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  1. 101
    054870

    The role of community participation in development planning and project management. Report of a Workshop on Community Participation held in Washington D.C., September 22-25, 1986.

    Bamberger M

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. x, 36 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 13)

    The role of community participation in development planning and project management is the subject of this report for the Economic Development Institute (EDI) of the World Bank. The report focuses on issues raised during policy seminars, specifically identifying emerging concerns and summarizing workshop activities. Community participation is defined, and the potential benefits and costs of community participation are discussed. The successful implementation of participatory approaches are examined, as well as EDI's role in community participation through training activities and regional seminars. Part of EDI's proposed strategies include developing modules for EDI training activities, regional seminars, developing teaching materials, and coordination with other agencies and organizations. Annexes provide a list of participants in the seminar, a workshop timetable, and a list of papers presented at the workshop.
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  2. 102
    054869

    Population and agriculture.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 30 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)

    The objectives of this activity module, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include making members of community groups aware of relationships between population and agricultural production in various ways. The basic concept of the relationship between rapid population growth and increased demand for agricultural products is emphasized through 3 activities. Activity 1 directs a group leader in methods that make participants aware of the land as the most precious resource. The effects of rapid population growth on the availability of land for agricultural production are discussed, as are suggestions about increasing production without increasing the amount of land used. Activity 2 links spacing plants with spacing children, using a group discussion and chart preparation activity, to highlight the importance of spacing children. In the 3rd activity a group agricultural project designed to teach members about improved agricultural techniques and generate income, is planned and implemented. Background information is provided for the group leader with each activity.
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  3. 103
    054868

    Population, employment and income.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)

    The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
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  4. 104
    054608

    Communication, development, and the Third World. The global politics of information.

    Stevenson RL

    New York, New York, Longman, 1988. xv, 223 p.

    In 1964 Wilbur Schramm, on a grant from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), wrote a book called "Mass Media and National Development." It painted a glowing picture in which the mass media would reveal the way to development and enable the Third World countries to achieve in a few decades the development that had occurred over centuries in the West. By the 1970s it became clear that population growth was overtaking development. The Third World nations began to see the mass media as tools of the conspiracy of transnational corporations in their to keep the Third World a source of cheap labor. The Third World countries began to seek an alternate route to development, without help from either the East or the West. Their ideal and model was China, where the radical alternative had been shown to work. The Third Word countries joined together as the "Non-Aligned MOvement," a organization which had been founded in Indonesia in 1955. By the 1970s the Third Word countries constituted a majority in UNESCO, which they turned into a forum of resentment against the Western mass media, which they perceived as using dominance over world news flow to keep the Third World in a state of cultural dependency on the West. The poverty of the Third World nations, they claimed, was the heritage of colonialism, and the West owed them restitution. The Western news media were identified as the modern day equivalent of the colonial armies of imperialism. The debate over the dominance of Western influence in world news flow was launched in UNESCO by a request from the Soviet Union in 1972 for "a declaration on the fundamental principles governing the use of the mass media with a view to strengthening peace and understanding and combatting war, propaganda, radicalism, and apartheid." The debate in UNESCO took on a new name, the "New World Information Order," in which the Third World nations argued that they had the right to restrict the free flow of news across their borders. UNESCO Director General, Amadou M 'Bow, tabled the resolution and appointed a commission, headed by Sean MacBride, to undertake general review of communications problems in modern society. The report, entitled "Many Voices, One World," was in many ways vague, but it at least endorsed the Western values of free flow of information. The Us offered technological assistance to the Third World under the auspices of the International Program for the Development of Communication. This institution was designed as a world clearinghouse for communication development, but as such it accomplished little. Meanwhile, the Third World countries gave priority to developing their own national news agencies and the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, dedicated to the "journalism of national development." What this meant, if effect, was journalism limited to "development news" (which by definition was always good)and to "protocol news," i.e., ribbon-cutting and other ceremonial events. By the time of the US withdrawal from UNESCO at the end of 1984, the issue was becoming, if not resolved, at least quiescent, with some indications of progress. At the 1983 conference at Talloires, the World Press Freedom Committee and the Associated Press put together a list of 300 journalistic exchange, training, and internship programs in 70 countries. The World Bank issued a report on "Telecommunications and Economic Development," and a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Telecommunications Union pointed out the cost-benefit relationship of telecommunications to economic development. Finally, a report by an international commission headed by Sir Donald Maitland stressed the importance of shifting existing resources to telecommunications so that basic communications services would be available to everyone on earth by the early 21st century.
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  5. 105
    054532

    The Oslo Declaration. Joint summary of the Oslo Conference on Sustainable Development.

    Brundtland GH; Perez de Cuellar J

    POPULI. 1988; 15(4):50-2.

    Participants in the 1988 Oslo Conference on Sustainable Development explored ways the United Nations system can promote sustainable development by enhancing global economic growth and social development. The deterioration of the environment, and the attendant problems of poverty and resource depletion, demand international cooperation and a new ethic based on equity, human solidarity, and accountability. Priority issues identified by conference participants included the following: developing human resources and fully integrated population policies; protecting the atmosphere and the global climate, ocean, and water resources; halting desertification and countering deforestation; controlling dissemination of dangerous wastes and aiming at the elimination of such toxins; increasing technology cooperation; controlling soil erosion and the loss of species; and securing economic growth, social justice, and a more equitable distribution of income and resources within and among countries as means for alleviating poverty. It was emphasized that poverty alleviation and environmental preservation can be made cost-effective components of development plans and programs and should not be considered as barriers to economic growth.
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  6. 106
    052821

    Report of FAO Expert Consultation on Development Support Communication, Rome, 8-12 June 1987.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1987. [2], ii, 30 p.

    Development communication is a social process that involves the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs, and capacities of all concerned. Communication by itself cannot bring about rural development, but the other components of development--infrastructure, supplies, and services--will not be used to full advantage without an exchange of knowledge between people at all levels. Past experience confirms the value of development communication when it is built into development programming from the start and influences project design and implementation. The strategic role of communication in development has been insufficiently recognized by governments, donor agencies, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself. A technological emphasis has predominated, with little attention to the behavioral changes required by the development process. The FAO's Development Support Communication Branch has focused on media-oriented approaches without promoting communication systems that integrate multimedia approaches with interpersonal approaches at all levels. To remedy this situation, it is recommended that the FAO provide orientation to programming staff and missions on the role of communication in development; improve linkages between the Development Support Communication Branch and the technical divisions of the FAO; reorient the Branch's activities to strengthen its training functions; and disseminate research and information to member governments. In addition, governments are urged to recognize more fully that development is based largely on voluntary change by people; that communication can lead to the proper situation analysis, research, and participation testing necessary to ensure that activities are people-oriented and needs-related; and that suitable budgets must be allotted for development communication.
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  7. 107
    052075

    The World Bank atlas 1988.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 29 p.

    This 21st edition of the Atlas presents economic, social and demographic indicators in the form of tables and charts covering the world. The main yardstick of economic activity in a country is the gross national product. 60 developing countries have had declining gross national product, although for most countries real per capita income has risen. Social indicators show evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1980s. Population estimates and other demographic data are from the UN Population Division; education data are from the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, and calorie data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization. A total of 10 charts and maps show world population; statistics on 185 countries and territories; gross national product, 1987; population growth rate, 1980-87; gross national product per capita growth rate, 1980-87; agriculture in gross domestic product, 1987; daily calorie supply, 1985; life expectancy at birth, 1987; total fertility rate, 1987; and school enrollment ratio, 1985. Throughout the Atlas, data for China do not include Taiwan. The World Bank, a multilateral development institution, consists of 2 distinct entities: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which finances its lending operations from borrowings in the world capital markets, and the International Development Association, which extends assistance to the poorest countries on easier terms.
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  8. 108
    051907

    Burundi: country profile.

    Hilsum L

    NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 1988 Oct; (188):32.

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.
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  9. 109
    056931

    Population and development: frameworks for research and planning. Report of the Workshop on an Analytical Framework for Population and Development Research and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand, 16-20 February 1987.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1988. iii, 101 p. (Asian Population Studies Series, No. 82.; ST/ESCAP/596.)

    The workshop on an Analytical Framework for Population and Development Research and Planning is a part of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific's Population Division's project on Development of Analytical Framework for Population Research and Planning. It aims to provide, for individual countries, up-to-date and scientifically sound descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of significant population and development trends and their interrelationships, and assessments of the implications of these trends and relationships for the formulation and improvement of public policy. This project goes beyond descriptions of levels, trends, and determinants of demographic variables. It emphasizes the analysis and synthesis of existing data and study results with a view to 1) providing policy makers and planners with a precise report that addresses key country concerns in the areas of population and development, and 2) providing concerned researchers as well as planners with an analytical framework for the identification of research priorities in these areas. 4 countries were selected for investigation: Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand. This volume includes the report of the workshop, a list of documents, country study outlines, and selected background papers.
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  10. 110
    201506

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, 1986/87.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 850 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2.)

    The purpose of this 14th edition of the INVENTORY is to show, at a glance, by country, internationally-assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and non-governmental and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period. The time frame for this edition is for projects carried out during the period from 1 January 1986 through 30 June 1987. Whenever possible, projects that may have been funded prior to 1986 and that were still being carried out in 1986/1987 are shown. The entry for each country includes 1) demographic facts, 2) government's views regarding population, and 3) assistance organized by type of organization. The basic source of demographic data for individual countries is the "World Population Prospects, Estimates and Projections As Assessed in 1984," United Nations, New York, 1986, except for some island countries and/or territories for which no updated information was available and information was provided from other sources. The basic sources of information for the government's views regarding population is the Population Division and its publication, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: THE CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND SELECTED TERRITORIES, 1985. The dollar value of projects or total country program is given where such figures were available.
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  11. 111
    046408

    Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).

    Employers Confederation of the Philippines [ECOP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [29] p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)

    This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
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  12. 112
    049240

    Uganda.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.
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  13. 113
    049238

    Kuwait.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
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  14. 114
    049237

    Djibouti.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Feb; 1-7.

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti franc, and the official exchange rate is 177 DF to US$1. Djibouti's imports amount to $230 million, most of which are consumed in the country and paid for by French economic assistance and $3 million a year from the US. Djibouti is a member of the UN, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Nonaligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD).
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  15. 115
    049236

    Zimbabwe.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) united into the "Patriotic Front" and began to engage in guerrilla warfare against the minority government. Finally, in 1979, Rhodesia returned briefly to colonial status, during which time a new constitution was written, implementing majority rule; the UN Security Council called off economic sanctions; and elections were held. Robert Mugabe, leader of the victorious ZANU Party, was asked to form Zimbabwe's 1st government. The British Government formally granted independence to Zimbabwe on April 18, 1980. THe new government was to consist of a President (Mr. Mugabe), elected by universal suffrage, and a bicameral parliament. Zimbabwe has followed a policy of national reconciliation at home and "active nonalignment" abroad. In 1982, Zimbabwe was chosen by the Organization of African Unity to hold one of the nonpermanent seats in the UN Security Council, and in 1986, Zimbabwe was the site of the Nonaligned Movement summit meeting, and Mr. Mugabe became chairman of that organization. The years of sanctions, guerrilla warfare, and white emigration, combined with a foreign exchange crisis (the Zimbabwe dillar = US$.60), and the drought of 1987 took their toll on the Zimbabwean economy. Gross domestic product declined between 1974 and 1979, although by 1986, it was $4.7 billion, with per capita income $275. Zimbabwe is rich in natural resources, especially coal and chrome; and industry, which accounts for 69% of the gross domestic product, was forced by the sanctions to diversify. Plentiful coal deposits make the country less dependent on imported oil for an energy source. Agriculture, which constitutes 15% of the gross domestic product, is the backbone of the economy, with corn as the largest crop and tobacco as the largest export crop; both were hurt by the 1987 drought. Another drain on the economy was the money diverted to pay for training and equipping the armed forces. The British Military Assistance Training Team has been the largest source of training, but jet fighters had to be bought from China and helicopters from Italy. The United States, which broke off relations after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence, has contributed $380 million in loans and grants to Zimbabwe in the years between 1981 and 1986.
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  16. 116
    047882

    Changing development realities and trends: impact on SID's future programme.

    Williams M

    COMPASS. 1988 Feb; (34):1-4, 12.

    The Society for International Development is planning a World Conference in New Delhi in 1988, to plan for the new decade of development in the 1990s. All countries are facing major adjustment problems, from severe debt and stagnation in Latin America and environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa, to structural changes in oil-producing nations. In many areas markets will remain depressed because export commodities have been replaced by new materials. Even successful Asian nations realize that their continuing progress depends on containing population growth. The rise of national identity and of peoples movements is evident in some countries, such as the Philippines. The SID's program to respond to these needs includes such activities as providing information, opportunities to share ideas and exposure to prominent personalities. The Society's priorities include curtailing its financial outlays, publishing a newsletter and journal, and supporting work on women in development. Topics to be studied are: rethinking of development strategies for low income countries; changing technology links to alleviate hunger and poverty; and promoting human rights and cultural identity. A network of information on human rights information has been established called HURIDOCS, Human Rights Information and Documentation System, International.
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  17. 117
    047785

    What's wrong, what's ahead, how do we make it right?

    UN CHRONICLE. 1988 Mar; 25(1):35.

    The "Environmental Perspective" of the UN outlines 6 major problem areas and suggests what should be done about them. 1) Overpopulation exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment. Specific attention should be given to the problems of cities and public works projects should be designed to provide employment and improve the environment. 2) Food shortages must be dealt with to ensure security and restore the environment. Governments must adopt policies and institute regulatory measures for land and water use. 3) The available energy resources are being consumed at vastly different rates throughout the world. Policies should be devised to more equitably meet energy demands without further increasing the costs to the environment. 4) Industrial development is damaging the environment, and government policies, especially in developing countries, must be geared to minimizing waste of resources and increasing pollution. 5) Inadequate housing and public health services are causing high morbidity and mortality in many areas. Programs must be developed to deal with tropical diseases and unsanitary conditions. 6) International economic relations often adversely affect development. Aid to developing countries must be increased and trade patterns developed to mutual advantage and to safeguard the environment.
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  18. 118
    047783

    Poverty's threat.

    UN CHRONICLE. 1988 Mar; 25(1):36-7.

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture.
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  19. 119
    052122

    Guide to sources of international population assistance 1988, fifth edition.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 477 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1.)

    This is the 5th edition of the GUIDE to be published. A new edition is issued every 3 years. The GUIDE was mandated by the World Population Plan of Action, adopted by consensus at the World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Romania, in August 1974. Each entry for an organization describes its mandates, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is provided, types of support activities which can be provided, restrictions on types of assistance, channels of assistance, how to apply for assistance, monitoring and evaluation of programs, reporting requirements, and address, of organization. International population assistance is broadly construed as 1) direct financial grants or loans to governments or national and non-governmental organizations within developing countries; 2) indirect grants for commodities, equipment, or vehicles; and 3) technical assistance training programs, expert and advisory services, and information programs. To gather information for this edition of the GUIDE, a questionnaire was sent to more than 350 multilateral, regional, bilateral, non-governmental, university, research agencies, organizations, and institutions throughout the world.
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  20. 120
    047128

    It's our move now: a community action guide to the UN Nairobi forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women.

    Sandler J

    New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Centre, 1987 Sep. vi, 112 p.

    The document Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (also referred to as the FLS document) reflects a commitment on the part of governments to work to improve women's status through legislative, social, and economic reforms. The document stresses the full participation of women in all areas of society. It further emphasizes the close relationship between the 3 goals of the United Nations Decade for Women--equality, peace, and development. It is essential, however, that women's organizations take responsibility for monitoring government compliance with the principles of the FLS. This community action guide was prepared to increase awareness of the existence of the FLS document and to help women develop campaigns for pressuring their governments to enforce the recommendations they agreed to at the Nairobi World Conference. Although the FLS document covers 100s of issues important to women's lives, this action guide focuses on 13 issue: decision making, education and training, employment, energy and the environment, exploitation of women, food and water, health, housing and transport, legal rights, media and communications, migrants and refugees, peace, and young and old women. For each issue, activities are suggested that can encourage fundamental social change.
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  21. 121
    047034

    Liberia: population and development.

    Brown E

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 232-47.

    This paper summarizes those aspects of the 1984 World Development Report which deal with population prospects and policies in Liberia. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only area of the world where there has not yet been any decline in the rate of growth of the population, and Liberia with a population of 2 million and growing at the rate of 3.5%/year has 1 of the highest growth rates in that area. The birth rate is 50/1000 of the population, and the death rate is 14/1000. The fertility rate is nearly 7 children/woman and is not expected to decline to replacement level before year 2030. Infant mortality is 91/1000, and half of all deaths occur among children under 5. Projecting these demographic trends into the future leads to the conclusion that the population will double in 20 years and exceed 6 million by 2030. Although fertility will begin to decline in the 1990s, the population will continue to increase for a few years with the growth rate declining to 2%/year by 2020 and 1.2%/year by 2045. Such rapid population growth will cause great stress on the country's ability to provide food, schools, and health care. For the children themselves, large, poor families, with births spaced too close together, means malnutrition, poor health , and lower intellectual capacity. And the cycle of poverty continues over the generations as the families save less and expend more on the immediate needs of their children. In macroeconomic terms, a growth rate of l2%/year means a massive explosion of need for food, water, energy, housing, health services and education, with a gross domestic product (GDP) growth of only 2%/year; and this projection is probably optimistic. The rural sector will not be able to support the 23% additional rural labor force, which will migrate to the towns, adding to the already high urban growth rate of 5.7%/year from natural increase. In this society, where literacy is only 20% and secondary education completed by only 11% of the girls, it is estimated that only %5 of eligible couples practice birth control despite the fact that it costs less than $1.00 per capita. Government must step in to ensure that resources exist for population planning at county and local levels. Government is responsible for making demographic data accessible and for coordinating population program inputs. Government should also make sure that family planning programs can be implemented through integration with existing health services. A project including restructuring of health care management, financing and delivery, as well as development of a national population policy, has been proposed for World Bank and other international agencies' support.
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  22. 122
    046823

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  23. 123
    043768

    IPPF plan 1988-90: adopted by the Members' Assembly, Tokyo, November 1986.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1987. ii, 27 p.

    Continuing the program directions adopted in the previous 1985-87 Plan, the 1988-90 Three Year Plan considers the need to sustain family planning associations (FPAs) in the roles and programs most suited to the needs of people in their countries. It is based on the experience of FPAs and is used selectively by them in the context of local priorities. Attention is directed to the objectives of each of the 7 action areas: strengthening the role and effectiveness of FPAs, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the planned parenthood movement; promotion of family planning as a basic human right; improving and expanding services for better family health; meeting needs of young people; women's development; male participation in family planning; and resource development. Strengthening management skills and program capacity at all levels of IPPF, including the opportunity for volunteer and staff development on a continuing basis needs to remain a priority. Specific objectives in this area include: intensifying understanding of the role of NGOs in family planning and promoting governmental, intergovernmental, and NGO collaboration in family planning activities; strengthening the contribution of volunteers; broadening community support and participation; and strengthening FPA capacity in the development, management, implementation, and evaluation of family planning programs. In the area of human rights, it is necessary to increase awareness and promote the exercise of family planning as a basic human right, to overcome obstacles to this objective, and to increase awareness of the interrelationship between people, resources, the environment, and development. IPPF still has an important pioneering role in demonstrating innovative, efficient, and cost-effective ways to expand the coverage of services whether through health-related service delivery systems or through other mechanisms such as social marketing. The Federation's Policy Statement on Meeting the Needs of Young People continues to provide the Federation with a broad framework for its efforts to work both for and with the younger generation. IPPF must maintain strong links with women's organizations and the women's development movement and provide technical assistance and support in the planning management and implementation of field programs. The Federation and other organizations must devote a more significant part of their resources to programs aimed at men. Strong international support for family planning continues to be essential, but increasing national self-reliance remains a key goal for IPPF.
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  24. 124
    042029

    [The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.

    Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano [CELAM]

    Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)

    This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
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  25. 125
    039142

    Basis for the definition of the organization's action policy with respect to population matters.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    [Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)

    This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
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