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  1. 76

    Challenges from Cairo [editorial]

    Tamburlini G

    KANGAROO. 1994 Dec; 3(2):190-4.

    The Plan of Action approved at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development seeks to ensure access to reproductive health care services to all couples through a process of female empowerment. However, this goal conflicts with current social and economic policies in many countries as well as with hegemonic international development strategies based on structural adjustment. The full realization of the goals outlined in Cairo and Beijing will depend on the willingness of the international community to ensure the development of broader conceptualizations of human rights as well as the strengthening of community-based initiatives. Critical will be implementation of a multisectoral approach and coordinated networking at the peripheral level. Channels to express needs and demands must be developed in countries burdened with cultural obstacles or disrupted by political strife. If health care systems are to achieve targeted improvements in maternal mortality, they must both demonstrate an interest in mothers as women with needs of their own and seek to involve men in reproductive health decisions. Although the development of a broader range of contraceptive options remains critical, the most important reproductive technology issue concerns improvements in the quality of the user-provider interaction.
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  2. 77

    PRB media guide to women's issues 1995.

    Carty WP; Cryer S

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 1995 Jun. [2], 36 p.

    This guide was prepared to provide journalists who will be covering the United Nations (UN) Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing with accessible and accurate background data on the status of women. Presented are brief summaries of the most salient research findings in the critical areas of concern identified for action by conference participants: poverty, education, health, violence, peace, economics, advancement mechanisms, human rights, mass media, environment, and female children. Also included is an overview of demographic trends, female education, female labor force participation, reproductive health, and women in public life. Finally, "The World's Women 1995" data sheet presents statistics from 161 countries related to these five topics.
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  3. 78

    Statement submitted by the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED].

    Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 379-81.

    This statement by the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED) reiterates its aims and activities in providing population information through its publications and in maintaining contact with national population research centers. Since 1971, CICRED has provided quarterly computerized abstracts of 80 population reviews, which summarize about 1200 articles annually. A multilingual thesaurus has been available in English, French, and Spanish on computer disc and will soon be available in Arabic, Portuguese, and Chinese. 19 national monographs on aging will be available after 1993 in complete and summary form with a focus on the demographic, health, and economic implications of aging. 10 monographs on the impact of international migration on receiving countries were distributed in 1993. A regional assessment of the population research potential in developing countries has been conducted in Latin America, Asia and the Pacific, and Africa. Other conference proceedings have been published on the following topics: the impact of family planning on fertility change, integration of population factors into the socioeconomic planning process, the links between population and the environment, and the demographic impact of mortality.
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  4. 79

    Employment and population: an inseparable duo.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1994. v, 25 p.

    After many years of worsening conditions, most countries worldwide face unprecedented high levels of unemployment and underemployment. Countries in every region of the world face urgent problems linked to high levels of unemployment, fears about continuing job losses, a fall in real wages, and the continuing informalization of urban economies. There is also an increase in precarious and underpaid work, especially among women, following rapid growth in the number of poor households. The International Labor Organization (ILO) was established 75 years ago and has since actively promoted full and freely chosen employment along with the improvement of living and working conditions in all regions of the world. It has accumulated much experience over the period in many aspects of employment, including those which relate to population issues. The ILO has also been involved since the late 1920s in international discussions on major population issues and has actively collaborated with the UN Population Fund over the course of the last 25 years. This paper focuses upon the need for an holistic approach to population and employment issues, and the contribution which the ILO can make to that end.
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  5. 80

    Global population assistance report, 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. 56 p.

    This is the sixth edition of a report on global population assistance first published by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1988. It provides information on the levels, trends, and nature of international population assistance for the period 1983-92, focusing upon the flow of funds in the form of grants or loans from developed countries to developing countries. In 1992, primary funds for international population assistance reached $926 million, $1033 million including World Bank loans. In 1983 dollars, however, total primary funds in 1992, not including those of the World Bank, were $657 million. Primary funds from 17 developed countries in 1992 totalled $766 million of which 50% came from the US and Japan, and 80% from the US, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and the UK. As a percentage of official development assistance, population assistance from each donor country was 1.37% on average in 1992. Final expenditures in 1992 were $211 million in Asia and the Pacific, $172 million in Africa, $97 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, $42 million in the Middle East and North America, and $6 million in Europe. In 1992, 69% of the final expenditures for population assistance were for family planning programs. Most data in the report were obtained through a questionnaire mailed in June 1993 to 392 countries and organizations involved in population activities. Survey respondents included donor countries, multilateral organizations and agencies, major private foundations, and other nongovernmental organizations (NGO). Responses were obtained from all donor countries and multilateral organizations and agencies, although only 113 of the 366 NGOs contacted responded. Survey data were supplemented by other sources, such as annual reports, UN specialized agencies' records, published secondary sources, and telephone interviews. The report notes the practical difficulty of defining population programs and of apportioning the population component of integrated projects.
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  6. 81

    A report from Cairo.

    Shortridge J

    SIECUS REPORT. 1995 Feb-Mar; 23(3):20-2.

    The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) is the only national organization in the US with a primary emphasis upon sexuality education. A 1992 review by SIECUS of the libraries of 17 population-related organizations found none to have a significant collection on sexuality or sexuality education. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) therefore in 1993 added an international component to its sexuality information and education clearinghouse, providing assistance to more than 250 professionals in over 30 countries in the first year. This was made possible through SIECUS's extensive collection of sexuality and HIV/AIDS education curricula, international research studies and reports, sexuality training models, conference and meeting proceedings, country policies, and program assessments. As an official accredited organization at the NGO forum in Cairo, Egypt, September 1994, SIECUS was able to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of sexuality issues among international population, health, environment, and government institutions. Participation in the meetings also offered the opportunity to evaluate the direction of the international initiative and support sexual and reproductive rights. The International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action is discussed. With the Cairo conference representing considerable progress on many fronts, SIECUS now believes that appropriate responses to world population growth must acknowledge the interactions among social, cultural, economic, and environmental conditions. Sexuality education and health services are an integral component of efforts to improve reproductive health care. In the coming year, SIECUS will develop materials to meet gaps in information, create a forum on the Internet to enhance communication efforts of professionals from other countries, and disseminate information to educators and service providers outside of the US.
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  7. 82

    Cairo objective can be achieved.

    FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1994; 10(2):1.

    During an interview, Dr. Nafis Sadik, the chairman of the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, emphasized that each country would be able to determine its own policy. Recommendations of the Programme of Action of the ICPD could be followed based on the needs and conditions of each country without coercion or interference with laws, precepts, culture, or moral codes. Efforts to slow population growth and to achieve sustainable development, which are reinforcing, are the themes of the conference. Goals of the conference include 1) empowerment of women; 2) freedom of choice in family planning; 3) strengthening of family planning and reproductive health programs; 4) reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality; 5) universal completion of primary education, especially for girls; and 6) universal access to family planning information and services. National governmental organizations (NGOs) were involved in preparations for the conference at Precom sessions in New York, where the Programme of Action was drafted with 90% agreement among participants. NGOs will also be important in later implementation and application of the program. In spite of high profile disagreement over a small portion of the draft, there is strong consensus on the need for additional financial resources for population programs. Developing countries now contribute 75% of the funding; the draft recommends an increase in external donor contributions from 25% to 33%.
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  8. 83

    IPPF discusses unmet needs and adolescents at PrepCom III.

    IPPF OPEN FILE. 1994 Apr; 1.

    The third preparatory committee (PrepCom III) for the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development will be held in New York during April 4-22. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives will take the opportunity to lobby and brief government delegates on draft documents at this final such meeting before the conference convenes in September. Preparations thus far point to an increasing international recognition of individual needs. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) hopes PrepCom III will ensure that this recognition is reflected in the final recommendations to the conference and that government delegates work with NGOs to provide an appropriate framework for Cairo. A variety of IPPF and FPA staff will take part in the government and NGO forums, with IPPF Secretary General Halfdan Mahler addressing the opening session. On April 5, Dr. Mahler will release the new IPPF report on adolescent sexuality, Understanding Adolescents, highlighting the negative consequences of ignoring the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people. Programs need to treat young people with respect and dignity. The report profiles some programs which have been successful in locales around the world. IPPF hopes to convince decision makers that their political and financial commitment is needed to secure the health and well-being of today's and tomorrow's young people. Another report on the unmet need for family planning services among marginalized populations in Uganda, El Salvador, Ghana, Palestine, and the Philippines will be presented at a reception hosted by Dr. Sai and Dr. Mahler.
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