health Care called for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement primary health care throughout the world. All government agencies should support primary health care by channelling increased technical and financial support to health care systems. Any national health policy designed to provide for its people should recognise the right to health care as a fundamental right of people. The sociocultural environment of the people should be upgraded as a part of health care. The government's expenditure on health should be regarded as an investment, not as a consumption. Health should be a purchasable commodity. Medical education should be reoriented to the needs of the nation. The government should establish as its ultimate goal the provision of scientific medical service to every citizen. Industrial health and mental health disciplines should establish clear-cut methodologies to achieve the same objectives as medical science. Practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine should be allowed to practice only those systems in which they are qualified and trained. Integration of the modern and traditional systems has failed. In order to encourage people to adopt small family size, facilities for maternal and child welfare clinics, coupled with immunisation and nutrition programs, are needed.
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  25. 125

    Changing midwifery legislation in response to changing health needs and services.

    Alves-Diniz F

    In: Forman AM, Fischman SH, Woodville L, eds. New horizons in midwifery: proceedings of the Sixteenth Triennial Congress of the International Confederation of Midwives, October 28-November 3, 1972, Washington, D.C. London, International Confederation of Midwives and New York, American College of Nurse-Midwives, 1973. 188-90.

    New demands are being made on midwives to broaden their duties, assume greater responsibility in planning and organization and implementation of maternal and child health care. In the future, increasing numbers of people will receive health care services, thus legislation will have to provide for expanded midwife services with a focus on family health care including family planning. Laws requiring continuous education must be legislated to insure a high level of competance. For greater utilization of available health manpower personnel, laws will have to aim at restructuring existing patterns to provide for improved midwifery resources. It is believed that the midwife or nurse-midwife constitutes a major link between family and an increasing complex health care system.
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