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New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vi, 199 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/118)This global review and inventory of population policies in 1991 is a machine readable database which is available on diskette. Current data on 174 countries are described. Data are based on the Population Policy Data Bank. Policy information is available on the government's view on population growth and the type of intervention to modify fertility level, acceptable mortality level, internal limits to contraceptive access and policy on use of modern contraceptives, government's view and policy and migration/spatial distribution levels, view and policy on international migration and emigration, and the agency responsible for population formulation or coordination of policy. General topics are identified questions and responses follow, i.e., "government's view on population growth" is for Bolivia "too low." The diskettes contain policy information plus statistical data on current and projected population to 2025, the crude birth and death rate, average growth rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy, dependent population, urban population, foreign-born population, and development level. Information is also available on whether the country responded to each of the 6 inquiries, on the UN regional commission code, on the subregion code, and on the full UN Statistical Office country name. A summary description of the variables in the database is included in the annex as well as a detailed description of variables and their codes. The cost of the diskette is US$50 and an order from is provided.
HYGIE. 1992; 11(2):6-7.The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) based in Penang, Malaysia has selected August 1-7, 1992 to be World Breastfeeding Week worldwide. The US coordinator is in Flushing, New York. WABA is a group of organizations and individuals who communicate among themselves to identify ways to inform others that breast feeding is a right of all children and women. WABA aims to identify a week each year to promote breast feeding since many countries are experiencing a decrease in breast feeding. The 1992 theme for World Breastfeeding Week is the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. WABA, WHO, and UNICEF suggest various activities for community organizations, individuals, hospitals, and clinics to observe before and during the week. All groups could form a World Breastfeeding Week Committee. Hospitals could go a step further and form a Baby-Friendly Hospital Committee. They could evaluate their practices by completing the Self Appraisal Questionnaire. Hospitals could also implement all 10 steps to successful breast feeding so they can receive the Baby-Friendly Hospital designation during the celebration week. Health facility managers should tell staff about the International Code of the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and invite them to look for code violations in the facility and the community. Community groups or individuals could arrange for various competitions such as posters, breast-feeding slogans, and essays. The could also try to gain the support of retail store operators by encouraging them to implement the Code and set up a Baby-Friendly work environment for employees. They could invite children to take part in the week by doing a puppet show or participating in a coloring contest. Community organizations and individuals could encourage the local newspaper to do either an article about breast feeding or print a photo with an eye-catching caption.
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
Report of an International Consultation on AIDS and Human Rights. Geneva, 26-28 July 1989. Organized by the Centre for Human Rights with the technical and financial support of the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. iii, 57 p.In July 1989, ethicists, lawyers, religious leaders, and health professionals participated in an international consultation on AIDS and human rights in Geneva, Switzerland. The report addressed the public health and human rights rationale for protecting the human rights and dignity of HIV infected people, including those with AIDS. Discrimination and stigmatization only serve to force HIV infected people away from health, educational, and social services and to hinder efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. In addition to nondiscrimination, another fundamental human right is the right to life and AIDS threatens life. Governments and the international community are therefore obligated to do all that is necessary to protect human lives. Yet some have enacted restrictions on privacy (compulsory screening and testing), freedom of movement (preventing HIV infected persons from migrating or traveling), and liberty (prison). The participants agreed that everyone has the right to access to up-to-date information and education concerning HIV and AIDS. They did not come to consensus, however, on the need for an international mechanism by which human right abuses towards those with HIV/AIDS can be prevented and redressed. International and health law, human rights, ethics, and policy all must go into any international efforts to preserve human rights of HIV infected persons and to prevent and control the spread of AIDS. The participants requested that this report be distributed to human rights treaty organizations so they can deliberate what action is needed to protect the human rights of those at risk or infected with HIV. They also recommended that governments guarantee that measures relating to HIV/AIDS and concerning HIV infected persons conform to international human rights standards.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1985; (724):1-206.In 1981, participants in the Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements met in Italy to reexamine the interrelationships between energy and protein requirements and to recommend methods to integrate requirement scales for energy and proteins. They stated that the use of a reference man or woman to determine energy requirements should no longer be used since it is unduly restrictive and there is a wide range of body size and patterns of physical activity. The tables exhibit this wide range so users can use those values that best apply to his or her conditions. Overall the participants agreed that estimates of energy requirements should be based on actual or desirable energy requirement estimates. In terms of children, however, this principle cannot be applied since there is not enough information available about their energy expenditure. Further no one could agree on how to determine what actual intakes are needed to maintain health in its broadest sense in either developing or developed countries since observed actual intakes are not necessarily those that maintain a desirable body weight or optimal levels of physical activity. Divers patterns of physical activity in different age and sex groups are presented nonetheless to guide users in applying requirement estimates. The maintenance protein requirements identified by the 1971 consultation for the young child < 6 years old, e.g. 1 g/kg.day for 5-6 year old, and the young male adult (.54-.99 g.kg/day) remained the same. The participants made indirect estimates of protein needs for the remaining age and sex groups. They acknowledged that digestibility can affect the availability of protein and protein requirements need to be adjusted for fecal losses of nitrogen. They concluded that the natural diets for infants and preschool children contain sufficient amount of essential amino acids, but not those of the remaining groups.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 18 p. (GPA/GCA(3)/90.11)The member of the Global Commission on AIDS (GCA) convened on March 22-23, 1990 to explore the issue of drug use and HIV infection, review prevention activities, and identify critical issues for AIDS prevention and control in the early 1990s. This document provides a full account of each session including the names of the presenters, the information shared, and the discussions that followed. In the session about drug use and HIV infection, the problem was identified as being "truly global" because the sharing of injection equipment occurs everywhere. Some of the reasons cited for sharing equipment are initiation into intravenous drug use, social bonding, and practicality. Rapid spread of HIV has been seen in New York City, several Italian cities, Edinburgh, and Bangkok. Characteristically, it has taken only 3-5 years after the introduction of HIV for about 50% of injecting drug users (IDU) to be infected. Several studies have demonstrated that behavior change can lower the risk of transmission and infection rates. Amsterdam, Innsbruck, Seattle, and Stockholm had all achieved stabilization of their prevalence of HIV among IDUs at levels between 10-30%. It was emphasized that the means for behavior change must be provided for education to have an impact. The discussion of prevention activities featured the use of education, information, and communication (IEC) programs to execute mass campaigns, focus interventions, and provide monitoring and evaluation. Specific prevention activities discussed were condom usage, outreach to persons with sexually transmitted diseases, and blood safety. There were separate presentations on the status of blood transfusion programs and vaccine development. 10 issues were identified by the GCA that warrant priority attention in the early 1990s. These critical issues are research, complacency and abatement of a sense of urgency, preservation and protection of human rights and legal issues, equity of access, human sexuality, women and AIDS, AIDS as a disease affecting families, HIV/AIDS and drug use, economic and social implications of HIV/AIDS, and the collation and improvement of data.
Breastfeeding, breast milk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Statement from the Consultation held in Geneva, 23-25 June, 1987.
WHO REPORT. 1988; 1-2.Recommendations from a consultation on breastfeeding, breast milk and HIV infection held by the Global Programme on AIDS and the Division of Family Health of the WHO in June 1987 are summarized. 20 participants from 15 countries, experts in epidemiology, immunology, virology, pediatrics and nutrition attended. There is a 25-30% chance that HIV will be transmitted from mother to infant during the perinatal period. Whether HIV can be transmitted via breast milk is unknown and risk is thought to be small. While there is 1 report of HIV cultured from breast milk, and a few cases of mothers infected after delivery by blood transfusions who transmitted HIV to their infants by breastfeeding, there are many reports of infected mothers breastfeeding without infecting their infants. Breast milk is still the best food for infants for immunologic, nutritional, psychological and child-spacing benefits. It is recommended that breastfeeding continue to be promoted in both developing and developed countries, regardless of HIV status. The use of pooled human milk is the second best mode of infant feeding. Pasteurization at 56 degrees C. for 30 minutes will inactivate HIV. Wet nurses should be chosen with care.
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].
[Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.
[Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
[Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
Equilibres et Populations. 2001 May; (68):3.Poverty facilitates the development of disease, but at the same time, by attacking developing countries’ active populations, disease frustrates countries’ capacity to organize and produce. AIDS’ devastating effects upon poor countries threatens the development process. On the heels of the UN Conference on Underdeveloped Countries, UNFPA and IPPF dedicated a day to explore the links between AIDS and poverty. Following the notion that AIDS should lie at the core of all development aid policies, a new global fund against AIDS and infectious diseases has been developed. It will be administered by an independent council comprised of representatives from donor and recipient countries, the UN, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. The fund’s resources will be used to implement recipient country strategies, based upon needs in the field and already existing capacities. The private sector and the pharmaceutical industry have very important, yet still undefined roles. Efforts must certainly be made to enable developing countries to develop or build, together with their healthcare system infrastructure, pharmaceutical supply policies together with the World Health Organization, major industry groups, and international partners. Prior to mobilizing fund resources, agreements will have to be worked out with the pharmaceutical industry, while diversifying product demand concerns and implementing a differential pricing system.
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb.  p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1996; 3(1-2):1-14.In the space of two and a half decades, documentation of African rural women's work lives has moved from state of dearth to plethora. Awareness of women's arduous workday, and the importance of women agriculturists to national economies are now commonplace among African policy-makers and western donor agencies. Throughout the dramatic upheaval in African development policy of recent years, as state and market forces realign, donor agencies have consistently espoused a concern to improve the material conditions and status of rural women's working day throughout sub-Saharan Africa overwhelm donor's scattered projects directed at alleviating women's workload. The central question posed is how external donor agencies can extend beyond localized project efforts to help provide the material foundation for widespread change in women's working day of a self-determining nature. Still local in scale and last on the agenda, will measures to address women's work be elevated to a more central position in international development program efforts in sub-Saharan Africa? (author's)
POPLINE. 2001 May-Jun; 23:3.This article reports on rapid population growth as a global challenge, requiring action on the part of both developed and developing countries. This was delivered by the executive director of the UN Population Fund, Thoraya Obaid during the 34th session of the UN Commission on Population and Development meeting. She noted that lack of resources remains one of the major obstacles in achieving the implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development Plan of Action (ICPD). However, she still welcomes the continued mainstreaming of the ICPD Plan of Action into the global development agenda. In addition, she was pleased with the European Union's reaffirmation of its member states' commitment to reach the target of 0.7% of the gross national product for overseas development assistance. She also welcomed Japan's establishment of a Human Security Fund within the UN to help programs and agencies to effectively address population, environment and poverty eradication issues.
[World Health Organization (WHO) eligibility criteria for oral contraceptive use. Part 2] Criterios de la OMS de elegibilidad para el uso de anticonceptivos(segunda parte).
BOLETIN INFORMATIVO. 1996 Nov-Dec; (26):4-9.New medical criteria for IUDs and barrier methods defined by the World Health Organization in 1995 to reflect development of safer methods are presented. Health conditions are classified into four categories. Category 2 conditions need not restrict use of a method but should be considered when a method is chosen. Category 3 conditions require careful consideration of the gravity of the case, the availability of alternative methods, and access to emergency services, as well as careful follow-up. Many conditions that had been considered contraindications to IUD use are no longer regarded as risk factors with copper IUDs. Use is unrestricted for women over 20, smokers, the obese, lactating women, those with a history of preeclampsia, ectopic pregnancy, epilepsy, diabetes, and many other conditions. Age under 20 and nulliparity are category 2 conditions because of the risk of expulsion. Severe menstrual bleeding, under 48 hours postpartum, uterine-cervical abnormalities not deforming the uterus, and a few other conditions are in category 2. Category 3 conditions in which risks outweigh advantages include 48 hours to 4 weeks postpartum, benign gestational trophoblastic disorders, elevated risk of HIV/AIDS or HIV infection. Category 4 conditions precluding use of IUDs include pregnancy; puerperal sepsis or septic abortion; uterine abnormality incompatible with insertion; vaginal bleeding of unknown cause; gestational trophoblastic malignancy; cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer; pelvic tuberculosis; and sexually transmitted disease within three months. Almost all conditions are in category 1 and none are in category 4 for use of barrier methods, but their relatively high failure rates should be kept in mind. Allergy to latex is a category 3 condition for condoms and diaphragms and history of toxic shock syndrome is a category 3 for diaphragms.
[World Health Organization (WHO) eligibility criteria for contraceptive use] Criterios de la OMS de elegibilidad para el uso de anticonceptivos.
BOLETIN INFORMATIVO. 1996 Sep-Oct; (25):8-10.Two World Health Organization expert working groups reviewing eligibility criteria for use of various contraceptive methods defined new medical criteria which were published in 1995. Contraceptive usage has increased greatly in recent decades, but many couples have no access to modern methods, in part because of overly restrictive policies of family planning programs. The reduction of estrogen doses, development of progestin-only methods, widespread use of copper IUDs and declining use of nonmedicated IUDs, and results of clinical and epidemiological studies created a need for reexamination of prescription practices. The resulting four-part classification is based on evaluation of health risks and benefits, ranging from category 1 with no restrictions, through categories 2 and 3 in which advantages exceed risks or vice versa, to category 4 in which the risk is unacceptable and the method should not be used. The study concluded that many criteria restricting use of high estrogen OCs are not applicable to low dose combined OCs. Eligibility criteria for progestin-only methods are generally less restrictive than for combined OCs. Most of the medical conditions reviewed did not contraindicate use of IUDs. The advantages of contraceptive use generally exceeded the theoretical or proven risks associated with a method, regardless of the woman’s age. Vaginal bleeding of unknown cause was considered to correspond to category 3 or 4. No restrictions on use of any method studied existed for many specific medical conditions, such as thyroid disease or epilepsy. Clinical and laboratory examinations are unnecessary if the medical history is correctly recorded. Women using hormonal methods or IUDs who are at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases should be advised to use condoms in addition to the regular method.
Lancet. 2001 Jan 6; 357(9249):1.The year 2000 marked a turning point in public perception of globalization and its effects on poorer nations. A key force behind this awareness-raising process was Jubilee 2000, an international movement advocating a debt-free start to the millennium for a billion people. In response, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund announced during the closing days of 2000 that debt relief for 22 countries had been approved. However, there is clearly still a long way to go, especially where the links between indebtedness and poor health are concerned. Although these efforts at debt relief that could improve public health for the most highly indebted developing countries are a step in the right direction, the countries concerned will still be paying on average 0.5 times more on remaining debt service than on health. Critics argue that access to such relief demands continued adherence to the structural adjustment model, which, since its inception in the early 1980s, has been undermining HIV/AIDS control. It is noted that the shift to export-oriented economics was leading to social changes such as increased mobility, migration, urbanization, and dislocation of family units, favoring HIV spread in the developing world. The solution, critics contend, is ending loans and channeling international assistance into grants for the poorest nations.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 2000 Jun; 26(2):413-7.This article is a reprint of the executive summary of the UN Population Division report entitled "Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Population?" The UN report computed the size of replacement migration and investigated the possible effects of replacement migration on the population size and age structure for eight countries and two regions that have a common fertility pattern of below the replacement level for the period 1995-2050. Major findings revealed that, the populations of most developed countries are projected to become smaller and older as a result of below-replacement fertility and increased longevity. In the absence of migration, these declines in population size will be even greater than projected. Therefore, the challenges being brought about by the decline and aging population will require objective, thorough, and comprehensive reassessments of many established economic, social and political policies and programs, in particular the replacement migration.