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  1. 701

    [Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)

    This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.
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  2. 702

    Recurrent costs: problems in less developed countries.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 24 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Inadequate budgeting for recurrent costs is a serious problems in many less developed countries (LDC). The problem is defined and analyzed and recommendations are made in reference to the way US Agency for International Development (USAID) Missions should respond to the problem. Recurrent costs are costs that recur throughout the lifetime of a project, e.g., road maintenance costs, teacher's salaries, and medical supplies for clinics. If a project such, as a road, generates sufficient money, or output, it is usually more profitable for a country to budget for the recurring costs of maintaing the road rather than to use the money for investing in a new project with initial costs, i.e., high investment and fixed costs. The output from the road would probably be greater than the output from the new project because of these high initial costs. When a country does not allocate money for recurring costs for existing projects, which have potentially high outputs, the country is defined as having a recurring cost problem. Many LDCs recipients are experiencing serious economic crises due to adverse international market conditions Thes countries will find it increasingly difficult to allocate money to cover the cost of maintaining USAID projects. There are 3 major reasons why LDCs have recurring cost problems. 1st, donor policies often contribute to the problem because the generally restrict funding to capital investment and refuse to cover recurring costs in the mistaken belief that it is better to use funds for growth rather than consumption, that it promotes self-reliance on the part of the recipient country, and that the recipient country will be more committed to the project if they have to maintain it. 2nd, policies in recipient countries are sometimes responsible for recurring cost problems because 1) the countries fail to raise adequate revenues, 2) they misallocate funds for political reasons or for services they cannot afford to provide, and 3) they are straddled with poorly designed projects that have high recurring costs but small outputs. Procedures are suggested for determining whether a country currrently has a recurrent cost problem and for assessing whether a country will develop a recurrent cost problem in the near future. Solutions to the problem are 1) allocation of a greater proportion of the countries revenues to recurrent costs, 2) reducing investment in new projects, 3) increasing revenues, and 4) ensuring that recurrent costs are kept to a minimun in any new projects. Appropriate USAID responses depend on the cause, USAID Missions should persuade the country to undertake reforms. If a LDC refuses to modify its poliies, USAID should consider reducing the level of assistance to that country. If the LDC's policies are appropriate but there is still a recurrent cost problem, USAID Missions should consider funding some of the recurrent costs.
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  3. 703

    Food and agricultural development.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
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  4. 704


    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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  5. 705
    Peer Reviewed

    Refugees in developing countries and transnational organization.

    Gordenker L

    Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1983 May; 467:62-77.

    Large Scale refugee flows, typically koccurring in developing countries, inspire the formation of transnational networks that pose new issues of policy Making, direction, execution, and legitimacy. Institutional responses to the presence of refugees, often in the poorest and least well-administered areas on earth, comprise reactions at the local, national, and transnational levels, including both intergovernmental and voluntary organizations. These responses produce ad hoc organizational entities to deal with unanticipated difficulties. Even after news of a refugee flow is spread, governments can still adopt an isolating policy but more likely will be forced to turn to such transnational networks for help. In a widely felt political disturbance, the positions of the great powers will have a substantial conditioning effect on the handling of refugees. Whatever the pattern of response, refugees tend to involve the asylum state in transnational networks in order to cope with local repercussions as well as care of those in flight. Later, the emphasis may well shift from emergency to diplomatic networks is shifting and unpredictable, conditioned by specific circumstances. Nevertheless, the High Commissioner for Refugees and other intergovenmental bodies serve as natural nuclei for expansion. More integrated modes of organization currently are of doubtful utility. (author's)
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  6. 706

    The social dimensions of development: social policy and planning in the Third World.

    Hardiman M; Midgley J

    Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1982. 317 p.

    This textbook provides basic information on social policies aimes at improving the welfare of the populations in developing countried and assessing the effectiveness of the major social policies which have been applied to the problems of poverty in these countried. The book is an outgrowth of experience gained in teaching a course in social policy and planning at London School of Economics. The focus is on social policied rather than on social planning techniques, and the central theme is that state intervention and the implementation of social policies are a necessary prerequisite for improving the welfare of the inhabitants of 3rd World countried. The chapter defines underdevelopment. It stresses the need for governments to develop social policies in accordance with their needs and resources and to develop policies which will redistribute resources to the most seriously disadvantaged segments of their population. The 2nd chapter defines poverty, describes the basic inequalities in living standards and income which exist in 3rd World countries, and discuss the major theories which have been put forward to explain poverty. The next 5 chapters discuss the problems of population growth, rural and urban development, health, and housing. The various policied which have been formulated to deal with each of these problems are described and compared in regard to their effectiveness. The next chapter discusses social work and the problems associated with the development of social welfare services in developing countries. The final chapter deals with international issues and assesses. The value of bilateral and multilateral aid. Major assumptions underlying the presentation of the material are 1)poverty impedes development, 2)poverty will not disappear without government intervention, 3)economic development by itself cannot reduce poverty, 4)poverty is the result of social factors rather than the result of inadequacies on the part of poor indiciduals, 5)socialpolicies and programs formulated to deal with problems in the developed countries are inappropriate for application in developing countries; 6)social policies must reflect the needs of each country; and 7)social planning should be an interdisciplinary endeavor and should utilize knowledge derived from all the social sciences.
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  7. 707

    Technical co-operation in population programmes in Africa since the 1974 World Population Conference.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    [Unpublished] 1983 Sep. 16. 5 p. (E/ECA/POP/7 International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers)

    This paper reviews the technical assistance provided to African countries since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) in the fields of demographic training, data evaluation and analysis, and incorporation of population factors in development planning. The paper focuses on the substantive aspects of the technical cooperation provided to African countries in these areas from 1974 to 1983. The cooperation was provided essentially in response to the expressed needs and requests of member states for developing their national capabilities to undertake data analysis and evaluation and to use the results to formulate appropriate population policies and implement them as part of national development programs. The ultimate goal is to improve national capacities in these fields so that countries may achieve self reliance in handling their population programs. Almost without exception, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been the source of funding for DTCD executed population projects. In the area of demographic training, the training needs, especially from the priority countries in Africa, have yet to be fully met and in all countries there still remains the need for short term training in special demographic expertise and an exchange of interregional experiences. In the area of demographic evaluation and analysis, greater support is required for evaluation and analysis of relevant demographic phenomena, e.g. internal and international migration and the utilization of demographic software packages. Technical cooperation is needed in the areas of population and development so that emerging phenomena (e.g. population growth, especially in urban areas) can be dealt with by evolving suitable population policies and implanting these within overall national development plans. The world financial crisis has hindered the increasing trend in technical cooperation in demographic training, analysis and overall population policies and it is hoped that this situation will improve.
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  8. 708

    Report of the four day seminar--population, family welfare and community development.

    Kiribati. Ministry of Home Affairs; United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]; International Labour Office [ILO]

    Tarawa, Kiribati, Ministry of Home Affairs. 130 p.

    This document is a report on a seminar held at the University of the South Pacific Center, Tarawa, from August 23-26, 1983, sponsored by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The report begins with an overview of the geography of the islands, and 11 consolidates seminar recommendations concerning population planning to address the 2.24% population growth rate, improvement of family life, program level, decentralization of population and services, economic activities, local level groups, training programs, and local community centers. Individual group reports follow: community development/national development, and youth and family welfare. A Ministry of Finance report gives population statistics by island. Other reports are given by the Ministries of Health, Trade Industry and Labor, Education, Natural Resources, and Home Affairs and Decentralization. The ILO delegate papers cover the labor and population program of the ILO, family welfare as an important segment of working women's activity, objectives of family life education, and contract labor equity and migration in Kiribati. There is a brief survey of UNFPA programs in the area. Non-governmental organization delegates presenting included National Women's Federation of Kiribati, the Kiribati Trades Union Congress, the Save the Children Foundation, the Roman Catholic Mission, the Kiribati Protestant Church, and the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Concluding the report are seminar notes on questions and answers to the questions that did not otherwise appear in the report, and a list of speeches, seminar programs, and seminar participants.
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  9. 709

    Telecommunications in developing countries: constraints on development.

    Saunders RJ

    In: Communication economics and development, edited by Meheroo Jussawalla [and] D. M. Lamberton. Elmsford, New York, Pergamon, 1982. 190-210. (Pergamon Policy Studies on International Development)

    This chapter focuses on economic aspects of the provision of telephone service in developing countries. Whereas developed countries have 10-50 telephones/100 population, developing countries have under 5/100. There is a large excess demand for telecommunications services in developing countries, and the measurable returns on the investment required to provide these services are reasonably high. Reasons cited for the lack of investment in telecommunications in developing countries include the World Bank's limitation of its involvement to that of lender of last resort, a lack of enumeration of the benefits of telecommunications investment relative to what is done in other sectors, a perception that such investments confer direct benefits only to a privileged portion of the population, tariff policies, and institutional and organizational problems within and outside the telecommunications operating entities. However, further analysis indicates that most of these factors are not valid obstacles, and there is a need for more detailed information sector analysis in developing countries to clarify the economic and social advantages of such investment. Applied research approaches to the economics of telecommunications in developing countries include macroeconomic, locational/sectoral, microeconomic, tariff, and distributional analyses. Such analyses provide a fairly consistent picture of the role of telecommunications in development as well as the value and limitations of various approaches. There appears to be no real alternative to a case-by-case microeconomic approach in which some form of cost-benefit analysis is applied to specific telecommunications investment projects. Unfortunately, the necessary data bases are not available. Thus, the only practical means remaining is to follow market signals. Such tariff studies, directed toward questions of economic efficiency, can be supplemented with distributional analyses.
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  10. 710

    The population project: organization and inputs.

    Prasartkul P; Sethaput C; Havanon N

    In: Impact, effectiveness and efficiency of the AFPH programs on family planning status in 20 provinces, [compiled by] Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]. Bangkok, Thailand, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1983. 3-9. (IPSR Publication No. 76)

    The Population Project, implemented by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand, has as its goal the integration of family planning with existing public health services. 20 provinces were selected for the project from 1979-1982. Thailand's population policy, instituted in 1970, was aimed at reducing the growth rate, which had inhibited national development. The plan featured 2 5-year plans, and the Population Project was designed to meet the goals of these plans. The strategies to achieve these goals include: expansion and improvement of family planning services; training of public health personnel; expansion of information services; and increased evaluation and research on family planning. Financial aid for the project came from the World Bank, as well as various international governmental aid agencies. It was estimated that to achieve the reduced growth rate goal, 3 million new contraceptive acceptors and 1.6 million continuing users were required. The project operated on 2 levels, national and provincial. On the national level, training of non-medical personnel and expansion of family planning services were the aims. On the provincial level, the project's objective was to accelerate the expansion of family planning services in rural areas of 20 provinces that were characterized by low rates of family planning practice. The project was administered by the ministry of Public Health, with operation of the project under the Central Operation Unit, Provincial Operation Unit, and the Central Coordination Unit. The 5 levels of operation were: village; tambon; district; provincial; and national. Activities included service, training, communication, evaluation and research, and administrative management. By September 1981, the project realized an increase in health centers in rural areas, an increase in non-medical personnel, and the provision of additional vehicles. These inputs were realized across all 20 provinces participating in the project.
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  11. 711


    U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, May 1982. 12 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Estimates indicate that 600 million people in less developed countries (LDCs) are in danger of not getting enough to eat. This policy paper reviews the justifications for US investment in improving nutrition in LDCs and sets out some policy guidelines for USAID programs. The objective of the nutrition policy is to maximize the nutritional impact of USAID's economic assistance. The policy recommendations are to place the highest priority on alleviating undernutrition through sectoral programs which incorporate nutrition as a factor in decision making. This can be effected through identifying projects based upon analysis of food consumption problems; this is especially appropriate in formulating country development strategies, especially in the areas of agriculture, rural development, education and health. USAID will give increasing attention, through research, analysis, experimental projects, and programs, to improve the ability to utilize the private sector whenever feasible to implement the policy, and to target projects to at-risk groups with the design of overcoming or minimizing constraints to meeting their nutritional needs. It will also monitor the impacts of development projects and strengthen the capacity of indigenous organizations to analyze and overcome nutrition problems.
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  12. 712

    A neglected area in the field of population and human rights: aging and the aged.

    World Assembly on Aging

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population and human rights: proceedings of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, Vienna, 29 June-3 July 1981. New York, New York, United Nations, 1983. 102-9.

    Until 1948, only a few developed countries had been concerned with aging as an issue. However, this situation is currently changing, and it is expected to change considerably in the near future, since both the number and proportion of the aged in the population are projected to increase a great deal. This is an unprecedented situation for many developing countries, and appropriate responses have yet to be developed. It is in this context that the Secretary-General of the UN prepared for the World Assembly on Aging held in July 1982 a draft program and suggested that there should be a declaration on the rights of the aged. 2 kinds of issues have been identified; 1) humanitarian issues such as health, housing environment, social welfare, income security, education, and the family, and 2) developmental issues. From the humanitarian point of view, it is the individual rights of the aged that are most identifiable; e.g., the rights to assistance, accommodation, food, clothing, care of physical and moral health, recreation, work, stability, and respect. 2 demographic aspects need to be considered: 1) because of differentials in mortality, in many countries the aged group is composed of a majority of women; and 2) the aged can be disabled to some extent or for certain periods during their later years. This gives rise to the question of special rights for the aged. With the increase in the numbers and proportions of the aged, their rights have direct implication for development--cost can be a limiting factor in the exercise of a right. 1 of the objectives derived from the principles of the Declaratin on Social Progress and Development is "the establishment and improvement of social security and insurance schemes for all persons who, because of illness, disability, or old age, are temporarily or permanently unable to earn a living..." Thus human rights have an important role to play in ensuring that the aged remain active participants and enjoy their contribution to development.
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  13. 713

    Standard-setting activities of the United Nations system concerning the relationship between population matters and human rights, 1973-1980.

    United Nations. Division of Human Rights

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population and human rights: proceedings of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, Vienna, 29 June-3 July 1981. New York, New York, United Nations, 1983. 48-62. (ST/ESA/SER.R/51)

    During the past decade, within the context of a broad reappraisal of international development programs, the UN has tended to espouse a broad approach to population and human rights issues, relating them to developmental concerns and policies. The UN has adopted new instruments having a bearing of these issues, 2 of which are summarized in the text, the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order. The background paper submitted by the Division of Human Rights to the 1st Symposium on Population and Human Rights contained a thorough analysis of UN human right norms concerning marriage and the family and the right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of children, including the provision of information and education in family planning as well as the means. During the International Year of the Child attention was drawn to the rights of children and the family. In 1975, the World Conference of the International Women's Year recognized the necessity, in the process of integrating women in development, of providing them with educational opportunities, adequate maternal-child health services, and family planning services. In the areas of mortality, morbidity, and health, WHO's long-term objective of "Health for all by the Year 2000" is relevant to the rights of an adequate standard of living, adequate food, and adequate health services. The UN has also addressed itself to human rights and international migration adopting a number of resolutions regarding the refugee problem, mass exodus, and migrant workers.
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  14. 714

    A seminar for Women Leaders: Population and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean. Basseterre, St. Kitts, 22-24 November 1983. Report.

    Seminar for Women Leaders: Population and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean (1983: St. Kitts-Nevis)

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983. [4], 34 p.

    This publication contains a record of the proceedings of the Seminar for Women Leaders on Population and Development in the English-speaking Caribbean, which took place in Basseterre, St. Kitts from November 22-24, 1983. The 1st part of the document consists of the St. Kitts Declaration on the Role of Women in Population and Development, whose objective is to enhance the participation of women in all aspects of population and development programs. The declaration provides over 30 recommendations to achieve that goal. These recommendations are grouped according to the following areas: data collection and analysis, the family, family planning, family life and sex education, adolescent fertility, legislation, national institution building, nongovernmental organizations, financial and technical support, economic participation of women, women's organizations, and the 1984 International Conference on Population held in Mexico. The 2nd section of the publication reports on the organization of the seminar. In line with the objective of the declaration, the seminar focused on the following themes: 1) the socioeconomic conditions of the region, with a special emphasis of their impact on women; 2) the need for international assistance to deal with these social concerns; 3) the courses of action needed to mobilize resources; and 4) linkages between the concern of women and the upcoming International Conference. The report also contains a schedule of the inaugural session and a list of the technical documents presented during the seminar. Finally, the annexes provide transcripts of the speeches given during the conference.
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  15. 715

    Profiles in population assistance. A comparative review of the principal donor agencies.

    Wolfson M

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre, 1983. (Development Centre Studies)

    This study examines in detail the effects of different donors' aid-giving systems in the area of population assistance. An analysis of the problems encountered in implementing population assistance is relevant as a guide to improving aid implementation in other social development sectors. Included are 1) bilateral donor agencies: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD); Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), and Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (ODA). 2) multilateral donors: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and The World Bank; and 3) non-governmental donors: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and The Pathfinder Fund. Since the aid procedures and practices of these agencies cannot be properly appreciated except in the context of the agency as a whole, each chapter begins with a brief description of the agency, its approach to problems of population, and the criteria that it applies to its population programs. Information was gathered by means of interviews with each of the agencies, supplemented by interviews in a number of recipient countries to ascertain the views of the officials directly concerned with the implementation of population programs. The countries selected for this purpose are Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia and Kenya: all receive substantial population assistance from a variety of donors. The changing scope of population assistance and the diverse range of activities and services that may be included under such a heading, the criteria for priority aid recipients, the size of projects and donors' views regarding problems encountered and the responses adopted in terms of aid, local and recurrent costs, salaries, administrative and managerial capability, maintenance and training are addressed. Also examined are donors' aid procedures and practices in respect to programming, project preparation, field missions, consultants, procurement, disbursement, reporting, accounting and auditing and also their arrangements for coordination of population activities with those of other donors.
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