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  1. 101

    Report of the Executive Director on the policy implications of the findings and conclusions of the UNFPA's review and assessment of population programme experience.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1989 Apr. 14. 25 p. (DP/1989/37; A/E/BD/1)

    This 20 year review and assessment of UNFPA's population experience and operations. 3 major areas focusses on: 1) population data, policy development and planning; 2) maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP); 3) and information, education and communication. Even though 82% of the developing world's population live in countries where current rates of population growth are considered too high; where 84% live in countries were fertility rates are considered too high; where 91% live in countries where levels of life expectancy are too low and where close to 90% live in countries where population patterns of distribution are unacceptable, most of the governments have not been able to implement population policies effectively. There is an urgent need for more rigorous population interventions in the future by developing clear and achievable goals, activities to improve program effectiveness and mobilization of required resources for the 1990's at national and international levels. UNFPA's 4 major population program goals for the 1990's are: 1) development of comprehensive population policies to help achieve sustainable development; 2) decelaration of rapid population growth through the expansion of information, education and services for FP; 3) lowering the current levels of infant, child and maternal mortality rates; and 4) improvement of the role, status and participation of women. Means to success include obtaining political commitment; introducing strategic planning and programming; diversifying the agents for demographic change; and strengthening resource mobilization. The international donor community must raise the amount and quality of assistance provided and improve donor cooperation and collaboration.
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  2. 102

    Health ethics and the law.

    Connor SS; Fuenzalida-Puelma HL

    WORLD HEALTH. 1989 Apr; 10-3.

    Health ethics is comprised of bioethics (ethics relating to the advances of science and technology) and medical ethics (ethics related to the practice of medicine). Some of these ethical standards are strictly moral guideposts, although laws are increasingly enforcing a greater number of the current health ethics. International public health law began in 1851 with sanitary regulations for dealing with cholera, plague, and yellow fever. The International Medical Congress in 1867 and the Geneva Convention of 1864 worked to establish and solidify medical ethics and the World Medical Association in 1949 adopted the International Code of Medical Ethics. Guidelines for research on human subjects were established in 1982. The World Health Assembly consistently asserts that health is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security. Health legislation, however, has not been very active in the field of ethics, with the exception of the Global Programme on AIDS. This avoidance is due in part to the inevitable clash between science and politics if medical ethics as a whole were addressed by WHO. WHO, however, does have a duty to promote discussion and debate at an international level on such a topic.
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  3. 103

    The eradication of smallpox: organizational learning and innovation in international health administration.

    Hopkins JW

    JOURNAL OF DEVELOPING AREAS. 1988 Apr; 22(3):321-32.

    The WHO smallpox eradication campaign represents perhaps the best example of a successful international health administration. In the 1st year of the campaign (1967), the guiding strategy was to vaccinate people en masse over a 2-3 year period in countries where smallpox was epidemic thereby conquering the disease. In Western Nigeria where >90% of the population had been vaccinated, a smallpox outbreak occurred in a religious sect resisting vaccinations and a delay in delivery of supplies forced a change in strategy. Campaign staff learned to rapidly isolate infected persons and swiftly vaccinate the uninfected in an outbreak area in order to break the transmission of smallpox, even where <1/2 the population had been vaccinated. Technological advancements also contributed to the campaign's success. For example, the jet injector vaccinated >1000 people/hour with efficient, reliable, mass produced potent, stable freeze dried vaccines (often produced in target countries) or the less costly and virtually maintenance free bifurcated needle was used. The most significant contribution to the success of the campaign, however, was the flexible mode of management adopted by the campaign staff at WHO which provided an appropriate environment for organizational learning and innovation. Although management was open and flexible, the campaign did depend on careful planning and setting of goals, continual assessment, and rapid response to field requests for assistance or advice. Trends in the incidence of smallpox was chosen as the indicator of success as opposed to the number of vaccinations. The campaign demonstrated the need for cultural adaptations as it operated in each country and region. This evaluation of the success of the smallpox campaign presents conclusions that serve as guidelines to the organization and administration of international programs designed to solve other health problems.
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  4. 104

    The role of international agencies, governments, and the private sector in the diffusion of modern contraception.

    Sai FT; Nassim J

    TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIETY. 1987; 9(3-4):497-520.

    This paper views diffusion as encompassing three processes: the acceptance of the idea and practice of contraception by consumers; the establishment of the institutions or programs to provide services; and the development of technical capability in research and development and in the production of contraceptives. The historical development of the family planning movement is described, and the contribution of international agencies, governments, and private sectors is discussed in the context of changing development approaches. Substantial achievements have been made, but, in view of future needs and the uncertainty of political and financial commitment to family planning on the part of donors, the future presents a continuing challenge. (EXCERPT)
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  5. 105

    The U.S. international family planning program: under siege.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1987. 16 p.

    This brochure published by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, (PPFA) tells the story of the dismemberment of the U.S. international family planning policy from 1961 to 1987. Official family planning policy began in the U.S. in 1961 with Kennedy's endorsement of contraceptive research. In 1968 Congress first allotted foreign aid funds for family planning. By 1973, the tide turned with Helms' amendment to the foreign assistance act prohibiting use of funds to support abortion. In 1983, USAID cut funds for the prestigious journal International Planning Perspectives, because the agency's review board chairman objected to an article on health damage of illegal abortion and mention of legal abortion. It took a court ruling to restore funds. In the same year, the Pathfinder Fund was pressured to accept the U.S. policy articulated in 1984 as the "Mexico City Policy." This ideology states that the U.S. would no longer support any program that performs, advocates, refers or counsels women about abortion, even if those activities are legal and funded by non-U.S. sources. Next, USAID pulled support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The U.S. has multiplied support for natural family planning 10-fold to $8 million, and permitted organizations to counsel clients in this method without offering conventional alternatives. In 1986, the U.S. dropped support for the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, claiming alleged Chinese compulsory abortions as a reason. The PPFA has sued for a reversal of the policy of withholding USAID funds from FPIA, the international division of PPFA. The main arguments are presented, along with a list of typical FPIA projects.
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  6. 106

    WHO: reaching out to all.

    Williams G

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1988; 9(2):185-99.

    This article explains how the concept of health for all developed within the context of the history of the World Health Organization (WHO). By the early 1970s a new idea was taking shape in WHO. Medical services were failing to reach vast numbers. Health would have to emerge from the people themselves. In the heat of discussion the new strategy was clarified and given a name--primary health care (PHC). An ambitious target was set for it--no less than health for all by the year 2000. It was decided that the community itself had to be involved in planning and implementing its own health care. A new type of health worker was called for, chosen by the people from among themselves and responsible to the community but supported by the entire health system. In virtually all countries, the emphasis on curative care would have to be balanced by an equal emphasis on prevention. Almost 90% of WHO's Member States were prepared to share with one another detailed information about the problems facing their health systems. Industrial countries were beginning to realize that sophisticated medical technology was no guarantee of good health and that health for all through PHC offered an alternative. Millions of health workers have been trained, extending services to low-income groups that had no access to modern health care. Among health professionals, lack of understanding of the PHC concept and insufficient concern for social equity remain the principal constraints. Another problem is that expenditure on health care tends to be viewed as a drain on scarce resources rather than as an investment in the nation's future. The mommentum of health for all can be sustained only by governments implementing at home the policies they have collectively agreed on at The World Health Assembly in Geneva.
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  7. 107

    WHO--the days of the mass campaigns.

    Williams G

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1988; 9(1):7-23.

    To mark the 40th anniversary year of WHO, this article presents major events from WHO's life story, including episodes from its foundation in the aftermath of a world war, through the high hopes of the mass campaigns and the brilliant victory over smallpox, to the present great endeavour to achieve health for all. Between the world wars, international health work had been carried out by 3 separate organizations. Urgently needed was a new, truly global health organization to replace them. During the late 1950s, WHO was assisting yaws campaigns in 28 countries with a combined population of over 150 million. By 1960, in 64 countries or territories, 265 million children and adolescents had been tested with tuberculin and 106 million vaccinated with BCG. The technique of residual spraying with DDT held out the promise of conquering malaria by preventing the transmission of the malaria parasite. Within 12 years of its launch, the global malaria program had brought protection against the scourge of malaria to almost 1 billion people--more than 1/4 of the world's population. Smallpox victims were estimated at 10-15 million each year, of whom 1.5-2.0 million died. Through quiet advocacy backed up by solid research, WHO had helped to give family planning the international respectability it had so much needed. WHO increasingly urged governments to integrate disease control campaigns with the general health services and helped them to do so.
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  8. 108

    The Population Commission and IUSSP.

    Lebrun M; Brass W


    The United Nations (UN) and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) have cooperated since the 1940s. In 1927 an International Population Conference in Geveva established a permanent Population Union to cooperate with the population activities of the League of Nations. The 2 institutions' successors, IUSSP and the United Nations (UN), developed close and productive linkages, collaborating to create a Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, published in English, French, Russian, and Spanish and in many other languages. Meanwhile the Union, at the request of UNESCO, prepared a pioneering study attempting to define the cultural factors affecting developing country fertility in the context of the demographic transition, In 1966 the Union and the UN collaborated to develop criteria for internationally comparable studies in fertility and family planning (FP). The resulting monograph served as a reference for many fertility studies, including the World Fertility Survey. Another study on the impact of FP programs on fertility, resulted in the organization of expert meetings and the production of a manual and monographs on FP program evaluation. There was futher cooperation in a study on mortality, internal migration and international migration, resulting in manuals on methods of analysing internal migration and indirect measures of emigration, among other things. The 1954 Wold Population Conference (WPC) and the 1965 UN WPC were organized by the UN collaborating with the Union, and the Union administered the funds used to bring developing country delegates to the Conference. Subsequent WPCs at Bucharest and Mexico City were political in nature, bu the Union contributed to both a report outlining demographic research needs. The Union also assisted the UN in organizing a series of regional population conferences, and its Committee on Demographic Instruction prepared a report for UNESCO on teaching demography, and cooperated with the Secretariat in funding the UN Regional Demographic Training Centers at Bombay and Santiago.
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  9. 109

    Forty years of population statistics at the United Nations.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office


    The Statistical and Population Commissions perform the work of the United Nations (UN) Secretariat in population statistics. Their Demographic Yearbook has come to serve an ever wider variety of users. Most data comes from an annual questionnaire sent to national statistical services in >200 contries or areas worldwide. Data quality and reliability improved significantly with each decennial round of population censuses. Standardized definitions and classification methods; detailed footnoting; and the complementation of missing or incomplete data from official national sources promote their usefulness and international comparability. From 1955-74, demographic and related economic and social statistics were integrated by attempts, through technical cooperation, to improve national statistical services, and by methodological work, including the publication of handbooks, manuals, and technical reports. The Statistical Office, under Statistical Commission guidance, promoted sampling technics for obtaining demographic and related information and for evaluating census and civil registration systems. The UN also promoted efforts to improve civil registration and vital events data accuracy. Those efforts included revising recommendations and handbooks and preparing the World Program for the Improvement of Vital Statistics. Every decade, the UN has issued principles and recommendations for population and housing censuses and contributed to the improvement of national efforts, including the recent development of regional variants of the World Population and Housing Censuses recommendations; emphasizing developing country needs; and promoting electronic data processing worldwide. 193 countries representing 95% of the world's population conducted a census between 1975-84. The UN launched the National Household Survey Capability Program in the late 1970s, to provide data on population and related demographic characteristics linked with other social and economic variables.
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  10. 110

    The regional population programmes of the United Nations.

    Menon PS


    The Population Commission guided the development of specific population programs at the regional level in the mid-1950s, introduced progressively in the developing regions: Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean; Africa; and Western Asia. Their approaches were 1) The staffing of the regional commission secretariats with demographers to carry out demographic research relevant to the respective region; and 2) the development of regional training centers to build up technical personnel to assist Governments and institutions in analyzing demographic aspects of development problems in each region. The regional secretariats have helped incorporate population requests into studies and research carried out on regional and country-level development issues, through its own regional studies; the organization of seminars; and emphasis of the population element in policy formulation and development. Each secretariat has concentrated, under regional commission guidance, on crucial regional population problems. While the Economic Commission for Africa emphasizes data collection and analysis, the Asia and the Pacific Region concerns have been largely in population policy formulation. The Latin America and the Caribbean regional program stresses technical assistance in demographic training, research and dissemination of information, whereas the Western Asia program stresses demographic data collection and analysis. The depth and scope of these regional programs has depended on the changing state of demographic development. UN regional training centers: the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) at Bombay, India (1951); the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) at Santiago, Chile (1958); the Cairo Demographic Centre (1962); the Regional Institute for Population Studies at Accra, Ghana; and the Institut de Recherche Demographique (IFORD) at Yaounde, Cameroon (1971); have provided population training programs, and trained nearly 2,000 specialists. Training and research has moved in the population and development direction.
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  11. 111

    Population assistance to governments.

    Gille H


    The Population Commission was originally charged with providing information and advice to the Economic and Social Council on population trends and issues, not direct technical assistance to governments: the needed factual basis was lacking and technical assistance was not yet a major activity of the United Nation (UN). By the 1950s, a technical assistance program focusing on data collection and analytical studies had been adopted. The 1st assistance request in population policy and action programs came from the Indian Government in 1952, followed by requests from Indonesia, Thailand, and Brazil. In 1952 the 1st 2 UN-supported regional demographic centers were founded. After the 1960 censuses, the emphasis of UN technical assistance in the population field shifted from statistical activities and training to developing methods for dealing with population problems. The early 1960s saw confrontation on whether technical cooperation should be provided by the UN for population action programs. In 1965 a high-level UN expert group was sent to India to make recommendations for the national FP program, and an ad hoc expert group recommended to the Commission that the UN respond to requests for assistance on all aspects of population, including FP. In 1966 the General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution calling on the UN and its agencies to provide population technical assistance, and in 1967 the commission voted to give high priority to research and technical assistance in the fertility area. To finance this expanded role, the Secretary-General established, in 1967, a special UN Trust Fund for Population Activities, to be managed by the UN Secretariat. A Population Program and Projects Office was established in the Population Division and by 1969 Population Program Officers were stationed in developing countries to assess needs and assist in formulating population assistance requests. The assistance demang grew rapidly and the Fund reference terms were expanded, responsibililty for its administration being transferred to the UN Devleopment Program.
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  12. 112

    The Population Commission and CICRED.

    Bourgeois-Pichat J


    The Committee for International Co-operation in National Research in Demography (CICRED) was formed in 1972 as a result of an initiative taken by the Director of the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat, and currently holds consultative status with the Economic and Social Council Among its accomplishments are the organization of seminars on demographic research in relation to population growth targets and on infant mortality in relation to the level of fertility, and demographic research in relation to internal migration. CICRED was also instrumental in gaining the co-operation of national research institutions in a project resulting in the publication of 56 national monographs. In cooperation with the population Division, CICRED prepared and published 2 editions of a population multilingual thesaurus. This collaboration also led to the creation of the Population Information Network (POPIN). In 1977 CICRED launched the Inter-center Co-operative research Program. The various elements of the program are in different stages of completion. In particular, they involve cooperation with the Population Division in the areas of intergration of demographic variables into planning, aging and differential mortality. (author's modified)
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  13. 113

    Population policy.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division


    2 activities undertaken by the UN on population policy are reviewed: research and analysis of population policies adopted by Governments; and the provision of a neutral forum where scholars, not necessarily associated with the UN system, present their views and the findings of their individual research. 2 other activities: the provision of technical assistance in the area of population to Governments that seek it, and the provision of substantive secretariat services to intergovernmental bodies (e.g. the 1974 Bucharest World Population Conference; the 1984 Mexico city International Conference on Population) are dealt with in other papers in this Bulletin. Population policy work has mainly been concentrated in the past 2 decades. Earlier, before the legislative debate on the proper role of the UN with respect to population policy had reached a consensus, little research was done. Policy research began to gain significantly during the preparations for the 1974 World Population Conference. It has since continued, developing its own primary data sources, particularly through the institutionalization of regular population inquiries addressed to all Governments; through the regular reporting of the findings of its analyses, using a variety of formats including the biennial monitoring of population policies; and in the preparation of reports on topics of special concern to the international community. Policy research carried out by the UN Secretariat is characterized generally by an avoidance of advocacy for any specific policy position, a global perspective, and full attention to the policy issues associated with each of the major population variables. Population policy has been a matter of substantive concern for the UN throughout the 4 decades since the Population Commission was established, in 1946. However, in marked contrast to the attention given kto the traditional analysis of demographic variables, this concern has not been explicit and direct throughout the 40 years. During much of the 1st 2 decades, it was expressed unevenly and at times obliquely.
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  14. 114

    Fertility and family planning.

    Johnson-Acsadi G


    40 years ago, one of the 1st tasks of the United Nations (UN) Population Division was a series of pilot studies demonstrating how governments could improve knowledge of demographic levels and trends using inadequate statistics: India, the Sudan, the Philippines, and Brazil demonstrated the application of survey research to fertility analysis. Similar studies illustrated the policy-making value of census data. William Brass suggested that maternity histories be used to assess fertility change. The Division participated in the 1st national family planning (FP) programs in India, and then helped develop a standard questionnaire to serve as the basis for internationally comparable knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys and sought to promote cross-national comparative research on fertility and FP. It also developed technics for estimating fertility in the absence of adequate birth statistics, including the reverse-survival method and ways of using stable population models. Model-based estimates of fertility have been made from World Fertility Survey data. The Division has provided data and studies to measure FP program success and to serve in improving service and acceptance rates, participating in evaluations of the administration of its national FP programs in India and Pakistan, and in research on cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness calculations for fertility reduction programs. A basic component was the measurement of the impact of FP programs on fertility: the Division carried out studies to evaluate alternative measurement methods, and prepared a manual. As fertility data quality improved, the Division prepared a review of knowledge on determinants of fertility, and hypothesized that a threshold must be crossed before development leads to fertility decline. The Division now produces periodic overviews of fertility conditions and trends, and studies on world levels and condtions of fertility, and has made findings on breast feeding effects, "unmet" FP needs, and the role of type of parental union, marital disruption, and education and occupation.
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  15. 115

    Demographic estimates and projections.

    El-Badry MA; Kono S


    The periodic assessment of global population growth from the past to the future has been one of the UN's most important contributions to member states and many other users. Available data and applicable analysis and projection methods were very limited in 1947, when the 1st global population estimates and projections were attempted. The 1st contributions of the Commission were manuals for these functions. Throughout the 1950s, 4 regional reports on Central and South America; Southeast Asia; and Asia and the far East were published. UN studies during this period tended to group regions by their position on a continuum of the demographic transition. Rough but alarming projections of population growth appeared. Projection technics were refined and standardized in the 1960s, and the demand grew for more specialized technics, e.g. dealing with urban/rural populations; the labor force; and other elements. The availability of computer technology at the end of the decade multiplied the projection capabilities, and the total population projections for the future were larger than ever. The 1970s projections, based on the more accurate and widely covered baseline data which had become available in developing countries, were also aided by more powerful and innovative indirect estimation technics; better software, and computers with larger capacities. By 1982, only a few countries were left with a total lack of data. A revision of estimates and projections is now undertaken biennially, incorporating the latest available data, utilizing advanced analytical methods and computer technology. Methodological manuals have been produced as the by-product of the revisions. UN demographic estimates and projections could be further improved by injection of a probabilistic element and the inclusion of economic factors. Roles for the future include maintenance of regional and interregional comparability of assumptions.
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  16. 116

    The significance of the United Nations international population conferences.

    Macura M


    The 4 international population conferences held under the auspices of the United Nations (UN) are placed in historical perspective. Although each was unique, together they comprise a coherent whole reflecting the changing world situation and the increasing understanding of population dynamics and policies. The 1st UN Population Congress was held in Rome in 1954. Organized in collaboration with the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, it was comprised of experts and emphasized methods and technics of demography, which was still evolving as an independent discipline. The 2nd Conference at Belgrade in 1965, resembled its predecessor in that the delegates were experts. However, it expanded the scope of demographic concerns to related fields and policy issues. For the 1st time fertility was viewed as a policy variable in the context of development planning. The Bucharest conference, held a decade later, was the 1st comprised of government representatives. Since the scientific and technical topics had been explored in preparatory symposia, the conference focused on drawing up the 1st international document on population policy, the World Population Plan of Action, which reflected the tension between states emphasizing the need for fertility decline and those emphasizing the need for a new international economic order. The 1984 conference, held in Mexico City, was also made up of government representatives. Benefitting from extensive preparations including 4 scientific symposia, 5 regional meetings and meetings of the Preparatory Committee, it was successful in refining and making more concrete the World Population Plan of Action. Taken together, the 4 conferences transformed demography from a purely statistical discipline to a multidisciplinary science extending into the domain of population policies and programs. (author's modified)
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  17. 117

    The early years of the Population Commission.

    Hauser PM


    Attention is focused on the work of the Population Commisision in the 1st decade after its establishment, in 1946. The 1st Commission, composed of 12 respected professionals in demography and related fields, drew up a set of recommendations which largely formed the agenda of the Commission at its next 5 sessions. In the 1st decade of the Commission a significant number of countries had not taken a census and lacked accurate vital statistics. Nevertheless, the Commission members were well aware of demographic levels and trends in both the developed and the developing countries. Therefore, the Commission emphasized assistance to governments in developing their own demographic data. But it was also concerned with exploring interrelationships between population and various aspects of economic and social development. Despite basic differences among the delegates, relating to both population theory and policy, a concensus was achieved on many important matters, especially those relating to the improvement of demographic data, technical assistance, and the training of demographers. The legacy of publications from the 1st decade, such as "The Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends" (1953), attests to the productivity of the population division and the quality of the direction provided by the Population Commission. However, the Secretariat also responded to requests from other bodies and exercised its own initiative in addressing problems deemed of general interest. (author's modified)
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  18. 118

    Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement: a bibliography, 1911-1984.

    Moore G; Moore R

    Metuchen, New Jersey, Scarecrow Press, 1986. xvii, 211 p.

    This bibliography provides a chronological listing of works by and about Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement from 1911 to 1966, and an author listing of works published after Sanger's death in 1966, through 1984. Brief descriptions exist for many of the 1300 citations. Only works available in public and academic libraries in the US are included; locations of Margaret Sanger collections are also listed. (ANNOTATION)
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  19. 119

    World development report 1985.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1985. 243 p.

    This report focuses on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development. While paying close attention to the events of the recent past, it also places the use of foreign capital in a broader and longer-term perspective. Using this perspective, the Report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international community has dealt with financial crises. A recurring theme of the Report is that countries in debt-servicing difficulties are not necessarily those with the largest debts or those that have suffered the biggest external shocks. The Report stresses that international flows of capital can promote global economic efficiency and can allow deficit countries to strike the right balance between reducing their deficits and financing them. A historical perspective on the role of international finance in economic development is presented, followed by an assessment of policies of industrial economies from the perspective of developing countries. The importance of developing countries' policies in deriving benefits from foreign capital is considered. Issues in managing capital flows are presented. The Report then discusses the main mechanisms through which foreign capital flows to developing countries. An overview of the international financial system and its relations with developing countries are presented. Issues in official development finance are examined. The evolving relationship between the developing countries and international capital markets is outlined. Possibilities for a bigger role for direct and portfolio investment in developing countries are examined. The Report concludes that the developing countries will have a continuing need for external finance. It demonstrates that many of the policies required to attract external finance and promote economic growth are either being implemented or planned already. A prosperous and stable world can become a reality if each country follows the route outlined.
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  20. 120

    Freedom to choose: the life and work of Dr. Helena Wright, pioneer of contraception

    Evans B

    London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.

    This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
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  21. 121

    World population and the United States: the development of an idea, statement made at the United States in the World International Conference, Washington, D.C. 28 September 1976.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1976]. 20 p.

    A history of United States attitudes toward population problems is presented. In 1954, it seemed that the UN and its agencies were precluded from involvement in population action programs. In the US, the battles of Margaret Sanger and Abraham Stone were still fresh in the memory. The forces that would change this situation were already at work. American demographers, economists and campaigners articulated them. At the World Population Conference that year papers presented by Americans were crucial. Abraham Stone presented a paper on new developments in contraception. It has been feared that any discussion of contraception at the Conference could prevent its success. By the early 1950s, anxiety had grown that the prophecies of Thomas Malthus were about to be realized. In some Asian countries, notably India, death rates combined with high birth rates had caused some concern for years. Biologists, economists, agriculturists, and sociologists were also concerned with the quality of life in the US. During the 50s, the considerable resources of the US research and development began to turn toward improvements in contraceptive methods. By the end of the decade, a viable contraceptive pill had been developed and tested, and the earliest IUD had been considerably improved. At the same time, means of improving the delivery of contraceptive services were sought. Marketing and promotion were applied to family planning campaigns. In 1965-66, the US government finally turned around on the population issue. A firmly established action program within the UN system did not end the controversy over the place of population in development. The women's movement in this country has coincided with heightened consciousness in the international community of the importance of women as agents rather than mere recipients.
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  22. 122

    A history of the IPPF in the world family planning movement.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, March 1979. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    This paper elaborates on significant events leading up to the foundation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, and its role in the world family planning movement. Mentioned are precursor organizations and pioneers in the field; these took the position that family planning is a human right and a social responsibility. IPPF has helped organize conferences on planned parenthood, consolidated its organizational structure, and helped to secure funding for its programs. This federation of indigenous national organizations relies on much volunteer support to carry out its programs; a significant amount of the programs are formulated in developing countries.
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  23. 123

    Family planning as a human right under the United Nations system.

    Saxena JN

    Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1980 Jan-Jun; 3(1-2 Spec No):6-17.

    Traces the evolution of family planning as a human right under the United Nations system, with special reference to the General Assembly's resolution on population growth and economic development in 1962; the programs and priorities in population fields passed in 1965; the Secretary General's statement regarding the responsibility of the family, as the fundamental unit of society, for determining its size; the international conference in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of human rights, in 1968; the General Assembly declaration on social progress and development in 1969; and the World Population Plan of Action in 1974. The author concludes that the United Nations has taken a clear stand that it is a basic human right for couples to determine the number of their children and the consequent right to access to the relevant information and methods for implementing their decision. The author calls for a General Assembly declaration on human rights aspects of family planning. Such a declaration, while not legally binding on member states, would move the right to family planning toward legal obligation as an instance of "instant" custom, and pave the way to practical application by influencing the attitude of governments. (author's modified)
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  24. 124

    The diffusion of a population-related innovation: the Planned Parenthood affiliate.


    Columbis, Ohio, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, (1977). (Studies in the Diffusion of Innovation Discussion Paper No. 37) 24 p

    The supply side of family planning spread in the U.S. is studied by examination of the diffusion of Planned Parenthood affiliates in this country. This diffusion is an example of nonprofit-motivated polynuclear diffusion with central propagator support. Such diffusion was key to increasing availability of and information regarding family planning services. The temporal pattern of the diffusion followed the process outlined: high growth from 1916-1939, very slow growth from 1940-1960, and high growth from 1961-1973. This process was initiated in response to birth rate changes and other social events, governmental initiative, and organizational changes within the central propagator. The diffusion spread from the largest cities to surrounding communities, and from north and east to west and south. The number of women in the 15-44 age group and the number of these women ever-married were 2 specific variables of importance in the spread; median family income and median school years completed for the 3rd organizational period were variables of importance in the organizing capacity of the diffusion.
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  25. 125

    On family planning associations and development of population policy and programs.

    Corsa L

    Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 42(4): 269-276. July-August 1975.

    The way in which family planning associations have affected policy and the development of government programs and the way government family planning programs have affected private family planning associations is examined. The typical evolution of voluntary family planning association in countries throughout the world is: 1) an initial interest in the unhealthy effects of excess childbearing by physicians and prominent women; 2) development of a local family planning association; 3) provision of family planning services to women of average means; 4) f avorable public response; 5) support and funding provided by internation al organizations; and 6) government entrance onto the family planning scene. Generally, voluntary family planning groups encourage a trend whose time has already come through various changes in the national way of life. Family planning associations flourish with government involvement because there is need for the expertise developed by the voluntary associations. Private organizations are especially active in training, education, youth work, research, and innovation. Voluntary groups can monitor the quality of government family planning programs.
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