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  1. 76

    Dangerous liaisons: population and development dialogues.

    Harcourt W

    Development. 1994; (1):10-3.

    Women involved in the population debate and in preparations for the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) are forming a dangerous liaison with environmentalists and population planners. Current models of development growth fail in having the power and resource distribution potential to change sources of poverty and unsustainable environmental practices. Good government may be a solution, but environmentalists must be aware of gender issues outside the local domain. The population establishment hurts women's groups by marketing the language of empowerment of women as an object of population target setting, which has been linked with coercion and violence and not with improvement in the quality of life of women. The various political perspectives use the same language of empowerment, rights, justice, poverty alleviation but the meanings are not the same. A positive consequence of the joint discussion is the worldwide focus on understanding social differences and man's relationship to man and man's relationship to the natural world. An important objective is to be involved in the development of a complex expression of the issues. The rightness or wrongness of postures is out of place. Arturo Escobar has coined the strategy "cultural hybridization" or development of alternative strategies from the ongoing economic and technological changes occurring during the 1990s. The mainstream discourse of ICPD focuses on women's rights, overpopulation and unsustainable development. UNFPA in roundtable discussions endorsed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The US position is gender sensitive. The second preparatory committee recommends family planning which encompasses sexual and reproductive health and links education with women's status as a means of achieving socioeconomic development. The mainstream has been asked about the contradictory practices of international development programs. Balancing individual rights and social responsibilities has both opportunities and potential dangers, if decisions are made for quantification by technical experts, for control of wombs by the medical establishment, or for stringent control of economic programs by governments under threats by multinationals.
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  2. 77

    Women, environment and development: the evolution of the debate.

    Ofosu-Amaah W

    Development. 1994; (1):63-6.

    Agenda 21 was adopted in June 1992 by the world community. The chapter on global action for women toward equitable and sustainable development discusses the integration of women into the development process. In this discussion some background history is presented on how women have been conceptualized and integrated into development issues. Women in development (WID) groups have not addressed the problems of traditional development approaches for women, the environment, or sustainability. The exception has been DAWN (Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, a Southern nongovernmental coalition of women researchers). Programmatic impact of WID has been attained, but policy impact is still limited. Women have been recognized as the "first ecologists," but records of women's traditional practices which harmonize with environmental protection are not well researched. New knowledge and skills for women must be combined with the survival knowledge gleaned from long term interaction with the environment. Agenda 21 recognized the women, environment, and development (WED) links but without a full recognition of the issues. New research has only begun to reveal the harmful effects on women during pregnancy from toxic contaminants and burning of biomass fuels. Both gender bias and gender blindness prevent the examination of women's issues. Women suffer from lack of access to education and training, lack of access to property and credit, lack of access to decision making, and biases in resource allocation. These biases prevent a gender neutral setting for development. The inclusion of women's issues in planning would address, for example, women's traditional family roles in production and reproduction, women's roles in the community for assuring safe food water and security, women's daily interaction with the environment, women's responsibility for food security, women knowledge of ecology and biodiversity, and women's emerging roles as head of households. WID and WED are different approaches to the nature of development. Development objectives of industrialization, urbanization, and consumer societies are no longer primary goals and directly or indirect contribute to the world's misery. Justice and equity have been sacrificed in the past, and future approaches must be integrative and interdisciplinary.
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  3. 78

    Women and biodiversity.

    Badri B; Badri A

    Development. 1994; (1):67-71.

    The analysis of the links between women's issues and biodiversity identifies the following needs: 1) documentation of women's knowledge, skills, and interventions in the interaction with the environment and satisfaction of survival needs; 2) more research on how women develop skills and knowledge in dealing with survival needs; 3) training of professional women in these fields and gender sensitizing of men; 4) key leaders with knowledge about women's contributions to development; 5) respecting women for their thoughtful contribution of knowledge and creative options; 6) establishing a library resource of women's knowledge; and 7) rewriting the biodiversity convention to account for rural population concerns. Women's contribution to development engenders love for nature, life sustainability mechanisms, diversified skills, knowledge, and creativity. Biodiversity fulfills the basic needs of 40% of the world economy and 80% of the needs of the poor. Development has exacerbated poverty over the years, and women's groups must direct attention to policy, research, and actions which take into account women's issues. The example of Sudan exemplifies how women creatively use and depend upon ecological zones in deserts and savannahs for survival. Sudanese women invented over the past 2000 years 90 different fermented foods and drinks from grains and grew sorghum and millet to make 30 different food products. Creative ways to use dairy, vegetable, and fish products have been developed. Other uses were developed for frogs, locusts, cow urine, and tree products. Wild foods have been found to be nutritious, to cure medical problems, and to create cosmetics. Women's role in food production has been marginalized due to women's lack of power and low status in society and male researchers and policy makers ignorance of women's needs. A gender focused policy and action plan would engender a grassroots and women's participatory approach to conserving biodiversity, small scale programs that focus on women's needs, large scale programs, if at all, that recognize women's needs, and poverty alleviation and food security conventions. Women in industrialized countries could learn more about ways to reduce consumption and to rely on healthier and indigenous methods which may be antithetical to multinational industries.
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  4. 79

    Toward a common agenda? Feminists and population agencies on the road to Cairo.

    Richter J; Keysers L

    Development. 1994; (1):50-5.

    Feminists view the UN Conference on Population and Development scheduled for September 1994 in Cairo as a process of negotiation among self-interest groups in a specific political climate. A political setting among conference feminists should be conducive to increasing support for women's self determination. Successful advocacy may depend on the accuracy of assessment of the political climate and of the skills of power and persuasion. The world population conference's agenda and plan of action are the targets of negotiation. Self interests are represented, for instance, by those who advocate for poverty issues as a replacement for population growth arguments. Past conferences have identified key players as the US, developing country governments, and the Vatican. Population groups have joined with environmentalists to promote demographic target setting and have been able to achieve publicity for this position. The UNCED official statement does not include target setting, but the Secretary General of the UN Fund for Population Affairs hopes that quantifiable and attainable population goals aiming for a low population projection would be adopted. The problem with adopting a population framework is that the emphasis is on the population side of the equation, with little recognition given to the issues of reproductive rights, health, and empowerment of women. Women's issues are not likely to be advanced because historically population control has emphasized quantification and management of people, without care or concern for rights. Population concepts also have interfered with a holistic and honest approach to volatile issues. Preoccupation with the "population explosion" has diverted attention from other urgent issues. Population ideology has been harmful to women's human rights and control over their own body. Advances have been made in giving women access to contraceptives but without an increase in their decision making authority. Population policy should reflect the stated desires of women and couples in a family planning structure with a "triple agenda" and not demographic targets. Feminists must direct energies also to the forthcoming Social Summit in Copenhagen and the Beijing Women's Conference.
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  5. 80

    From population to people: on the road to Cairo.

    Pitanguy J

    Development. 1994; (1):56-8.

    The expected Cairo conference on population and development, scheduled for September 1994, generated some preconceptions, such as competing self-interests vying for key roles in determining rights, desires, and concepts. The conference constituencies include national governments, international donors, family planning agencies, UN and affiliate agencies, environmentalist groups, churches, the Vatican, researchers, physicians, industry, and women's health advocates. Historically, population has been the domain of "quantitative, interventionist perspectives" and has been reflected in the writings of Hobbes and Malthus. The Malthusian notions of spiralling population increases and resource needs for survival have dominated. The uniqueness and abilities of individuals to be able to make responsible decisions about reproduction has frequently been lost in population policies. There has been a lack of consideration of the personal rights and social inequalities within diverse classes, races, ethnic groups, gender designations, and economic classes. Prior population conferences have neglected the issue of development. The forthcoming conference will bring together diverse actors and their postures on population policy, equality and social justice, reproductive health and rights, and development. Women have been in the past absent from discussions, which has resulted in harmful decisions for poor women of the South. Family planning groups have claimed success, but as in the case of Brazil, there have been prices paid. The feminist perspective for the forthcoming conference has enlarged the concept of democracy and individual rights and the issue of control over one's body. Education, information, employment, and social welfare are argued as necessary for empowerment of women and responsible fertility decisions. Women's groups at the Cairo conference will try to make the principles of equity, social dignity, and women's rights and autonomy central to the discussion and included in national plans and international treaties. There is an awareness that population, development, and women's groups must work together toward a common agenda.
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  6. 81

    The women's conference: where aspirations and realities met.

    Johnson JH; Turnbull W

    Family Planning Perspectives. 1995 Nov-Dec; 27(6):254-8.

    This article is a reflection on the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995, including its preparatory meetings. Delegates from 187 nations negotiated and decided on the disputed passages of the draft Platform of Action, which comprised 40% of the 150 page document. The atmosphere prior and during the conference was not peaceful. The UN and China disputed over the location of the nongovernmental organizations' (NGO) forum that took place at the same time of the conference. The US and Chinese governments squabbled about China's detention of a Chinese-American human rights activist. The US First Lady attended the conference and the NGO forum, promoting human rights. Most delegates had decided that this conference would not be a retreat from the Cairo conference. In comparison to Cairo, the Vatican delegation had toned down its opposition. US based antiabortion groups and conservative women's groups arrived in greater numbers in Beijing than in Cairo, in hopes to reverse actions taken in Cairo. They had few victories. A contentious issue was parental rights and responsibilities, specifically adolescents' access to confidential health services. Compromise wording was worked out in two paragraphs. All other references to parental rights were deleted or there was a reference to the compromise wording. The Beijing platform was the first universal document recognizing the right of a woman to say no to sexual intercourse. The references in the Beijing document recognizing sexual rights as human rights were a major accomplishment. Debates over the issue of abortion took place: the proposed conscience clause and a call for the review of laws containing punitive measures against women who have had an illegal abortion. The vocal delegates from developing countries are silencing the accusation that radical Western women are thrusting women's rights on the rest of the world.
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  7. 82

    Women's perspectives.

    Cottingham J

    In: Annual technical report, 1992, [of the] World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1993. 285-9. (WHO/HRP/ATR/92/93)

    One goal of the World Health Organization's Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has been to broaden communication with women's groups in order to ensure that 1) women's perspectives are integrated into research and institution-strengthening activities and 2) that women's perspectives are represented in the process of broadening contraceptive choice and establishing research priorities in reproductive health on the national level. Based on recommendations received at a February 1991 meeting on "women's perspectives on the introduction of fertility regulation technologies," efforts were made during 1992 to promote a dialogue between scientists and women's groups. These efforts included an Asian regional meeting on the above topic. Recommendations from this meeting were that 1) contraceptive selection and provision must occur within an overall service context, 2) women should be involved in determining national research needs and priorities, 3) the reproductive health responsibilities of men must be promoted, 4) research should be conducted on the reintroduction of barrier methods and user perspectives of safety and acceptability, and 5) services should respond to the various needs of all women, should be assessed before a method is introduced, and should be available to men also. During a meeting in Geneva, women's health groups expressed concerns about the development of fertility regulating vaccines, specifically about general effects on the immune system, effects on diseases (including HIV), effects on a fetus, and how a woman would know if the pregnancy protection level of the antibody titre dropped. In addition, information dissemination has taken place between women's health networks and journals and researchers working on human reproductive issues. The participation of women health advocates into the Programme's committees has been fostered, and a network has been established with women scientists. Similar activities are planned for the next three years.
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  8. 83

    Rural women's aspirations through art work. Responses to ICPD.

    CHINA POPULATION TODAY. 1995 Apr; 12(2):11.

    Members of Women, Population and Development groups, which aim to improve women's status in rural areas of China, will use their embroidery and tapestries to tell their stories at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995. Contests were held at the county and provincial levels to decide whose artwork, from over a 1000 groups, would go to the conference. 35 pieces (one group tapestry or embroidery from each county) were judged at the provincial level based on how the artwork and the stories of the women who made it demonstrated the achievements of the women as a result of their group involvement. The criteria included: 1) higher self image, confidence, and desire for personal growth; 2) increased social mobility and creativity; 3) more independence and self-reliance in income generation and other activities; 4) increased ability to make decisions for self; 5) increased respect within family and community; 6) more consciousness of maternal and child health and family planning needs; and 7) more awareness of the need for literacy. The Women, Population and Development Project is funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), executed by FAO, and implemented by MOFTEC\DIR.
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  9. 84

    Seminar to take ICPD forward.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-3.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation/South Asia Region organized a 3-day seminar on Post ICPD Challenges; it was held February 6-8, 1995, in New Delhi, India. 48 participants attended, including Mr. Ram Krishna Neupane (FPA Nepal; Director General), Mr. Prabhat Rana (FPA Nepal; Director, Program Support Services Division), Ms. Prabha Thakkar (Manusi), Ms. Maya Giri (Radio Nepal), and Ms. Ami Joshi (Center for Women in Development). Ms. Avabai B. Wadia, President of the Family Planning Association of India, chaired the inaugural session; Mr. G. Verghees made the inaugural address. Dr. Indira Kapoor (IPPF/ASR; Regional Director), Dr. Pramila Senanayake (IPPF; Assistant Secretary General), and Mrs. Sunetra Puri (IPPF; Director, Public Affairs Department) presented papers on different topics highlighting the linkage between the IPPF VISION 2000 and the ICPD Plan of Action, and the need for a collaborating program in this area. Plenary presentation and discussions were held to provide an overview of plans to take the ICPD forward on women's issues (the empowerment of women, unsafe abortion, sexual and reproductive health). Dr. Ram Krishna Neupane represented Nepalese views in this area. This seminar was the first of its kind to draw together representatives of the media, women's organizations, and service providers; it was successful in eradicating misconceptions regarding the modern methods of contraception, in clarifying the misunderstandings between the media and the service providers, in strengthening commitment, and in preparing a plan of action for each member country in order to implement the ICPD Plan of Action.
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  10. 85

    Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.

    Obadina E

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1995; 4(3):18-9.

    In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.
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  11. 86

    China shrinks its welcome mat for women's meet.

    Tefft S

    CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. 1995 Aug 28; 1, 6.

    Western observers point out that China violated several of its agreements with the UN concerning arrangements for the Nongovernmental (NGO) Forum which ran parallel to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. When China sought UN agreement to move the NGO Forum to the Beijing suburb of Huairou, China agreed to admit the more than 30,000 delegates expected to attend. Instead, Chinese officials have delayed the issuance of visas to many women in what observers say is an attempt to keep the numbers attending between 20 and 24,000. China also violated its agreement with the UN by issuing a ban on five activist groups. The Chinese press alarmed villagers by characterizing the meeting as one which would attract lesbians, nudists, prostitutes, and HIV-infected women. Villagers reacted to this news by forming modesty patrols equipped with sheets to wrap around naked women. Plains clothes police from around China have been summoned to join with riot forces in curbing potential riots and curbing demonstrations. Taxi drivers were instructed to report any suspicious conversations they overheard.
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  12. 87

    Women's NGOs mobilize for population summit.

    CEDPA NETWORK. 1993 Oct; 1-2.

    The Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) encouraged representatives from women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to attend the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. ICPD policy makers held issues meetings in September, 1993, for women's NGOs. the ICPD will have a direct bearing on women's issues such as access to family planning, reproductive health care, the fate of girls, and gender equality. 31 alumni of CEDPA met with UN officials and other NGO leaders at the second ICPD Preparatory Committee meeting in New York. CEDPA was encouraged that US policy supported women-managed and women-centered health services. CEDPA president Peggy Curlin recommends health and girl's education as the best means for improving the quality of life in developing countries. CEDPA has a Leadership and Advocacy Project, which promotes women's leadership in population policy at ICPD, regionally, and nationally. CEDPA recommends that women's NGOs and CEDPA link up with appropriate regional networks (in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan). Women can become involved in the ICPD by becoming an NGO representative to the conference. Women can also become involved by writing to CEDPA about their concerns regarding gender equity and women's empowerment, reproductive rights, girl child initiatives, and adequate resources for NGOs.
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  13. 88

    [Women become "humans" in the regional preparatory meeting for the World Conference on Human Rights for Latin America and the Caribbean] Las mujeres se vuelven "humanas" en la reunion regional preparatoria de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Derechos Humanos para America Latina y el Caribe.

    Facio A

    CASA DE LA MUJER. 1993; (4):7-12.

    The Latin American and Caribbean Regional Preparatory Meeting for the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights was attended by representatives from over 150 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The women's groups attending the preparatory meeting succeeded in developing a "women's platform" whose proposals were largely adopted by the main conference. The composition of the attending NGOS was varied. Some of the women represented the traditional, androcentric human rights focus, while around 20 of the organizations were feminist. Human rights groups and women's organizations were urged not to wait for a government invitation, but to seek accreditation and attend the conference independently. The feminists prepared for the conference with a preliminary satellite conference in which a 19-point women's platform was created and strategy was discussed. The women consequently were able to use the conference time for meeting and lobbying the delegates. The women's platform was distributed to women's and human rights groups before the conference so that they would arrive prepared to defend it. The satellite conference debated the need to reconceptualize "human rights". The significance of "human being" is often taken to refer to male human being, and human rights might then be considered rights of male human beings. A second theme debated was whether mechanisms to protect the human rights of women are insufficient and marginal in UN activities. The feminization of poverty resulting from neoliberal policies, gender violence as one of the gravest forms of discrimination against women, and the need for recognition of rights required only by women were other topics debated. The final Declaration incorporated a paragraph affirming that violence against women should be considered a violation of human rights.
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  14. 89

    Time for a new agenda. Looking to Cairo.

    Germain A

    POPULI. 1994 Jul-Aug; 21(7):4-6.

    An agenda for significant change is proposed for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Current progress toward the agenda is viewed as insufficient unless there are resource reallocations, political will, vision, and the adoption of the agenda at the ICPD. The ICPD goals also should be accepted by the World Summit for Social Development and by the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995 in order to achieve human security and development. Population agencies must 1) increase investments in health, education, water, sanitation, housing, and social services; 2) enact and enforce legislation empowering women in sexual, social, and political ways; 3) provide credit, training, and income development so women can have decent lives; 4) involve women's advocates at all levels of decision making; and 5) eliminate the gender gap in education, prevent violence against girls, and eliminate sex role stereotypes. The literature in the population field has neglected sexuality, gender roles, and relations and has concentrated on unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraceptive efficacy. Many family planning (FP) programs reinforce gender roles. Improvement in the quality of services must be a top priority for FP programs. Quality of care is conceptualized differently by FP providers and women's health advocates. Basic program management and logistics systems could be changed with modest investments in staff motivation and revised allocations of human and financial resources. Clients must be treated with dignity and respect. Programs should not concentrate on married, fertile women to the neglect of adolescents and other sexually active women. Preventive health should include those sexually active beyond the reproductive age. Men's responsibility in FP is viewed as fashionable but problematic in terms of actual program change.
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  15. 90

    China gears up for conference on women.


    The All China Women's Federation (ACWF) is preparing for the UN's Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in Beijing in September 1995. Activists in China see the Conference and its accompanying NGO (nongovernmental organizations) Forum as a great opportunity to improve the status of women. The ACWF has submitted 42 issues, involving such issues as women's political involvement, women's education, violence against women, employment opportunities for women, and health care, to the Chinese government for consideration at the NGO Forum. In addition, the impact of the free market system on Chinese women is an area of concern. Women have been subject to discrimination in the work place in their susceptibility to losing their jobs if an industry closes and in joint ventures where employers fail to observe the principle of equal pay for equal work.
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  16. 91

    Analysis of a development programme.

    Mehta M

    In: Changing perceptions: writings on gender and development, edited by Tina Wallace with Candida March. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1991. 141-8.

    In this essay in a book of writings on gender and development, the author relates her experience as the first Woman Project Officer hired by the Oxfam West India office in 1984. The previously all-male staff decided to hire a woman with development experience to tackle gender issues and to attempt to involve women in development programs, especially in decision-making processes. The strategy used was to create structures which would enable women to form groups and, eventually, to define their own development activity priorities and needs. This strategy failed, largely because it was not relevant to the position of the women in their society. It became apparent, however, that women's development must be integrated in all aspects of Oxfam's work at the organizational, office, and program levels. In 1985, therefore, a group of women project officers formed a group called Action for Gender Relations Asia (AGRA) to work toward this goal. AGRA first concentrated on the organization of Oxfam and its staff but found its abilities limited by the fact that it was comprised solely of Oxfam staff. Studies of the impacts of various projects on women have been undertaken to develop awareness of appropriate strategies. The shift in strategy required that, instead of forming separate women's groups, women be incorporated in development efforts. These attempts were blocked by patriarchal male leaders. Thus, women were appointed as organizers of women's development. Since many of these women were inexperienced, the patriarchal set-up was reinforced. Also, whereas most of the development programs had economic goals, the work with the women emphasized conscientization and organization, which was difficult for some group leaders and staff members to accept. These attempts are part of a process of change that is constantly evolving. It is hoped that what was learned from them will contribute to an understanding of gender issues.
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  17. 92

    NGOs on ICPD: "Keep your promises".

    Sadasivam B

    POPULI. 1995 Apr; 22(4):6-7.

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in various countries are trying to ensure that the principles laid down at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in September 1994 are not consigned to history. One such NGO is in Bangladesh is the Dhaka-based Naripokkho, whose name means on the side of women in Bengali. The ICPD Program of Action demands that population policies discard narrow demographic targets in favor of an approach that embraces reproductive health, education, gender equity and equality, and human rights. In Bangladesh the government is more responsive to NGOs, said Naripokkho's Nasreen Huq in March 1995, while attending the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women meeting. The organization has been active on such issues as domestic violence, health, the environment, development, and the portrayal of women in the media. Naripokkho has provided gender-awareness training to staff at the United Nations Development Fund for Women and the UN Children's Fund. During the ICPD process Naripokkho and some 1250 other NGOs were admitted to government committees and delegations. After Cairo, Naripokkho became the only women's group with a seat on the government committee implementing the Cairo Program of Action. Naripokkho has criticized the lack of consultation with women's groups preceding Norplant's introduction, and the group is concerned about the long-term effects of hormonal contraceptives. The group also has asked for a study on the intergenerational effects of the injectable Depo-Provera, which has been in use in Bangladesh for some 20 years. Naripokkho has urged the government to conduct acceptability trials for diaphragms. The organization thinks diaphragms could help raise the country's contraceptive prevalence rate. Some 45% of married couples are practicing contraception. The NGO is also working on a new manual for family planning workers and their trainers.
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  18. 93

    Full partnership for women in development.

    Luke M

    JOICFP NEWS. 1995 Jan; (247):3.

    The mission of CEDPA (Center for Development and Population Activities) is to empower women to be full partners in development. Empowerment starts with the development of women as leaders and managers through leadership training. There are now 4000 CEDPA alumnae worldwide who have participated in training programs. USAID-funded integrated service programs are geared toward women-managed health services seeking out nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) based in the community that have women as part of their services. Another approach is building the capacity of institutions to broaden their programs to fully utilize external funding and also establish a foundation for sustainability. Another strategy is advocacy and policy. Recently a group of women leaders attended all the preparatory meetings for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to be sure that input into the Cairo Document came from women who were representatives of family planning programs in their communities. The ICPD document itself is favorable to women's development, women leaders, and training for women, but the challenge is to find financial resources to make the commitment to women's programs on a large scale. The test of the Program of Action is how it is implemented. NGOs do not have enough resources, but women's NGOs have even less resources than other NGOs. The Global Issues Initiative is a significant commitment on the part of the Japanese government. CEDPA's mission is to ensure that women participate in these programs that will be developed and managed by women and NGOs.
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  19. 94

    Creating common ground in Asia: women's perspectives on the selection and introduction of fertility regulation technologies.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1994. 45 p.

    Participants from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and other countries with which WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction collaborates and in which women's groups are active attended the Asian regional meeting on Women's Perspectives on the Research and Introduction of Fertility Regulation Technologies in February 1991. The meeting aimed to establish a dialogue between women's groups and researchers, policymakers, and family planning service providers. Other objectives included defining women's needs and viewpoints on reproductive health and fertility regulating technologies and identifying appropriate follow-up activities which would form a basis for regional networking. WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction published a report of the meeting. The meeting consisted of plenary sessions, group work, and keynote presentations. Presentations addressed women's realities, policy considerations, research, and service provision. Topics concerning women's realities were community attitudes towards fertility and its control, women's autonomy, health status, and family planning services. Presentations on policy considerations covered: taking users into account, objectives of family planning programs, participation in decision making, and men's responsibility. Redefining safety and acceptability as well as research on female barrier methods were addressed during presentations on research. The report presents proposals for action for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Meeting participants reached a consensus on recommendations addressing policy, research, services, and WHO. The report concludes with a list of participants and a list of papers presented.
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  20. 95

    Cairo conference affirms CEDPA priorities.

    Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA]

    CEDPA NETWORK. 1995 Jan; 1-2.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that was held in Cairo during September adopted a 20-year Programme of Action endorsing the empowerment of women as the foundation of sustainable development. 178 countries and more than a 1000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), from 100 countries attended the conference and the parallel NGO forum. The final document sets out specific steps for achievement of universal access to a full range of voluntary, quality family planning and reproductive health services for women and men; provision of services for the special needs of adolescents; closure of the gender gap in education; and empowerment of women via education, health care, and economic options. The CEDPA network of alumnae from 30 countries had worked over the 3 years prior to the conference for the inclusion of women's priorities in policies and to achieve consensus among the government and NGO caucuses. 14 alumnae, including Peggy Curlin (CEDPA President and US delegate), were appointed to their countries' delegations and directly influenced the Programme of Action. The NGO Forum provided a place to exchange experiences and expertise; CEDPA mounted an exhibit, "Empowering Women." The network's theme was "Access, Choice, and Participation." With support from the United Nations Population Fund, CEDPA developed a manual, "After Cairo: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders," which has been distributed at training sessions and workshops and was translated into French (with support from the US Agency for International Development in Mali) for distribution at the Dakar conference in November in preparation for the World Conference on Women. CEDPA and The Global Committee for Cairo honored the secretary-general of the conference, Dr. Nafis Sadik, for her leadership of the ICPD and UNFPA, and Aziza Hussein, co-chair of the NGO steering committee, at a luncheon; Dr. Sadik received the Global Committee for Cairo Award. Planning the implementation of the Programme of Action has already begun among CEDPA partners and network NGOs. Advocacy networks have already been organized in India and Kenya, with support from CEDPA, to monitor and promote the Programme of Action.
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  21. 96

    New world order and West's war on population.

    Wilson A

    ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1994 Aug 20; 29(34):2,201-4.

    The aim of US-promoted population policies is maintaining and securing the economic and political dominance of capitalist states. Governments of developed countries blame overpopulation in developing countries for destroying the planet and those of developing countries blame overconsumption, waste, and industrial pollution in the capitalist countries to be responsible. Developed countries and the UN profess that population control is in the interests of development and for the sake of women's rights. Many women's groups protest planned and already existing population policies and bear witness to the suffering women from developing countries experience, raising the question of choice of these policies. Sexism served as the smokescreen behind which US strategies of population control were implemented. The concept of sustainable development is also used to advance population policies in developing countries. Developed countries use this concept to maintain the status quo, agricultural countries as such, cash crop economies, dependency on food, foreign aid, and loans and to continue their exploitation in developing countries. USAID, UNFPA, and the World Bank are the major moneylenders for population control. The US targets Africa for population control because it produces 90-100% of four minerals vital to US industry. The new phase of capitalist development has shifted the state's role from its function as a nation state to facilitator of global capital. Population control policy, national security laws, and anti-trade union laws are used to create a docile and immobile pool of labor. The World Bank, the IMF, and the WTO, through their structural adjustment policies, provide the infrastructure to implement population policies and targets. Population policies focusing on targets take control away from women. People in developing countries will not accept these population policies until they have control of their lives. They need assurance of child survival and to be in a position to plan their future. The population control lobby now uses deception to thwart resistance.
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  22. 97

    Working notes on women's participation and perspectives in health issues. Discussion note.

    Thapa R

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 11 p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.6)

    The discussion paper in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 focused on the following emerging issues: 1) the question of whether women's organizing within government and nongovernmental organizations could be successful by adoption of a cooperative approach to achieving Health For All goals for women and children; 2) the question of whether women as a collaborative team could select one particular health problem and use a gender-based analysis to involve appropriate sectors in improving the quality and use of maternal-child health and family planning (MCH/FP) services; 3) the question of whether women could be catalysts in promoting women's perspectives in solving a given problem; 4) the question of whether a package of indicators could be developed for monitoring women participation in the health sector; and 5) the question of whether women could disseminate and use information for improving women's role in health and related sectors. The assumption was that there was not one women's perspective, but many perspectives. The most important perspectives on equitable access and control over the means of MCH/FP would be concerned with technical information and economic resources. Other important issues were family needs, physical proximity and scheduling of MCH/FP clinics, language and symbols appropriate for women, women's feelings about the specific experiences of childbirth and family planning, user-provider relations, time allocation for use of MCH/FP, cultural and social acceptance of women's use of health care, and approval by husbands and family. An important feature was women's empowerment to become major actors in MCH/FP. Constraints were identified as insufficient country-specific information, tools for integrating women in MCH/FP, lack of a budget within MCH/FP, and inadequate sectoral and donor coordination. Gender roles have been socially constructed, and a change to more equitable conditions would substantially improve women's and children's health. Women's vulnerability to illiteracy, poverty, passivity, uncontrolled fertility, preventable diseases, and premature death were largely due to women's discrimination and not just biomedical and socioeconomic conditions.
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  23. 98

    Annual report 1993.

    Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA]

    Washington, D.C., CEDPA, [1994]. [2], 16, [2] p.

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), an international organization, was founded in 1975 to empower women at all levels of society to be full partners in development. CEDPA's 1993 Annual Report describes the contribution of CEDPA network partners to the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development. CEDPA efforts on behalf of women are focused on 1) the provision of family planning and related reproductive health care services, 2) education for girls, and 3) training women leaders and managers in population and development. In each area, CEDPA works to expand women's access, choice, and participation in population and development policy, implementation, and decision making. This report includes the 1993 balance sheets for the organization and lists of supporters, sponsors, members of the board of directors, and staff. CEDPA's 1993 activities in the areas of family planning, AIDS prevention, maternal and child health, adolescent fertility, health education, family life education, skills training/income generation, literacy training, management training, institution building, the environment, and policy advocacy are indicated on a table which shows the country (Egypt, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Romania, Turkey, and Uganda) and name of specific projects.
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  24. 99

    [On the way to Beijing: Dakar Conference] En route pour Pekin: Conference de Dakar.

    Bessis S

    VIVRE AUTREMENT. 1994 Oct; (Spec No):3.

    In November 1994 in Senegal, Dakar will host the regional conference on women. Its purpose is to develop a common action plan that Africa will present in Beijing. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governments have already been preparing for this meeting. This conference had been organized by a series of meetings continent-wide, where governments and NGOs clarified their positions on the 3 themes: equality, development, and peace. The Ministry of Women and the Family has the task of preparing the Senegalese viewpoint of the operation. Senegalese authorities want to make the meeting in Dakar a success. They have decided to have expositions, cultural displays, a women's business forum, a village restaurant where representatives from each country will get to know the culinary wealth of other countries, and a gala event. Everyone is ready to discuss equality, women's access to decision making structures (especially in the education sector), and better distribution of income between the sexes. NGOs do not intend to sit back and do nothing at the conference, but intend to influence the editing of the action plan. Many women's and health-based NGOs are rising up against the gaps of the action plan which only consider women's biological and physical aspects but not their mental and psychological aspects. Participants should consider the disastrous effects of sexual abuse and early marriages. Are governments ready to reform their laws which tend to discriminate against women and institutionalize their low status? Do they have the political will to check the conservative forces, such as those that spoke out against women in the final report of the forum in Tunisia? The number of women in powerful posts in Africa is growing. They can certainly advance things more rapidly than in the recent past. Women at Dakar should work together to address conflicts in Africa. Women should insist that women participate in all peace negotiations.
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  25. 100

    Conference report. Can spirit of Cairo survive?

    Chhabra R

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1994; 3(4):37-8.

    Country representatives from around the globe came together at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to draft a document in the spirit of compromise and unified intent. Marked controversy and conflict plagued the conference, both before and during the official meetings. Accord was nonetheless reached. The author wonders how long and to what extent the euphoria and compromise of the ICPD will last now that official talks are over. It is clear that paranoia and discord subsumed during the conference will persist, foment, and potentially resurface in confrontation over time. The South, for example, was upset about the failure of the conference to focus more upon development and environmental issues, while the Southern women's groups invested their energies into political ideologies and their development as a counterforce to international multinational scientific and corporate lobbies on pharmaceutical and contraceptive technologies. The women's caucus instead adopted a Western world view of sexuality which effectively permeated their lobbying and the conference. While dissent may resurface over time, the ICPD nonetheless set into motion positive processes for nongovernmental organization participation in a spirit of partnership within the UN systems and in the formulation of national policies and programs of their respective countries. In closing, the author expresses her regret that China and India maintained a low profile at the official meeting, and that Pakistan, rooted in Islam, spoke for the Indian subcontinent.
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