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Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, 2003. 36 p.Ukraine is a young nation on the move. The national response to HIV/AIDS is also gathering pace. It is bringing together fresh coalitions of people, leaders and institutions who want to stop the further spread of this virus and to ensure care for those who are in need. The good news for all is that there are now known ways of preventing the spread of the virus and treatment is increasingly available. The challenge remains immense -- to some overwhelming. The insidious nature of the virus is that it attacks men and women in the prime of their life -- between the ages of 15 and 40. It robs children of their parents, and society of its productive citizens. Limited budgets and ungrounded stigma have severely hampered a scaled-up nationwide response. Positive rhetoric is helpful, but it needs to be matched by personal commitment and concrete actions. With the infusion of new resources, now is the time to remove the log jams and unleash a broad-based national effort to change the current course of the epidemic. As the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan recently said, "We have come a long way, but not far enough. Clearly, we will have to work harder to ensure that our commitment is matched by the necessary resources and action." (excerpt)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, . 11 p.HIV/AIDS presents the greatest challenge to human development the world has ever seen. With nearly 42 million people living with HIV/ AIDS, 20 million already dead and 15,000 new infections daily, its devastating scale and impact constitute a global emergency that is undermining social and economic development throughout the world and affecting individuals, families, communities and nations. HIV/AIDS reverses gains in human development and denies people the basic opportunities for living long, healthy, creative and productive lives. It impoverishes people and places burdens on households and communities to care for the sick and dying, while claiming the lives of people in their most productive years. HIV/AIDS also results in social exclusion and violations of human dignity and rights affecting people's psychological well-being. While the long-term consequences may not yet be visible here, Ukraine is glimpsing the enormity of the problem in its newly independent country. The number of reported cases of HIV infection in the country has increased 20 times in the past five years yielding estimates of 300,000 to 400,000 people already infected, which is approximately 1% of the adult population. The Declaration of Commitment of the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS notes "the potential exists for a rapid escalation of the epidemic". The dynamics of the spread of the epidemic can be indicative of the potential magnitude of future human development impacts, deepening over time and affecting future generations. (excerpt)
Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) -- 2nd Meeting on Tuberculosis: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Oct. 15 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)RPM Plus has been substantially involved in TB activities in the E&E region both at the country and regional level since 1998, providing technical leadership to StopTB partners and technical assistance to countries in streamlining TB drug management systems as part of overall WHO DOTS strategy. In recognition of the RPM Plus role as a leader in pharmaceutical management, RPM Plus Program Manager for TB Andrey Zagorskiy was elected a member of the WHO/Euro Technical Advisory Group (TAG), with the first meeting in 2004 in Sinaia, Romania. In 2005, RPM Plus continued to provide technical leadership in pharmaceutical management for TB to WHO/Euro TAG, and participated in the second meeting in September 2005, in Copenhagen, Denmark. (author's)
USAID project profiles: children affected by HIV / AIDS. Fourth edition. [Perfiles del proyecto USAID: niños afectados por VIH/SIDA. Cuarta edición.]
Washington, D.C., Jorge Scientific Corporation, Population, Health and Nutrition Information (PHNI) Project, 2005 Jan. 264 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00004-00)No generation is spared the catastrophic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. From newborn babies of HIV-positive mothers to elderly caregivers, the disease does not discriminate. One of the most tragic consequences is the toll on children. In 2003, more than 15 million children under age 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS. Along with grief and abandonment, children in affected families face the added burdens of responsibilities far beyond their capabilities - nursing a sick or dying parent, raising younger siblings, running the household or family farm, replacing a breadwinner, or struggling for survival on city streets. An estimated 5 percent of children affected by HIV/AIDS worldwide have no support and are living on the streets or in residential institutions. Globally, approximately 2.1 million children under age 15 have HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Acta Pædiatrica. Supplement. 1999 Aug; 88(430):1-6.The prevalence of breastfeeding varies very much throughout the world. In some countries, such as in Scandinavia, it is extremely high, whereas it is rather low in many industrialized countries such as northern Italy. In urban areas of many developing countries the prevalence is extremely low, although it may be high in rural areas. For instance, in rural Guinea-Bissau in West Africa it is reported to be 100% at 3 mo of age, and this high prevalence may be explained by the fact that infants who have not been breastfed die before this age. In Sweden the prevalence at 2 mo of age was around 95% in 1945 (including infants fed by milk-mothers) but then gradually dropped until 1972, when it was as low as 20%. However, during the following 10-y period the prevalence gradually increased to around 80%. The main reasons for the decline most probably were that infant formulae, then considered to be safe, became available, that an increasing number of women started to work outside their homes, making formula feeding part of the feminist movement, and finally that no real attempts were made to promote breastfeeding in the maternity wards and well-baby clinics. The reverse trend started in 1972, when the attitude towards breastfeeding changed completely. Well-educated mothers became aware of the new discoveries of the importance of breastfeeding from immunological and nutritional points of view, and organized campaigns. Within a few years, the Swedish parliament passed a law which guaranteed all mothers paid leave from their work (80% of their salary) for 9 mo after childbirth, which has now been increased to 12 mo. The WHO/UNICEF code from 1980, which regulates the marketing of infant formula, has also probably played an important role. After a plateau for the prevalence of breastfeeding between 1982 and 1990, a further increase has taken place, particularly between 6 and 9 mo of age. Whereas the first phase in the increase of the prevalence of breastfeeding was, to a certain extent, the result of the concern of well-educated mothers, the second phase (1990-1998) may, at least partly, be explained by the fact that Swedish maternity wards then implemented the suggestion, launched by WHO/UNICEF, to create "baby-friendly" maternity hospitals with the aim of enabling all women to practise exclusive breastfeeding immediately after birth. Methods to stimulate lactation and proper nutritional suckling behaviour of the newborn were then developed. (author's)
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health Project [INFO], 2005 Apr. 8 p. (INFO Reports No. 4)The World Health Organization (WHO) issued new guidance in 2004 on how to use certain contraceptives safely and effectively, including the following: A woman who misses combined oral contraceptive pills should take a hormonal pill as soon as possible and then continue taking one pill each day. This basic guidance applies no matter how many hormonal pills a woman misses. Only if a woman misses three or more hormonal pills in a row will she need to take additional steps (see p.3). The new guidance simplifies the missed-pill rules issued by WHO in 2002. Men should wait three months after a vasectomy procedure before relying on it. Previous guidelines advised men to wait either three months after the procedure or until they had had at least 20 ejaculations, whichever occurred first. Recent studies have shown, however, that the 20-ejaculation criterion is not a reliable gauge of vasectomy effectiveness. (excerpt)
WHO healthy cities and the US family support movements: a marriage made in heaven or estranged bed fellows?
Health Promotion International. 1996; 11(2):137-142.The family support movement in the US emerged at about the same time that the WHO Healthy Cities project was gaining momentum in Europe, and the underlying principles and ecologic frameworks of the two have much in common. However, while many 'Healthy Cities' in Europe have included activities that benefit families, this has not been made a major focus. There seems to be little awareness of experience gained in the US in terms of establishing programs with limited or no government funding, using volunteers, and developing social marketing and advocacy strategies sustain long term viability. Similarly, cities and states in the US are struggling to develop networks of family support programs and they appear to be doing this without the benefit of experience gained in Healthy Cities projects on how to engage political leadership, develop public policies, establish intersectoral councils, fund a coordinator position, mobilize neighborhoods, and evaluate community wide health promotion programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine how these two movements might join forces and learn from each other. (author's)
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006 Feb; 74(2):187-188.Accurate measurement of malaria incidence is of great importance to malaria control, but it is very hard to achieve in most circumstances. Robert Snow and colleagues recently reported the results of a method to determine the case incidences of Plasmodium falciparum malaria around the world. For non-African P. falciparum malaria, they estimated three times more cases than in recent WHO figures. They suggested that the WHO estimates were lower due to the use of passively reported national malaria records. We, who prepared the WHO estimates of non-African malaria cases and published the method used to derive them, discuss here the suggestion by Snow and colleagues that, because of the data and methods used, the WHO estimates must be an under-representation of the true incidence of malaria cases. (excerpt)
Connections. 2006 Jan;  p.In September 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) awarded Ukraine a 2.5 million dollar grant to combat the country's growing tuberculosis epidemic, according to Mykola Polischuk, who was Minister of Health at the time the grant was awarded. This funding will provide for the purchase of high-quality medications and allow for the cost-effective treatment of 75,000 patients over three years beginning in January 2006. The new treatment program will employ the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy-Short Course) strategy, which has been recognized as the world's best strategy for fighting TB largely due to its reliance on cheaper microbiological methods of diagnosis rather than X-rays. Patients are first identified using microscopy services then prescribed the correct dosage of anti-TB medicines for a period of six to eight months. If administered accurately, DOTS can successfully treat TB in 99 percent of cases. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko echoed WHO's decision to increase TB funding in October when he pledged to increase health funding, restore the country's failing health system, and fight the spread of HIV and tuberculosis, according to the Associated Press. (excerpt)
Connections. 2006 Feb;  p.Nearly 5 million people worldwide were infected with HIV in 2005, marking the largest jump in new cases since the disease was first recognized in 1981, according to the AIDS Epidemic Update 2005 released by UNAIDS last December in conjunction with World AIDS Day. The virus claimed the lives of 3.1 million people in 2005, with more than half a million of these deaths occurring among children. Although sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia continue to remain the hardest hit areas, the report clearly indicates that the virus is continuing to spread at alarming rates within Eurasia, bringing the region to the brink of a full-blown epidemic. The number of people living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia reached 1.6 million in 2005, a 20-fold increase from 2003. Even more striking, AIDS claimed the lives of 62,000 people there last year-nearly double the mortality rate attributed to the virus 2003. (excerpt)
Connections. 2005 Feb-Mar;  p..A nurse at the maternity hospital told me that it would be better for me to try not to get attached to my baby, to leave him there and start a new life, recalls a 17 year-old single mother who did not know where she could find support for herself and her son and was advised to give him up. Roughly two percent of all women giving birth in Romania abandon their children immediately after delivery, leaving their newborns at maternity hospitals and pediatric institutions and making them wards of the state. The majority of these women are very young, poorly educated, and live below the poverty line, according to a recent UNICEF report cited in an article in Medical News Today. Societal factors also play a role in perpetuating this practice, explains Pierre Poupard, a UNICEF representative in Romania. "Unfortunately, young mothers going into hospitals are confronted with conservative attitudes and practices. The system remains very traditional and penalizes the poor and marginalized," he acknowledges. (excerpt)
International public health organizations warn of burgeoning HIV / AIDS epidemic in Eastern Europe and Eurasia.
Connections. 2003 Aug;  p..A trio of reports issued by international public health groups last month projects a dire future for Eastern Europe and Central Asia if immediate action is not taken to stem the rising tide of HIV/AIDS. Although the onslaught of HIV hit these nations more than a decade after the disease emerged in many other parts of the world, infection rates have skyrocketed during the past five years and are growing faster than in any other region. Currently, Russia and Ukraine are home to the bulk of the 1.2 million HIV-positive individuals living in the region, but the social conditions that are enabling the epidemic to spread so quickly in these two countries-high incidence of unemployment and poverty, rapid social change, increasing rates of substance abuse, a escalating commercial sex trade, and decreasing levels of healthcare services and educational opportunities, for example-are also shared by other nations in the region. Since 1995, pockets of HIV epidemics have sprung up in communities stretching from the Baltics to Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. According to World Bank reports, there are indications that the epidemic is making its way from "high-risk core transmitter groups," such as needle-sharing injecting drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex workers, through bridge populations, such as their sex partners, into the population at large. A World Bank study released July 10 uses the Balkan nations of Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania to illustrate this phenomenon, citing high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sharp increases in risky sexual behavior, and a lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS as key indicators that the deadly disease is poised to make inroads into the general population. (excerpt)
Odessa workshop helps build capacity among Ukrainian clinicians who care for people living with HIV / AIDS.
Connections. 2004 Jan;  p..A recent Anti-retroviral Therapy Training Workshop held in Odessa, Ukraine, marked the start of an ongoing collaboration between AIHA and the Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF). It was the first training hosted under the aegis of the newly established World Health Organization Regional HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Knowledge Hub for which AIHA is the primary implementing partner. This Knowledge Hub was created in response to the burgeoning HIV/AIDS pandemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to serve as a crucial capacity-building mechanism for reaching WHO's "3 by 5" targets for the region. (excerpt)
All rights for all children. UNICEF in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2005. 48 p.All children have the right to survive, to be educated, to be healthy, to have a name and nationality. All children have the right to participate in decisions that affect them. And all children have the right to be protected from harm. UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, speaks out for the rights of all children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The region faces unique challenges. No other region has been through so dramatic a transformation in so short a time and the scale of the changes has had a serious impact on children. Rising poverty and unemployment and falling social spending have excluded vast numbers of children from the economic progress that has been made in recent years. Millions of families are under pressure: the systems that once guided their lives have vanished and they must find their way in a new and unfamiliar landscape, confronting new dangers such as HIV/AIDS and the trafficking of drugs and human beings. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..All programmers of the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and strategies in the 1990s will address explicitly the status of the girl child and her needs, particularly in nutrition, health and education, with a view to eliminating gender disparities. The recommendation was made by the UNICEF Executive Board at its 1990 regular session. Endorsing the priority focus given to the girl child, the Board also asked UNICEF to implement gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress made in reducing disparities between girls and boys in health care and primary education programmes. The Board also requested UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant to highlight the girl child in the annual report on women in development and to submit to the 1992 Board session and every second year thereafter, a full report on progress made on the situation of the girl child. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..Dedicated to the advancement of women, a 15-foot tall marble statue Woman Free" stands high above a reflecting pool and a lovely rose garden at the UN Centre in Vienna. The work, created by British sculptor Edwina Sandys, started as a simple doodle on a paper napkin in the Russian Tea Room in New York City. "My inspiration usually comes from a deep well inside me", she says. The slim, attractive artist is the granddaughter of the late Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill. She is the eldest child of Diana Churchill and Lord Duncan Sandys, a former British cabinet minister. Among her internationally recognized works is one entitled "Child", created in commemoration of the International Year of the Child in 1979, and now on permanent display in front of the UN International School in Manhattan. Others include "Generations" and "Family", respectively ensconced at the UN Vienna Centre and at UN headquarters in Geneva. Ms. Sandys almost single handedly raised the money for the "Woman Free" statue by creating a gold pendant, an exact replica of the sculpture, and selling it to interested donors. (excerpt)
Security Council focuses on women, peace and security. [El Consejo de Seguridad se centra en la mujer, la paz y la seguridad]
UN Chronicle. 2004 Sep-Nov; 41(3): p..The participation of women is a key variable in achieving sustainable peace and security. Having recognized this principle in its resolution on women, peace and security, the Security Council, during a working roundtable meeting at the Rockefeller Foundation on the 1 July, discussed the concrete implications of resolution 1325 (2000) on their daily activities. The Permanent Missions of Canada, Chile and the United Kingdom to the United Nations and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security co-sponsored this roundtable with Council members. The discussion focus built on the recommendations developed at the first roundtable held in January 2004. In his opening remarks, Ambassador Lauro L. Baja, Jr. of the Philippines stated: "We cannot lose sight of women's concerns in the reconstruction processes. Sustainable and durable peace can only be achieved when women's concerns and contributions are incorporated in every aspect of rebuilding the peace, including social and economic reconstruction." (excerpt)
Addressing HIV: do conferences and papers help? - human immunodeficiency virus. [Faire face au VIH : les conférences et les articles sur ce sujet sont-ils d'une grande aide ? - le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine]
UN Chronicle. 1998 Fall; 35(3): p..My initial reaction to the proposed title of the following article, "Addressing HIV: Do Conferences and Papers Help?," was strong and immediate. I also found myself sitting squarely on both sides of the fence: yes, of course, they help to expand people's minds and abilities to respond effectively to the epidemic, but there is so much wasted time and money involved in organizing most conferences. With the intention of exploring these reactions and putting them in an appropriate context, I decided to poll several colleagues, whom I have worked with, in defining and mobilizing the response to the worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The feedback I received on my mini-survey, which simply asked respondents to give me their immediate thoughts and feelings about the proposed title, filtered in from Canada, France, Senegal, South Africa and the United States. I have synthesized the general reactions and supplemented them with my own analysis of the question. (excerpt)
International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.
Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):195-198.The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and assistance - a challenge that international aid agencies needed to address in Macedonia and will need to address elsewhere. (author's)
Primary health care in complex humanitarian emergencies: Rwanda and Kosovo experiences and their implications for public health training. [Soins de santé primaire dans le cadre d'urgences humanitaires complexes : les expériences du Rwanda et du Kosovo, et leurs implications dans le domaine de la formation en santé publique]
Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):148-155.In a complex humanitarian emergency, a catastrophic breakdown of political, economic, and social systems, often accompanied by violence, contributes to a long-lasting dependency of the affected communities on external service. Relief systems, such as the Emergency Response Units of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have served as a sound foundation for fieldwork in humanitarian emergencies. The experience in emergencies gained in Rwanda in 1994 and Kosovo in 1999 clearly points to the need for individual adjustments of therapeutic standards to preexisting morbidity and health care levels within the affected population. In complex emergencies, public health activities have been shown to promote peace, prevent violence, and reconcile enemies. A truly democratic and multiprofessional approach in all public health training for domestic or foreign service serves as good pattern for fieldwork. Beyond the technical and scientific skills required in the profession, political, ethical, and communicative competencies are critical in humanitarian assistance. Because of the manifold imperatives of further public health education for emergency assistance, a humanitarian assistance competence training center should be established. Competence training centers focus on the core competencies required to meet future needs, are client-oriented, connect regional and international networks, rely on their own system of quality control, and maintain a cooperative management of knowledge. Public health focusing on complex humanitarian emergencies will have to act in prevention not only of diseases and impairments but also of political tension and hatred. (author's)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2005; 20:253-267.Alternative approaches to the comparative analysis of international health systems developments are reviewed in relation to the advent of new primary care organizations in countries with parallel 'modernizing' policies. A framework for transferable learning between these is articulated and its design described. This is derived from priorities defined by lead policy and practice representatives in UK primary care. It points to the benefits of examining the interaction of critical new public management and planning functions as an effective vehicle for identifying both individual country role models and shared international experiences. Illustrative examples are provided in five subject areas ranging from local engagement to multiple forms of financing. (author's)
Lancet. 2005 Nov 5; 366(9497):1586.Next week, on Nov 8, an important deadline for ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) approaches. Any country that has not ratified the convention by then will not become a full party to its governing body, which will meet for the first time at the Conference of the Parties in Geneva, Feb 6–17, next year. At that meeting parties will take decisions on technical, procedural, and financial issues relating to the implementation of the convention. The FCTC has been rightly hailed as a milestone for the promotion of public health worldwide and WHO can be proud of its achievement. So far, 94 countries have ratified the FCTC, 41 of these in 2005, with China, Rwanda, Nigeria, Cyprus, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo becoming the latest nations to do so this October. China, with the world’s largest cigarette market and with an estimated 350 million smokers, is a particularly important signatory. By ratifying the FCTC, China has taken an important and welcome step to protect its people’s health. Rapid economic changes make China’s large population especially vulnerable to a future epidemic of chronic diseases. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Large-scale corruption in developed and developing countries is closely connected to contracting-out, concessions, and privatization. The encouragement of privatization of public services and infrastructure by the World Bank and others has multiplied the potential scale of this business. At the same time it has multiplied the incentives for multinational companies active in these sectors to offer bribes in order to secure concessions and contracts. One of the sectors most at risk is water and sanitation. The concessions invariably involve long-term monopoly supply of an essential service, with considerable potential profit. Often, major construction works are involved, which are themselves a source of profit. (excerpt)
Gender, age, and ethnicity in HIV vaccine-related research and clinical trials. Report from a WHO-UNAIDS consultation, 26-28 August 2004. Lausanne, Switzerland.
AIDS. 2005 Nov 18; 19(17):w7-w28.This report summarizes the presentations and recommendations from a consultation held in Lausanne, Switzerland (26–28 August 2004) organized by the joint World Health Organization (WHO) – United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) HIV Vaccine Initiative. The consultation discussed issues related to gender, ethnicity, and age in HIV vaccine research and clinical trial recruitment. A special focus of the meeting was the participation of women and adolescents in clinical trials. Also discussed were the experiences and lessons from various research programs, trials, and studies in different countries. Implementing the recommendations from this meeting will require prioritization and active participation from the research community, funders of research, local and national governments, non-governmental organizations, and industry, as well as the individuals and communities participating in clinical trials. This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts, and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the WHO. The contribution of the co-chairs (R. Macklin and F. Mhalu) and the rapporteurs (H. Lasher, M. Klein, M. Ackers, N. Barsdorf, A. Smith Rogers, E. Levendal, T. Villafana and M. Warren) during the consultation and in the preparation of this report is much appreciated. S. Labelle and J. Otani are also acknowledged and thanked for their efficient assistance in the preparation of the consultation and the report. (author's)