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  1. 76
    283480

    Creating markets for new vaccines. Part I: Rationale. Draft.

    Kremer M

    [Unpublished] 2000 Apr 13. 49 p.

    Malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS kill approximately 5 million people each year. The overwhelming majority of deaths occur in poor countries. Despite recent scientific advances, research on vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, and African strains of HIV remains minimal. This is in large part because potential vaccine developers fear that they would not be able to sell enough vaccine at a sufficient price to recoup their research expenditures. This paper sets out the economic rationale for committing in advance to purchase vaccines once they are developed. The U.S. administration’s budget proposal includes a tax credit for vaccine sales. The World Bank has proposed establishing a vaccine purchase fund. Such commitments could potentially create incentives for vaccine research and help increase the accessibility of any vaccines developed. (excerpt)
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  2. 77
    282828

    The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    Bell D

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-611)

    Misdiagnosis of malaria results in significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid, accurate and accessible detection of malaria parasites has an important role in addressing this, and in promoting more rational use of increasingly costly drugs, in many endemic areas. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the potential to provide accurate diagnosis to all at risk populations for the first time, reaching those unable to access good quality microscopy services. The success of RDTs in malaria control will depend on good quality planning and implementation. This booklet is designed to assist those involved in malaria management in this task. While this new diagnostic tool is finding its place in management of this major global disease, there is a window of opportunity in which good practices can be established by health services and become the norm. (excerpt)
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  3. 78
    280047

    Global programmes.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    In: Global appeal, 2003. Strategies and programmes, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003. 36-51.

    Ensuring equal rights and access by refugee women to all aspects of protection and assistance provided by UNHCR, is central to the Office’s refugee protection mandate. This policy commitment is grounded in international agreements and standards, such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UNHCR employs various strategies to make good this commitment, including: elaborating policy guidelines and training materials; providing technical advice and support to operational units; pursuing consultations and partnerships with refugees, particularly women; piloting innovative approaches to empower refugee women; and monitoring and evaluating field-related activities. During the global consultations with refugee women in 2001, the High Commissioner made five commitments: the promotion of women’s equal participation in leadership and decision-making; equal participation in the distribution of food and non-food items; individual registration and documentation of refugee women; support for integrated sexual and gender-based violence programmes at national levels; and the inclusion of sanitary materials within standard assistance packages provided to refugees. These commitments continue to be implemented in practical and measurable ways. (excerpt)
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  4. 79
    279268

    AIDS is the real weapon of mass destruction.

    Africa Recovery. 2003 Dec; [13] p..

    On 28 November the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) posted an online audio interview with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan about the struggle against HIV/AIDS. The transcript of this important broadcast appears below in its entirety. It has been edited slightly for clarity. The Secretary-General was speaking to Ms. Carrie Gracie on "The Interview" programme for BBC World Service radio. It is reproduced with the permission of the BBC. BBC: Over the past two weeks the BBC World Service has been running an AIDS season and we've heard many aspects of the illness. But today we want to get a sense of your personal contribution and whether you think that you're winning the battle. So I want to start by asking you about the enemy. When did you first realize what a serious enemy you were up against with AIDS? Annan: I think it was when I discussed the issue with the World Health Organization [WHO] and UNAIDS [the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS] and looked at the figures and the statistics and the devastation it was causing in many African countries, and at the attitude of the leaders. We needed leadership. We needed leadership at all levels. But it was most important to get the presidents and the prime ministers speaking up and that was not happening. I thought we should do whatever we can to raise awareness and to get them involved. (excerpt)
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  5. 80
    279106

    Impact of the Polio Eradication Initiative on donor contributions to routine immunization.

    Levin A; Jorissen J; Linkins J; McArthur C

    Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partnerships for Health Reform, 2001 Mar. [26] p. (Special Initiatives Report No. 36; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-95-00024)

    While the polio eradication initiative has been highly successful in lowering the number of polio cases worldwide, questions have arisen about the impact of the initiative on the functioning and financing of health systems as a whole and routine immunization more specifically. While some studies have investigated the impact of polio eradication on the functioning of health systems, few have been able to examine the impact on financing. This study is the second conducted by the United States Agency for International Development’s Partnerships for Health Reform Project on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on the financing of routine immunization activities. The first study examined funding trends for polio eradication and routine immunization in three countries: Bangladesh, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. This study looks at funding trends among international organizations and donors, and the impact that their funding of polio eradication activities has had on their funding of routine immunization activities. The study findings indicate that while some short-term decreases in donor funding for routine immunization appear to have taken place as polio eradication initiative activities were introduced and accelerated, on the whole, donor funding for routine immunization support does not appear to have decreased. (author's)
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  6. 81
    275761

    National spending for AIDS 2004. Prepublication draft.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Resource Tracking Consortium for AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul. [82] p.

    In monitoring resource flows for HIV and AIDS, it has proven easier to collect information on donor governments, multilateral agencies, foundations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) than to obtain reliable budget information on domestic outlays for HIV and AIDS in affected countries. As a result, UNAIDS has focused significant efforts on strengthening the capacity of countries to monitor and track expenditures for HIV and AIDS. This report summarizes the latest information available on HIV-related spending in 26 countries. Seventeen of the countries are from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. Resource tracking in the LAC region, as well as in Thailand, Burkina Faso and Ghana has benefited from the leadership of the Regional AIDS Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean (SIDALAC), which helped implement the National AIDS Account (NAA) approach. Beginning with pilot projects in three countries in 1997–1998, NAA has now been extended throughout the region, in large part due to the provision of extensive technical assistance by countries involved in the early pilot projects. NAA uses a matrix system that describes the level and flow of health expenditures on AIDS. The NAA model: a) identifies key actors in HIV and AIDS activities; b) uses existing data or makes estimates for specific services or goods purchased; c) analyses domestic (public and private) and international budgets; d) determines out-of-pocket expenditures; and e) assesses the financial dimensions of the country’s response to AIDS. (excerpt)
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  7. 82
    274801

    Investing in a comprehensive health sector response to HIV / AIDS. Scaling up treatment and accelerating prevention. WHO HIV / AIDS plan, January 2004 - December 2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 72 p.

    This document discusses the context for the work being undertaken in WHO’s HIV/AIDS programme. It analyses the epidemiological situation and includes the most recent estimates of antiretroviral coverage, the global strategic framework and current challenges to translating this into results at the country level (Section 1 – Background). Section 2 describes the comparative advantages offered by WHO, the functional areas of activity within the HIV/AIDS area of work for 2004–2005 and the specific focus of the programme on scaling up antiretroviral therapy and accelerating HIV prevention. Section 3 describes how WHO is structured and how resources and capacity are being reoriented to support country-level action. Section 4 illustrates how WHO works within the United Nations system and with other partners. Section 5 outlines the resources required in 2004–2005 for WHO to accomplish its stated contribution to HIV/AIDS. Section 6 describes the mechanisms for technical and managerial oversight of the HIV/AIDS programme. The WHO HIV/AIDS Plan is not a detailed work plan. Rather, it provides an overall framework to guide the departments responsible for HIV/AIDS in preparing such work plans at the country, regional and headquarters levels of WHO. These work plans are now being developed and will define the specific tasks and activities required to bring the WHO HIV/AIDS Plan to fruition, together with timelines and resource requirements. Joint planning sessions between headquarters, regional and country offices integrate the work of the three levels to ensure that all priority needs are addressed and that gaps in resources are identified. (excerpt)
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  8. 83
    274014

    HealthTech: Technologies for Health, Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-96-90007-00. Final report.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2001 Dec 28. [68] p.

    For the past 24 years, PATH has been developing, adapting, transferring, and introducing appropriate new health technologies for resource-poor populations. In 1987, USAID started funding PATH’s work in this area through a cooperative agreement with PATH called the Technologies for Child Health: HealthTech program. This agreement was renewed in 1990 and then again in 1996 as the Technologies for Health program (HealthTech III). This report primarily summarizes the activities under the program during the last agreement, but also reflects work under the entire term of HealthTech since so much of the work is a continuum. The primary goal of HealthTech has been to identify health needs that can be met with technology solutions, and then either identify existing technologies that need adapting to be affordable and appropriate, or develop new ones. This research and development phase includes design, development, scale-up, evaluation in the laboratory and field settings, and finally introduction of technologies for health, nutrition, and family planning. Over the last ten years, HealthTech has effectively scaled up these activities and developed a critical mass of in-house expertise in product and diagnostic design, engineering, evaluation, and introduction of developing world technologies. Multiple collaborations with private industry and global and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been established. Under HealthTech and other similar programs, PATH to date has worked with 57 private-sector companies (21 U.S. firms, 14 additional industrial-world firms and 22 developing-world firms) and at least 40 public-sector partners (22 in the developed world and 18 in developing countries). The results of these collaborations have been to advance more than 30 economically sustainable technologies—17 of which are now in use in more than 25 developing countries. Six of these products are currently being (or have been) distributed worldwide by global agencies. (excerpt)
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  9. 84
    273837

    The role of the health sector in supporting adolescent health and development. Materials prepared for the technical briefing at the World Health Assembly, 22 May 2003.

    Brandrup-Lukanow A; Akhsan S; Conyer RT; Shaheed A; Kianian-Firouzgar S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003. 15 p.

    I am very pleased to be here, and to be part of the discussion on Young Peoples Health at the World Health Assembly, for two reasons: because of the work we have been doing in adolescent health over the past years together with the Member States of the European Region of WHO, the work in cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS on adolescent health and development. Secondly, because Youth is a priority area of work of German Development Cooperation, and of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, where I am working presently. Indeed, we have devoted this years GTZ´s open house day on development cooperation to youth I would also like to take this opportunity to remember the work of the late Dr. Herbert Friedman, former Chief of Adolescent Health in WHO, whose vision of the importance of working for and with young people has inspired many of the national plans and initiatives which we will hear about today. In many countries of the world, young people form the majority of populations, and yet their needs are being insufficiently met through existing health and social services. The health of young people was long denied the public, and public health attention it deserves. Adolescence is a driving force of personal, but also social development, as young people gradually discover, and question and challenge the adult world they are growing into. (excerpt)
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  10. 85
    195613
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to clean water and sanitation pose 21st-century challenge for millions.

    Voelker R

    JAMA. 2004 Jul 21; 292(3):318-320.

    Earlier this year, Epidemiologists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found a silver lining in the midst of a cholera outbreak they were investigating in Zambia’s capital city, Lusaka. They discovered that up to 25% of the city’s households use a low-tech, lowcost method to disinfect and safely store water for drinking, bathing, food preparation, and hygiene. “That’s a great success—a large segment of the population is using this preventive measure,” says Pavani Kalluri, MD, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC, as she discuses the Safe Water System (SWS). But the program’s success is not measured only in terms of how many households have adopted it. A host of collaborators, from large international organizations to health ministers and local entrepreneurs, joined the CDC in the field to test the Safe Water System, launch it nationally, and use social marketing efforts to convince Zambians of the vast benefits of safe water. The Safe Water System illustrates how the developed world’s financial and technical resources can work in tandem with local authorities in resource poor nations where millions become ill and die each year from waterborne diseases. Now, one of the main questions facing government officials and public health and development experts is how to galvanize more of these diverse partnerships as a way to meet international goals for clean water and adequate sanitation. (excerpt)
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  11. 86
    191835
    Peer Reviewed

    Status report of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme: January 2003.

    Granich R; Chauhan LS

    Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2003 Mar; 101(3):150-151.

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in spite of DOTS programme recommended by WHO. One person dies from TB in India every minute. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) is playing a major role in global DOTS expansion. DOTS coverage has expanded from 2% of the population in mid-1998 to 57% by the end of January, 2003. RNTCP has made a significant contribution to public health capacity. The programme has saved the people of India hundreds of millions of dollars. Monitoring the clinical course using smear microscopy and accurately reporting treatment outcomes is essential in well-functioning DOTS programme. RNTCP has invested heavily and made significant strides in maintaining and improving quality DOTS. State and district level programme reviews are a key component of the process. RNTCP has established guidelines for the involvement of the private sector and medical colleges. A member by ongoing technical activities will improve RNTCP’s surveillance and monitoring systems. However a challenge lies with the programme and a collective effort is welcome. (excerpt)
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  12. 87
    186035

    The Alma Ata Declaration and the goal of "Health for All" 25 years later: keeping the dream alive.

    Werner D

    Health for the Millions. 2004 Jan; 30(4-5):23-27.

    In 1978, a potential breakthrough in global health rights took place at an international conference organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in Alma Ata in erstwhile USSR(now Almaty in Kazakhstan). In this Alma Ata Declaration, 134 countries subscribed to the goal of 'Health for All by the Year 2000'. They affirmed WHO's broad definition of health as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being'. The world's nations--together with WHO, UNICEF, and other major funding organizations--pledged to work towards meeting people's basic health needs through the comprehensive and remarkably progressive primary healthcare (PHC) approach. Principals and methods garnered from the barefoot doctors' methodology in China and from experiences of small, struggling community-based health programmes in The Philippines and countries of Latin America. The linkage of many of these enabling initiatives to social transformation movements helps explain why the concepts underlying PHC have been praised as well as criticized for being 'revolutionary'. (excerpt)
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  13. 88
    179682

    [Lessons learned concerning water, health and sanitation. Thirteen years of experience in developing countries. Updated edition. Lecciones aprendidas en materia de agua, salud y saneamiento. Trece anos de experiencia en países en desarrollo. Edicion actualizada.

    Camp Dresser and McKee International. Water and Sanitation for Health [WASH]

    Arlington, Virginia, WASH, 1993. [175] p. (USAID Contract No. 5973-Z-00-8081-00)

    As this latest edition of "Lessons Learned" informs us, sustainable development in the water and sanitation sector is not just the construction of an installation or the installation of a hand pump, but the way in which these interventions help people improve their quality of life. More importantly, we see that sustainable development promotes change: change in the way in which power is distributed and technologies are spread. The issue of participation is explored in this report through an analysis of associations of donors, governments, non-governmental organizations, and private for-profit companies. The notion of the association imposes certain responsibilities on the beneficiary governments and their communities. (excerpt)
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  14. 89
    185608

    Against all odds: Bolivia's water war. [En pos del agua: la dura lucha de Bolivia]

    Duciaume N

    Monday Developments. 2003 Sep 22; 21(17):1, 5.

    Unlike many regions that pit nations against each other in wars over water and sanitation, Bolivia's story tells of the government against its own people, the people against a multinational corporation and ultimately the corporation against the government. The battle over the water supply of Cochabamba, Bolivia's third largest city, has raged from countryside to the courts and is now being waged before the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), an arbitration body created by the World Bank. (excerpt)
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  15. 90
    180665
    Peer Reviewed

    Strengthening India's reponse to HIV / AIDS.

    Motihar R; Mahendra VS

    Sexual Health Exchange. 2003; (1):[2] p..

    At the end of 2OO1, an estimated 40 million adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom 8.6 million in the Asia-Pacific region - more than any other region besides sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty percent of Asia-Pacific HIV infections were in India alone, translating into almost 4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the second largest number after South Africa. Although India's adult HIV-prevalence rate is low at about 0.8%, this converts into staggering numbers due to India's enormous population. HIV is spreading among highly vulnerable groups such as sex workers and truck drivers, and beyond, among the general population. (author's)
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  16. 91
    182403

    U.N. will back entrepreneurs in bid to lift poor nations.

    Barringer F

    New York Times. 2003 Jul 27; [2] p..

    Nearly a decade after microfinancing took hold as a method of stimulating the growth of grass-roots private sectors in developing countries, the United Nations is beginning a new effort to support entrepreneurial efforts that could help lift countries out of poverty. Secretary General Kofi Annan said today that a new commission would work to eliminate the institutional, legal and cultural roadblocks that could inhibit the development of small and medium-size businesses in poor countries. (excerpt)
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  17. 92
    181862
    Peer Reviewed

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene at Kyoto.

    Curtis V; Cairncross S

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Jul 5; 327:3-4.

    One promising strategy is to market sanitation and handwashing as if they were consumer products like cars or shampoo. Consumers see the building of a toilet as a home improvement not as a health intervention. Equally they use soap to make hands look, feel, and smell good, not to prevent sickness. Public money could be spent on marketing hygiene and toilets, thus generating demand that can then be met by the private sector. The private sector also knows how to generate behaviour change through marketing. If consumer demand for hygiene and toilets can be stimulated with the help of the private sector, public funds can be liberated to support public infrastructure and to help the very poorest who cannot afford to adopt new technologies. This approach is being tested in six countries, where public-private partnerships between soap companies, governments, and agencies such as theWorld Bank aim to increase rates of handwashing with soap massively (www.globalhandwashing.org). (excerpt)
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  18. 93
    181292

    Public-private partnerships for public health.

    Reich MR

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 2002 Apr. ix, 205 p. (Harvard Series on Population and International Health)

    This book presents the results of the workshop. The essays in this volume offer some fresh perspectives on partnerships, probe some troubling questions, and provide empirical evidence of both benefits and challenges of public-private partnerships. The participants in the meeting also achieved some progress in creating a shared vocabulary, or at least shared understanding, on points of contention, suggesting that dialogue among partisans in public health can help move debates about critical issues forward. (excerpt)
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  19. 94
    173581
    Peer Reviewed

    Private doctors must improve their treatment of tuberculosis, says WHO.

    Brown P

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2002 Dec 7; 325(7376):1320.

    Global targets for the control of tuberculosis will not be met unless the public sector can engage the growing army of private doctors who now treat patients with tuberculosis and improve these doctors' management of the disease. This is one key conclusion of a working group at the World Health Organization (WHO). The group is calling for increased resources and urgent action to build partnerships between private and public sectors in countries where the tuberculosis burden is high, including India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. (excerpt)
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  20. 95
    173180
    Peer Reviewed

    Increasing transparency in partnerships for health -- introducing the Green Light Committee.

    Gupta R; Cegielski JP; Espinal MA; Henkens M; Kim JY

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2002 Nov; 7(11):970-976.

    Public–private partnerships have become central to efforts to combat infectious diseases. The characteristics of specific partnerships, their governance structures, and their ability to effectively address the issues for which they are developed are being clarified as experience is gained. In an attempt to promote access to and rational use of second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB, a unique partnership known as the Green Light Committee (GLC) was established by the World Health Organization. This partnership relies on five categories of actors to achieve its goal: academic institutions, civil society organizations, bilateral donors, governments of resource-limited countries, and a specialized United Nations agency. While the for-profit private sector is involved in terms of supplying concessionally priced drugs it is excluded from decision-making. The effectiveness of the partnership emerges from its review process, flexibility to modify its modus operandi to overcome obstacles, independence from the commercial sector, and its ability to link access, rational use, technical assistance, and policy development. The GLC mechanism may be useful in the development of other partnerships needed in the rational allocation of resources and tools for combating additional infectious diseases. (author’s)
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  21. 96
    120853

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in Bangladesh.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Reproductive Health / Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. ix, 115 p. (Technical Report No. 23)

    This report contains the results of a 1994 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) mission to Bangladesh undertaken on behalf of the UN's Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs. After presenting an executive summary, the report opens with an introductory chapter which describes the UNFPA Global Initiative, Bangladesh's population and family planning (FP) policies, policy strategies, the structure of the national FP program, the delivery of FP services, and donor assistance. Chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements and reviews the longterm projection methodology as well as projects to meet government objectives for the year 2005. The third chapter deals with logistics management in terms of distribution channels and contraceptive supply systems. Chapter 4 discusses various aspects of contraceptive manufacturing including taxes and duties and quality assurance. The next chapter looks at the role of nine nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector (private practitioners, private corporations, and the social marketing company). This chapter also covers the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention activities undertaken by NGOs and coordination and collaboration between NGOs and the government. Chapter 6 is concerned with the use of condoms for STD/HIV/AIDS prevention, and chapter 7 provides a financial analysis of the allocations and expenditures of the government program, the World Bank-assisted program, the UNFPA-assisted program, and the program supported by the US Agency for International Development. This chapter also considers financial aspects of program performance, contraceptive requirements, contraceptive consumption and costs, and sustainability.
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  22. 97
    095352

    Asian business leaders crucial in fight against AIDS, says WHO AIDS executive director.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1994 Apr 14. 3 p. (Press Release WHO/32)

    The most alarming trends of HIV infection in the world are in Asia, especially in the South and Southeast among IV drug users and female prostitutes in Myanmar, India, and Thailand. While the World Health Organization predicts there will have been more than 30-40 million HIV infections by the year 2000, the epidemic expansion will be most dramatic in Asia; the current cumulative infection total of over 2 million Asians is expected to grow to more than 10 million by the year 2000. There is neither cure nor vaccine on the horizon. On that note, Michael Merson, the Executive Director of the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS, urged Asian business leaders at a conference on Asian business response to AIDS in Hong Kong on April 14, 1994, to take an active role in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. At the local and regional levels, business leaders need to establish AIDS-in-the-workplace programs based upon non-discrimination, care and support, and prevention. These programs would use education and information on AIDS to prevent members of corporate labor forces from becoming infected, promote the use of condoms and services for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and ignore demands for pre-employment HIV screening. This latter tactic is clearly an ineffective way to slow the epidemic. Corporate leaders should also not miss the opportunity to influence AIDS prevention policies at both the national and international levels.
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  23. 98
    099397

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  24. 99
    096820

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in Viet Nam.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. ix, 92 p. (Technical Report No. 16)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to Viet Nam took place in 1993. This technical report presents a consensus of the findings and conclusions of that mission. After an executive summary and introductory chapter, which discusses population and family planning and the AIDS epidemic in Viet Nam, chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm contraceptive commodity requirements, short-term forecasting and requirements, and forecasting of condom requirements for HIV/AIDS prevention. Logistics management is considered next, with emphasis on public and private organizations which participate in contraceptive distribution, procurement, and allocation to outlets; the reception, warehousing, and distribution of contraceptives; warehousing regulations; the logistics management information system; and monitoring. Chapter 4 deals with contraceptive manufacturing and discusses the regulatory environment and quality assurance, condoms, IUDs, oral and other steroidal contraceptives, and related issues. The fifth chapter presents the role of NGOs and the private sector and discusses mass organizations, social marketing, and future private-sector options, opportunities, and constraints. A financial analysis provided in chapter 6 relays sources and use of funds, trends in financial contributions for 1985-2000, future funding requirements, and contraceptive cost implications for individuals. The final chapter considers condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention with information given on current status and patterns; projected trends; the National AIDS committee; an overview of international donor assistance; major condom distribution channels and outlets, condom demand-generation activities, forecasting requirements for 1993-2002, and condom supply activities. A summary of key knowledge, attitude, and practice findings about AIDS and condoms is appended as is additional information on contraceptive requirements and condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention. The report contains 17 tables and 1 figure, and 18 specific recommendations are made for the topics covered.
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  25. 100
    096819

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in the Philippines.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
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