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Your search found 285 Results

  1. 76
    275172
    Peer Reviewed

    TB prevalence down 30% in China after DOTS.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Sep; 82(9):716.

    A decade after introducing the WHO recommended tuberculosis (TB) control strategy across half of China, a recent study showed that prevalence of the deadly bacterial disease that affects the lungs has fallen by about one-third. WHO and the Chinese Ministry of Health published a joint report in the Lancet on 30 July based on the findings of a survey conducted in 2000 among 376 000 people in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities on the Chinese mainland. In the report, researchers compared TB prevalence in regions where the DOTS control strategy had been implemented with those in the rest of the country. Researchers concluded that — as a direct result of the project — there were 382 000 fewer cases of TB in 2000 than 10 years earlier, a 30% decline in prevalence, taking into consideration a larger and more aged population. WHO said TB remains a significant public health problem in China with 1.4 million new cases each year, where the most recent WHO data suggests that only four or five cases out of every 10 receive treatment through the DOTS programme. (excerpt)
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  2. 77
    274776
    Peer Reviewed

    Field application of PCR-based assays for monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Africa.

    Ramzy RM

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 2:S55-S59.

    Approximately 50 million people in Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa have bancroftian filariasis and together they represent about a third of all cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) world-wide. Currently, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, which was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, is largely based on repeated annual cycles of mass drug administration (MDA) to endemic populations. Also, some countries, including Egypt, are taking steps to improve LF vector-control interventions, to break the transmission cycle more effectively than is achievable with MDA alone. New tools and strategies for monitoring and evaluating elimination campaigns are needed. The last 20 years have witnessed dramatic advances in the diagnosis of LF for epidemiological purposes. The recent introduction and development of molecular technologies have moved parasite-detection systems from traditional methods (that are labour-intensive, tedious and often impractical ) to improved PCR-based assays that have considerable potential for field use. The present article highlights the strengths and limitations of the PCR-based assays when used to detect filarial infections in mosquitoes ( particularly for the xenomonitoring of elimination campaigns). (excerpt)
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  3. 78
    274768
    Peer Reviewed

    The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    Sékétéli A; Adeoye G; Eyamba A; Nnoruka E; Drameh P

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 1:S15-S28.

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public–private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC’s relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme’s operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy’s effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC’s Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. (excerpt)
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  4. 79
    274766
    Peer Reviewed

    Partnership and promise: evolution of the African river-blindness campaigns.

    Benton B; Bump J; Sékétéli A; Liese B

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 1:S5-S14.

    This article describes the evolution of the partnership, between various health and developmental agencies, that has sustained the campaign against river blindness in Africa. The international community was oblivious to the devastating public-health and socio–economic consequences of onchocerciasis until towards the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. Then a ‘Mission to West Africa’, supported by the United Nations Development Programme, and a visit to the sub-region by the president of the World Bank culminated, in 1974, in the inauguration of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). OCP was a landmark event for the World Bank as it represented its first ever direct investment in a public-health initiative. The resounding success of the OCP is a testimony to the power of the partnership which, with the advent of the Mectizan Donation Programme, was emboldened to extend the scope of its activities to encompass the remaining endemic regions of Africa outside the OCP area. The progress that has been made in consolidating the partnership is discussed in this article. The prospects of adapting the various strategies of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, to entrench an integrated approach that couples strong regional co-ordination with empowerment of local communities and thereby address many other health problems, are also explored. (excerpt)
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  5. 80
    274773
    Peer Reviewed

    Elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a public-health challenge.

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 2:S3-S13.

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF), the sequelae of which are commonly known as elephantiasis, results from infection with nematode filarial parasites, which are transmitted by certain species of vector mosquito. Transmission of these parasites to humans continues in more than 80 countries, with a combined population of well over 1000 million people at risk. In some situations, usually where economic progress has raised the standard of living, the disease has disappeared (Australia, South Korea, U.S.A). In other settings, specific public-health interventions, such as mass drug administrations (MDA) based on diethylcarbamazine (DEC) tablets (Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago) or the mass distribution of salt fortified with DEC (China), have led to the interruption of transmission. In most areas where LF remains endemic, the disease is an important health burden. Indeed, it probably causes the loss of more disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) than any other communicable parasitic disease except malaria. Lymphatic filariasis is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease that has a major social and economic impact. Of the estimated 120 million people who are currently infected with the causative parasites, 40 million have the clinical manifestations of the disease. (excerpt)
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  6. 81
    274767
    Peer Reviewed

    APOC at mid-point: so far so good.

    Sékétéli A

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 1:S3-S4.

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in December 1995 on the tidal wave of the resounding success of the 21-year-old Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). Six years later and now at the mid-point of its pre-determined existence, it is time to take stock and plan for the second half. This special Supplement contains a set of articles that focus on some key areas of the activities of APOC in the first phase. Each article makes a critical appraisal of the major achievements and shortcomings of the programme, from the start of operations in 1996, and identifies the main challenges for Phase 2. A succinct account of the state of affairs at the birth of APOC would help to put the achievements and the challenges in better perspective. The ultimate goal of APOC is 'to eliminate onchocerciasis as a disease of public-health importance and an important constraint to socio-economic development throughout Africa'. The prescribed strategy by which this goal is to be attained is 'the establishment of a self-sustainable ivermectin treatment programme' in the high-risk zones of all the endemic countries outside the OCP area. Where feasible, control would also be effected by local vector eradication. (excerpt)
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  7. 82
    274018

    Drug procurement for tuberculosis training course in Vietnam, July 13-22, 2001.

    Moore T

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus Program, 2001. iv, 9 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)

    As part of its contribution to USAID’s SO5—reduce the threat of infectious diseases of major public health importance, the Rational Pharmaceutical Management (RPM) Plus program is providing technical support to the national Tuberculosis (TB) program in Vietnam through the SO5 ID/TB Activity 3: Conduct TB drug procurement training in Vietnam. The RPM Plus assistance will facilitate Vietnam’s procurement of TB drugs under a secured World Bank project. Thomas Moore of RPM Plus and Hugo Vrakking of Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) traveled to Vietnam to conduct the training course. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has recently reorganized its procurement department, devolving procurement activities to respective vertical programs such as Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Hematology. Course participants (listed in Annex 1: Proceedings of the Training Workshop—Vietnam) are members of the management committee of the national TB program (NTP). All are expected to play some part in the procurement of TB drugs. (excerpt)
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  8. 83
    192684

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria [letter]

    Ringwald P

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2004 May 22; 328:1259-1260.

    The methods applied to enhance the interpretation of the data by Plowe et al deserve comment. The World Health Organization has developed several standardised protocols to assess the efficacy of antimalarial drugs, which are intended to determine treatment failures and not resistance patterns of the parasite. Recently, WHO published a revised protocol, giving clear indications of outcome classifications and the target groups (children under 5 years in intense transmission areas) to be monitored. The new classification is appropriate for patients with symptoms and includes not only clinical but also parasitological criteria. It becomes redundant now to report the response based on the 1973 classification. Moreover, examination of WHO's database on antimalarial drug efficacy has shown that early treatment failure corresponds closely to parasitological resistance grade RIII + RII, contradicting the authors' claim that early treatment failure is systematically overestimating the true early failure rate. A technical meeting convened by WHO's regional office for Africa in Harare in August last year agreed that, in intense transmission areas, asymptomatic parasitological failure (quoted as LPF in the new protocol) should be an additional indicator for the interpretation of the test. It was also agreed that an unacceptable failure rate is reached when clinical failure at day 14 is = 15% and total failure 25%. The authors' data in table 2 show that these thresholds have been reached in Ndirande since 1999. (excerpt)
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  9. 84
    191339
    Peer Reviewed

    Drug resistant tuberculosis soars in eastern Europe.

    Odigwe C

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2004; 328:[3] p..

    Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in parts of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union is 10 times as common as in most parts of the world, a new report from the World Health Organization said this week. The report, which is WHO's third on drug resistant tuberculosis, contains new data obtained from the WHO/IUATLD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease) Global Project on Anti- Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Speaking at the report's launch in London this week, Dr Paul Nunn, coordinator of tuberculosis, HIV, and drug resistance at the Stop TB department of WHO, said: "We see about nine million cases worldwide every year and about two million deaths." He said: "This report . . . covers 77 geographic settings, most of which are countries—except in certain instances like China, where several settings are in one country. Thirty nine of the settings are new, and 67 657 cases were tested. (excerpt)
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  10. 85
    190576
    Peer Reviewed

    A single agenda needed for malaria.

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2003 Jun; 3(6):317.

    April 25 was Africa Malaria Day. It was masked by the release of the Africa Malaria Report, a joint publication by WHO and UNICEF and the first comprehensive report charting the progress made towards achieving the Abuja targets of reducing the malaria burden in Africa by 2010. The report praises the progress in fighting the disease but reveals that current coverage of effective interventions against malaria is unacceptably low. Mortality, morbidity, and the adverse economic impact of malaria increased during the 1990s. Only 15% of young children sleep under a net, and only 2% use nets that are treated by insecticide. Chloroquine has lost its clinical effectiveness in most parts of Africa Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is still useful but there are areas in western Kenya where resistance is fast rising. Furthermore, new effective antimalarial drugs are just not accessible to those who need them. The report urges the international community to step up the momentum, insisting that greater resources of money and political motivation are required to reverse the trend. (excerpt)
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  11. 86
    190528
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to essential drugs prevented by pharmaceutical multinationals.

    Developing World Bioethics. 2001 May; 1(1):1-6.

    Many governments in developing countries, faced with millions of avoidable deaths of their citizens, have tried to import cheaper generic drugs from countries such as Thailand, Brazil and India. Invariably their attempts to save their citizens' lives has been met with lawsuits by pharmaceutical multinationals. Here are just a few examples of cases reported in local media in various developing countries. The picture that emerges is that of a global confrontation between pharmaceutical companies and the governments of developing countries. (author's)
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  12. 87
    190440
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in four Kenyan districts.

    Guyatt HL; Noor AM; Ochola SA; Snow RW

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2004 Feb; 9(2):255-261.

    The roll back malaria (RBM) movement promotes the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) and intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) of malaria infection as preventive measures against the adverse effects of malaria among pregnant women in Africa. To determine the use of these preventive measures we undertook a community-based survey of recently pregnant women randomly selected from communities in four districts of Kenya in December 2001. Of the 1814 women surveyed, only 5% had slept under an ITN. More than half of the 13% of women using a bednet (treated or untreated) had bought their nets from shops or markets. Women from rural areas used bednets less than urban women (11% vs. 27%; P < 0.001), and 41% of the bednets used by rural women had been obtained free of charge from a research project in Bondo or a nationwide UNICEF donation through antenatal clinics (ANCs). Despite 96% of ANC providers being aware of IPT with sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP), only 5% of women interviewed had received two or more doses of SP as a presumptive treatment. The coverage of pregnant women with at least one dose of IPT with SP was 14%, though a similar percentage also had received at least a single dose as a curative treatment. The coverage of nationally recommended strategies to prevent malaria during pregnancy during 2001 was low across the diverse malaria ecology of Kenya. Rapid expansion of access to these services is required to meet international and national targets by the year 2005. The scaling up of malaria prevention programmes through ANC services should be possible with 74% of women visiting ANCs at least twice in all four districts. Issues of commodity supply and service costs to clients will be the greatest impediments to reaching RBM targets. (author's)
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  13. 88
    190432
    Peer Reviewed

    Artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria: a systematic review.

    Omari AA; Gamble C; Garner P

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2004 Feb; 9(2):192-199.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is promoting artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated malaria. The objective of this review is to summarize available evidence of its effects compared with other antimalarial regimens. We sought randomized and quasi-randomized studies comparing artemether-lumefantrine with any other antimalarial drug regimen. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Conference proceedings and reference article lists were searched and malaria researchers and the drug manufacturer were contacted. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data. Six trials (1698 participants) studied the four-dose regimen. Fever and parasite clearance tended to be shorter with artemether-lumefantrine, but parasitological failure on day 28 was more common with artemether-lumefantrine in comparison with mefloquine (one trial, n = 233), halofantrine (one trial, n = 86) and mefloquine-artesunate (one trial, n = 537); but less common with chloroquine (two trials, n = 378). For the six-dose regimen, two studies compared artemether-lumefantrine with mefloquine-artesunate, but there was insufficient data to demonstrate any meaningful comparative effects for day 28 parasitaemia, and no difference in parasite or fever clearance time was detected. There were 11 parasitological failures with artemether-lumefantrine and none with mefloquine-artesunate. There is no evidence to demonstrate the four-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine results in a higher cure rate than other antimalarial regimens against which it has been tested, apart from chloroquine in areas with high chloroquine resistance. Artemether-lumefantrine has potential advantages over non-artemisinin regimens because of the faster clearance time and gametocyte clearance. There is insufficient evidence about the six-dose regimen to know whether it is less or more effective than current antimalarial drug regimens. (author's)
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  14. 89
    186469

    Can AIDS be stopped?

    Epstein H; Chen L

    In: While the world sleeps: writing from the first twenty years of the global AIDS plague, edited by Chris Bull. New York, New York, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2003. 401-412.

    Public concern over the global AIDS epidemic, particularly in Africa, has grown enormously in recent years, but there is considerable debate about what the international community can and should do about it. Especially controversial has been the high cost of antiretroviral drugs used to extend the lives of people with AIDS. The pharmaceutical companies that make these drugs price them beyond reach of the world's poor, but in November 2001 at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar, these companies were forced to accede to pressure from developing-country governments, nongovernmental organizations, and activists, and allow poor governments to adjust certain rigid patent rules applying to vaccines and drugs in order to protect public health. Despite this apparent triumph of international pressure, far more needs to be done. A coalition of governments and nongovernmental organizations, led by the UN, recently launched the Global Fund Against AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (referred to here as the Global Fund), and its performance will test how well such a global institution can confront the most serious health crises of our time, and perhaps in all of human history. (excerpt)
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  15. 90
    186036

    Essential drugs and Alma Ata.

    Shiva M

    Health for the Millions. 2004 Jan; 30(4-5):28-29.

    Availability of essential drugs has been one of the major components of the Alma Ata Charter. Dr. Halfden Mahler, former Director General, WHO had called increasing pharmaceuticalisation of health care and the increasing power of the drug corporators and the drug exporting countries as neo colonialism. He set up the Drug Action Program in WHO that reported to him directly. The model essential drug list was brought out and the guidelines for National Drug Policy were drawn. (excerpt)
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  16. 91
    189815
    Peer Reviewed

    Ethiopia faces severe malaria epidemic. WHO predicts 15 million people could be infected.

    Das P

    Lancet. 2003 Dec 20-27; 362(9401):2071.

    Following a 2-year drought, Ethiopia—a country already battling malnutrition and food shortages—is now facing a severe malaria epidemic. WHO is forecasting that up to 15 million of the 65 million population could be affected—three times the normal caseload. The worst-hit regions are in Amhara, Tigray, and the southern nations; Somalia is also affected. (excerpt)
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  17. 92
    189403
    Peer Reviewed

    Sustainable schistosomiasis control -- the way forward.

    Utzinger J; Bergquist R; Shu-Hua X; Singer BH; Tanner M

    Lancet. 2003 Dec 6; 362(9399):1932-1934.

    Schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating disease, is draining the economic and social development in much of the tropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where 85% of its global burden is concentrated. An estimated 200 million people are infected and more than 600 million live in endemic areas. Sustained heavy infection leads to morbidity, contributes to anaemia, and often results in retarded growth and reduced physical and cognitive function in children. Recent estimates suggest that the yearly death rate of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa exceeds 200 000, which is largely attributable to renal failure or haematemesis. WHO has proposed a dual strategy to control schistosomiasis. The strategy rests on morbidity control in high-burden regions and consolidation of control measures where the endemicity has been greatly reduced.2,3 Safe, effective, single-dose antischistosomal drugs—eg, praziquantel—have been available for 25 years. The large reduction in cost to less than US$0·30 per treatment3 has been the leverage for chemotherapy-based morbidity control. However, a serious limitation of chemotherapy alone is its indefinite dependence (dependence for an unlimited period of time) on praziquantel, potentially reducing the useful life-span of this drug. Preventive measures, focused on clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, are essential features of any long-term strategy for reduction and elimination of schistosomiasis.7,8 The absence of such measures in many past programmes stems from a severe lack of resources plus inadequate capacity and political commitment to emphasise clean water and sanitation as a basic human need. We are now witnessing a sea of change in the political landscape that should facilitate provision of clean water and sanitation. High priority has been given to this task in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, embodied in the Millennium Declaration set forth in September, 2000. Further, it was one of the top priorities at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in September, 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa, and during the 3rd World Water Forum, convened in Japan in March, 2003. The specific provision is to halve the number of people without access to clean water supply and sanitation by 2015.9,10 Linking schistosomiasis control to these initiatives has the potential to ensure long-term control and, in many instances, elimination of the disease. (author's)
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  18. 93
    189406
    Peer Reviewed

    The untapped potential of palliative care for AIDS.

    Lancet. 2003 Nov 29; 362(9398):1773.

    December 1 is the 16th World AIDS Day. The major theme of the past year has been on strengthening the campaign for cheap antiretroviral drugs. This thrust, some critics maintain, has been to the detriment of HIV prevention efforts. Perhaps the most ambitious HIV/AIDS development in the past year has been WHO’s focus on the “3 by 5” target—a commitment to provide antiretroviral drugs to 3 million people in developing countries by the end of 2005. For many the “3 by 5” initiative, if successfully implemented, will bring a longer life. But how useful is this and other antiretroviral-based initiatives to those people with AIDS in the developing world who will die today, tomorrow, or in the very near future? For these people, the stark reality is that it is too late for antiretroviral treatment; what they need, yet rarely receive, is palliative care. (excerpt)
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  19. 94
    189139
    Peer Reviewed

    Malaria researchers say global fund is buying "useless drug."

    Yarney G

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Nov 22; 327:1188.

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is under intense scrutiny from malaria researchers, who say that its limited resources are being wasted on useless malaria drugs. The controversy was sparked by the latest figures on the fund’s spending on malaria treatment in Africa. More is being spent on chloroquine, which costs just $0.10 (£0.06; €0.08) for each dose but which is largely ineffective in Africa, than on combination treatments based on artemisinin, which are highly effective but cost at least 10 times as much. The result, say the researchers, is that lives are being lost needlessly. (excerpt)
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  20. 95
    189101
    Peer Reviewed

    Tuberculosis services need to improve for those living with HIV.

    Das P

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2003 Sep 1; 3(9):530.

    According to Raviglione the antituberculosis drugs used with the directly observed therapy short-couse (DOTS) made it possible to cure tuberculosis in over 80 000 Africans living with HIV last year. However more than 200 000 Africans with HIV died from tuberculsosis because they had no access to anti-tuberculosis drugs and DOTS. Tuberculosis was notably absent from the scientific programme at the HIV meeting. “In Africa it strikes us as peculiar how politicians and academics can speak of their ‘AIDS initative’ or ‘their tuberculosis programme’ as if the two diseases are not related,” said Winstone Zulu, a Zambian man infected with HIV, who had been recently cured of tuberculosis. “We see them together conspiring and collaborating to steal away our health.” (excerpt)
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  21. 96
    188907

    Topping up dots?

    MRC News. 2001 Feb; 32(1):[2].

    Tuberculosis, or TB as it's commonly known, is a rampant, infectious disease with estimates putting worldwide infection rates at 1 in every 3 people. Especially in countries where the rate of HIV infection is high, TB infection rates soar, with HIV and TB forming a deadly duo. An even greater problem is that of drug-resistant TB - when the illness is not cured by the use of first-line drugs. This is commonly thought to be caused only by poor compliance of patients not adhering to treatment strategies. Prof. Paul van Helden, Director of the MRC's Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, and his team of scientists hold a different view. (excerpt)
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  22. 97
    188685
    Peer Reviewed

    Practical aspects of in vivo antimalarial drug efficacy testing in The Americas. [Aspectos prácticos de las pruebas de eficacia in vivo de la medicación antipalúdica realizadas en las Américas]

    Ruebush TK 2d; Marquiño W; Zegarra J; Neyra D; Villaroel R

    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003; 68(4):391-397.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines for in vivo antimalarial drug efficacy testing for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in areas with low-to-moderate transmission, such as the Americas. These guidelines are used widely by ministries of health and national malaria control programs to assess the efficacy of their first-line and second-line drugs for the treatment of malaria and to provide the information necessary to update national malaria treatment policies. Following the WHO guidelines, we have conducted in vivo efficacy trials with a variety of drugs and drug combinations against P. falciparum and P. vivax at 13 sites in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Based on these experiences, we have identified several modifications that we believe should be made in the WHO recommendations to make them more suitable to the relatively low levels of P. falciparum transmission in the Americas and to the logistic challenges of carrying out such studies in sparsely populated areas, such as the Amazon Basin. These include changes in inclusion and exclusion criteria, in enrollment and follow-up procedures, and in the measurement of study outcomes. (author's)
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  23. 98
    188643

    AIDS plan would cut drug costs for poor. [Plan para el SIDA reduciría los costos de fármacos para las personas de bajos recursos]

    Vedantam S

    Washington Post. 2003 Oct 25; A01.

    The World Health Organization will disclose next week the first details of a global AIDS strategy to bring low-cost drugs to 3 million people in poor countries, a plan that top officials said will eventually include endorsement of pills that combine three HIV drugs in a single tablet. The endorsement of the three-in-one pills is expected to be controversial because they could violate a variety of patents. Only about 300,000 people are receiving AIDS medicine in the regions targeted by WHO. (excerpt)
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  24. 99
    188579
    Peer Reviewed

    Drug prices may be too high despite WTO deal.

    Fleck F

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Oct; 81(10):774-775.

    A landmark deal that waives international trade rules may work if implemented in good faith, experts say. Poor countries with no manufacturing capability of their own will be allowed to import cheap copies of patented essential drugs under a complex procedure. (excerpt)
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  25. 100
    188163
    Peer Reviewed

    DOTS versus self administered therapy (SAT) for patients of pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised trial at a tertiary care hospital.

    Tandon M; Gupta M; Tandon S; Gupta KB

    Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2002 Jan; 56(1):19-21.

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India, and it is being made worse by poor adherence to and frequent interruption of antitubercular treatment. Directly observed therapy short course (DOTS), is one of the key elements in the WHO global tuberculosis control programme strategy and has been widely publicized as a breakthrough and strongly promoted globally by WHO. However little or no randomised data exists of comparison between DOTS versus self administered therapy (SAT). The present study is an effort in this direction to compare adherence and outcome after random allocation of patients to directly observed therapy (DOTS) or self administered therapy (SAT). (author's)
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