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  1. 51

    [World Health Organization (WHO) eligibility criteria for contraceptive use] Criterios de la OMS de elegibilidad para el uso de anticonceptivos.

    Pozo Avalos A

    BOLETIN INFORMATIVO. 1996 Sep-Oct; (25):8-10.

    Two World Health Organization expert working groups reviewing eligibility criteria for use of various contraceptive methods defined new medical criteria which were published in 1995. Contraceptive usage has increased greatly in recent decades, but many couples have no access to modern methods, in part because of overly restrictive policies of family planning programs. The reduction of estrogen doses, development of progestin-only methods, widespread use of copper IUDs and declining use of nonmedicated IUDs, and results of clinical and epidemiological studies created a need for reexamination of prescription practices. The resulting four-part classification is based on evaluation of health risks and benefits, ranging from category 1 with no restrictions, through categories 2 and 3 in which advantages exceed risks or vice versa, to category 4 in which the risk is unacceptable and the method should not be used. The study concluded that many criteria restricting use of high estrogen OCs are not applicable to low dose combined OCs. Eligibility criteria for progestin-only methods are generally less restrictive than for combined OCs. Most of the medical conditions reviewed did not contraindicate use of IUDs. The advantages of contraceptive use generally exceeded the theoretical or proven risks associated with a method, regardless of the woman’s age. Vaginal bleeding of unknown cause was considered to correspond to category 3 or 4. No restrictions on use of any method studied existed for many specific medical conditions, such as thyroid disease or epilepsy. Clinical and laboratory examinations are unnecessary if the medical history is correctly recorded. Women using hormonal methods or IUDs who are at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases should be advised to use condoms in addition to the regular method.
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  2. 52

    Female genital mutilation: United Nations action.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug. [2] p.

    This paper provides a chronology on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) being tackled by the UN and its agencies since the early 1950s. In 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights raised the issue of FGM for the first time. In 1980, the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women, in Copenhagen, appealed to African governments and Women's Organizations to seek solutions to the problem of female circumcision and infibulation. The WHO in 1982 made a formal statement of its position regarding FGM to the UN Human Rights Commission. In addition, it expressed unequivocal opposition to the medicalization of the practice in any setting, readiness to support national efforts aimed at eliminating the practice, and strongly advises health workers not to perform female circumcision under any conditions. Moreover, in 1995, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen refers to FGM, reinforcing the International Conference on Population and Development recommendations. The Platform of Action of the World Conference on Women in Beijing includes a section on the girl child and urged governments, international organizations and nongovernmental groups to develop policies and programs to eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child including FGM.
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  3. 53

    Female genital mutilation: WHO statement.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug. [2] p.

    The WHO is concerned with the traditional practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); therefore, it has carried out activities that combat this practice. Over the last 15 years, these activities have included: preparation of informational material by staff members and consultants, particularly on the health consequences and the epidemiology of FGM; support to incorporate this material into appropriate training courses for various categories of health workers; technical and financial support to national surveys; convening and collaborating in conferences and seminars on FGM; holding consultations to clarify and unify approaches; and disseminating information on FGM. All these efforts have culminated in the adoption, by the World Health Assembly 1994, of Resolution WHA 47.10, urging governments to take measures to eliminate traditional practices harmful to the health of women and children, particularly FGM.
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  4. 54

    Female genital mutilation: preventing medicalization.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug. [1] p.

    Traditional birth attendants or traditional practitioners are the ones who perform female genital mutilation (FGM) in most rural communities. Due to the increasing awareness of the adverse health consequences, health workers have become involved in performing FGM, which has led to the “medicalization” of the procedure in a number of countries. This paper discusses the efforts of the WHO, together with other UN agencies to prevent the medicalization of all forms of FGM. The WHO has assured governments of its readiness to support national efforts towards the elimination of FGM, to continue collaboration in research related to prevalence, types and consequences of FGM and to disseminate information about the findings.
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  5. 55

    HIV vaccines advocacy: the role of UNAIDS. Research and accessibility.

    Piot P

    TB AND HIV QUARTERLY. 1996 Jun-Aug; (11):7-9.

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) on the role of UNAIDS in the advocacy of HIV vaccines. Piot stressed that an efficient HIV vaccine, truly protective against HIV infection, could make all the difference in the campaign against AIDS. To this effect, the role of the UNAIDS is to carry out advocacy in favor of research as well as to collaborate with the diverse private initiatives that already exist. Commenting on the issue of guaranteed accessibility of HIV vaccine for developing countries, Piot states that it is possible to sell the product through seeking the support of donor organizations. When vaccine trials in a country are supported, it will also be made sure that the basic guarantees exist for making that product accessible to the population. Moreover, considering the impact of the pandemic on the business and economic community, Piot emphasized that alliance between the public and private sector is necessary in the struggle against AIDS. In general, the role of UNAIDS in the evaluation of a preventive vaccine for HIV is centered around communication, impact on community, and impact on prevention programs.
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  6. 56

    Incorporating indicators into reproductive health projects.

    Shrestha L

    In: Measuring the achievements and costs of reproductive health programs. Report of a meeting of the Working Group on Reproductive Health and Family Planning, the World Bank, June 24-25, 1996. [Unpublished] 1996. 20-4.

    This paper discusses the impact of incorporating indicators into reproductive health projects. The Human Development Department was tasked by the World Bank to develop strategies for improving the monitoring and evaluation of Bank projects in related sectors. The first effort involved the selection of key indicators for family planning projects. It was then followed by the Cairo conference and documents developed by Anne Tinker and colleagues for women's health and nutrition. These documents aimed to provide guidance to Bank task managers on the types of indicators that might be used to monitor and evaluate projects. Initially, the process of developing the lists of indicators was to define reproductive health. This was then followed by identifying the different types of indicators that might address concerns in each area, while drawing heavily from the work of the Evaluation Project and others. Lastly, this paper presents the discussion on the specific components of the World Bank indicators model.
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  7. 57

    NGO Standing Committee at UNESCO. Contribution, Habitat II - City Summit.

    NGO Standing Committee at UNESCO

    Paris, France, NGO Standing Committee at UNESCO, [1996]. [4] p.

    This paper summarizes the contributions and the 15 propositions of the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Standing Committee at UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the Habitat II-City Summit. It also includes the international NGO seminar at UNESCO on "City Dweller, Citizen" held on March 1996. In accordance with its ethical mission, UNESCO has oriented its action for the Habitat II towards the themes of solidarity and of citizenship in the spirit of peace and of conservation of the environment. The Permanent Committee of NGOs accredited to UNESCO, elected by the Conference of the 585 NGOs having official relationships with UNESCO, is deeply involved in the programs and research undertaken by UNESCO.
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  8. 58

    Women's caucus advocacy chart.

    Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO]

    New York, New York, WEDO, 1996 Jun 1. 17 p.

    This Advocacy Chart complements the Women's Caucus line-by-line Recommendations on Bracketed Text offered to all government and nongovernment delegates from the Women's Caucus. With over one-half of Habitat Agenda in bracket, the Women's Caucus is focusing its advocacy efforts on ensuring positive outcomes from a gender perspective on the outstanding issues be negotiated by delegates. This chart clusters the various brackets under the following headings: Gender Equality, Human Rights, Economics, Environment and Sustainable Human Settlements, Health, Peace, and Implementation and Finance. Previously agreed UN language, which supports their position of retaining or amending much of what is in brackets, is also presented. It is hoped that this chart will be useful in their efforts to ensure that all the hard-won achievements of the global women's movements at previous UN conferences be reaffirmed and promoted.
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  9. 59

    Advancement of women: report of the Third Committee. Traffic in women and girls. Adopted Resolution II (51/66).

    Sandru V

    [Unpublished] 1996 Nov 27. Fifty-first session, Agenda item 103. [6] p. (A/51/612)

    This paper presents the report of the 3rd Committee during the 51st session of the UN General Assembly concerning the issue of trafficking in women and girls. In recognizing the increasing number of women and girls who are victims of trafficking, the General Assembly is convinced of the need to eliminate all forms of violence and sexual trafficking, including prostitution and other forms of commercial sex. The Assembly realizes the urgent need for the adoption of effective measures to protect women and girls from this nefarious traffic. Governments and countries of origin, transit and destination, and regional and international organizations are called to implement the Platform for Action of the 4th World Conference on Women. In addition, governments are invited to accord standard minimum humanitarian treatment to trafficked persons, consistent with human rights standards, and to support the UN in formulating manuals for training of personnel who take charge of victims of gender-based violence, including trafficking. Relevant UN organizations are likewise encouraged to support this effort. It also calls upon all governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls and to condemn and penalize all offenders. Governments concerned are further urged to take steps to assist women and children victims of transnational trafficking to return home and be reintegrated in their home societies. In addition, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights is invited to address the obstacles to the realization of human rights of women.
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  10. 60

    Equity in health and health care: a WHO / SIDA initiative.

    Braveman P; Tarimo E; Creese A; Monasch R; Nelson L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Analysis, Research and Assessment, 1996. iv, 51 p. (WHO/ARA/96.1)

    This booklet presents the WHO global initiative for equity in health and health care that aims to promote and support practical policies and action to reduce avoidable social gaps in health and health care. The initiative builds on work conducted over the last 3 decades, towards health for all by the WHO and other agencies, but is based on a critical reassessment of needs and strategies in view of current economic, social and political conditions prevailing throughout the world. The objectives of the initiative are 1) to make the reduction of social gaps in health and health care a priority on the agendas for policy and action of national and international organizations; 2) to support targeted research and ongoing monitoring activities needed to develop and evaluate effective and efficient policies to reduce social gaps in health and health care; and 3) to promote and support international exchange of experiences likely to be effective and efficient in reducing social gaps in health and health care. In coordination with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the WHO has funded initial planning and development and projects that are now under way in one African country and one Asian country. Meanwhile, nongovernmental and governmental organizations in several other countries have expressed interest in participating. Additional sources of support are needed to expand and further develop the initiative, linking it with complementary effort.
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  11. 61

    Statement on quality of care. [Summary of key points].

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. International Medical Advisory Panel [IMAP]; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. International Medical Advisory Panel [IMAP]; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. International Women's Advisory Panel

    [Unpublished] [1996]. [3] p.

    This paper presents a summary of the key points of a statement on quality of care that was developed jointly by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) technical expert panels. Quality of care is an essential element of the IPPF Strategic Plan, called Vision 2000, which places the following challenge before the IPPF: successfully addressing the need for quality of care is the key to the future viability and continued credibility of IPPF and family planning associations (FPAs) as the conscience of the family planning movement. In order to provide quality of care, the clients' rights and the providers' needs have to be addressed. Following this framework recognizes the rights of clients to information, access, choice, safety, privacy, confidentiality, dignity, comfort, continuity, and self-expression. Providers, for their part, should have the following needs met: training, up-to-date information, adequate physical infrastructure and family planning supplies. Quality of care at the strategic level should involve aspects of advocacy, access to education and services, as well as monitoring. The role of IPPF and FPAs in demonstrating quality of care is discussed. In brief, it is the responsibility of FPAs to ensure that quality of care is provided within whatever is available, and to devise an effective, permeating and sustained environment and system for improved quality of care.
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  12. 62

    The effects of armed conflict on girls. A discussion paper for the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children.

    Almquist K; Muhumuza R; Westwood D

    Monrovia, California, World Vision International, 1996 Jul. 35 p. (World Vision Staff Working Paper No. 23)

    This preliminary discussion paper on The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls undertaken within the context of the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, aimed to determine whether girls suffer more, less, or at least differently from boys. In conducting the study it was attempted to pull together the experiences of various World Vision programs working with girls in the following areas: 1) their active participation in armed conflicts; 2) the particular vulnerabilities they face due to displacement; 3) their health and nutrition; 4) their traditional roles; and 5) the targeting of girls for violence and abuse. The evidence that was collected indicated that while there was commonality in the experiences of boys and girls, girls were affected in different ways to boys by armed conflict. The most significant differences were the targeting of girls for sexual abuse and rape, with the psychological and physical needs this induces, and the lack of reproductive health services to meet even the most basic needs of girls and women. The paper helps to raise awareness of some of the particular vulnerabilities of girls in armed conflicts, and highlights some possible research hypotheses for more comprehensive study.
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  13. 63

    Donor support for contraceptive commodities.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. iii, 12 p. (Technical Report No. 32; E/800/1996)

    This UN Population Fund (UNFPA) technical report presents information on donated contraceptive commodities for developing countries during 1992-94 based on the database maintained by the Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs in Developing Countries. Established in March 1993, this database serves as a practical and useful repository of information on donated contraceptive commodities, which includes condoms for HIV/AIDS prevention. Findings indicate that support provided by the US Agency for International Development has varied, while support from UNFPA has steadily increased. In addition, oral contraceptive and condoms constituted the major part of the expenditure which was distributed in 167 countries and territories, with over half of all these expenditures were received by Bangladesh, Philippines, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya and Mexico. Comparing the estimated requirements of contraceptive costs with the donated support reveals a large gap, which could be attributed to the fact that the contraceptive requirements of the region have been largely met by local production and national procurement. To end, this paper emphasizes the need for a more prospective-oriented data system in the face of the increasing demand for modern contraceptives, by enabling countries to program their future contraceptive requirements and develop the required logistics systems for their distribution.
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  14. 64


    Magno AR; Velasco RS

    In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. viii-xv.

    The seven topics that are outlined in the book Salas Forum Papers on Population Development and Environment are discussed. The book also profiles the late Mr. Rafael Salas as the Founding Executive Director of the Rafael M. Salas Foundation, a nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines and funded by the UN Population Fund. Mr. Salas was a man profoundly committed to uplifting the Filipino people from poverty. He embraced the ethos that the first responsibility of the political leader is to secure his people's destiny from the vagaries of constant change and the dire consequences of inappropriate policy action. In present days, this ethos is understood as sustainable development and calls for a moderation of the present needs so that people do not diminish the ability of future generations to meet their needs too. He also correlated population dynamics to achieving sustainable development, which is evident in the discussions during the seven sessions of the Salas Forum compiled in this book. The topics included 1) a presentation entitled, Population, Resources and the Philippine Future ; 2) discussion of the six policy papers on population and development dialogue; 3) demographic trends in the Philippines; 4) dynamics between population management, sustainable development and organized religion; 5) the national security aspect of population planning; 6) the gender aspect of social transformation; and 7) debates on population and environment.
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  15. 65


    Mehra S

    In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. vi-vii.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the Philippines, led by Rafael Salas, has changed from a fledgling agency into one of the most dynamic and financially stable UN agencies. The vision and principles he laid during the inception of UNFPA has been and will remain valid for years to come. These include the respect for national sovereignty and for individual human rights, organizational flexibility, innovation and expediency. Following the death of Mr. Salas, the Rafael M. Salas Foundation was established in the Philippines, supported by the UNFPA. One of its programs is the annual Salas Forum, which serves as a fruitful arena where the multi-faceted concerns of development may be examined dispassionately and intelligently. As a nongovernmental endeavor, it opens an important channel where sober debate is conducted between and among the relevant actors in the formulation of population and development policies. The papers presented to the Forum and the deliberation helps to clarify problems and possible solutions to the often ambiguous and complex process of development.
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  16. 66

    Reproductive health in Bangladesh. A sectoral review.

    Piet-Pelon NJ

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. 83 p.

    This document reports the status of the Reproductive Health Program in Bangladesh. Information was gathered by conducting an extensive review of the existing national policy and programs in reproductive health and interviewing both government officials/program managers, as well as managers of nongovernmental programs in the sector. The review aims to define the role of the UN Population Funds in Bangladesh Reproductive Health Programs (family planning, maternal care, prevention of unsafe abortions and the linkage between abortion and family planning, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease, infertility and subfecundity, women's reproductive health conditions, and prevention of harmful practices). Aside from that, it also highlights the role of men in reproductive health, as both supportive partners to their wives' decisions and needs regarding family planning, safe motherhood and safe sexual practices. Also, information on adolescents and their particular reproductive health needs is provided. Lastly, the concluding portion provides an extensive bibliography of reference materials that were used.
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  17. 67

    Down to the last drop.


    UNESCO SOURCES. 1996 Nov; (84):1-21.

    The November 1996 issue of the UN Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Source journal covers issues concerning governance, bioethics, environment, and education. In addition to its regular letter to the editor, insights, page and screen, and people were presented wherein it paid tribute to the organizer of Black Art Festival, Mr. Leopold Sedar Senghor. Specifically, in the Governance section, it reports the unusual gathering of politicians and political activists to examine the viability of democracy in Latin America. In Bioethics, it tackles the tough decisions arising with new reproductive technologies while the Environment section presents the agenda for the 21st century to save planet Earth. The Education section reports the outcome of the International Conference on Education held in Geneva, which restores teachers to their rightful places in Education. The global water crisis is the main feature of this paper.
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  18. 68

    [Annual report, 1996] Informe anual, 1996.

    Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama [INCAP]

    Guatemala City, Guatemala, INCAP, 1996. [3], 67 p.

    The 1996 INCAP annual report summarizes some of the organization s activities in research, technical cooperation, project execution, and planning. INCAP s institutional size of approximately 150 at the headquarters and seven national offices in Central American countries is relatively small, given the scope of its activities. In the next 5 years INCAP will concentrate on demonstrating that its focus for promoting and operationalizing the food and nutritional security initiative is effective for both poor and marginal populations living with problems of food scarcity, and for assuring long-term sustainability of food supply for sectors with no current food and nutrition problems. The report is divided into chapters covering science and technology, technical cooperation, management, and INCAP participation in different events. It ends with lists of INCAP professional personnel and of works published in 1996. The science and technology chapter discusses food system activities (food production, food processing, protection of the food supply, and promotion of local level food and nutritional security); food and nutrition education, communication, and human resource formation; and activities in health and nutrition. The chapter on technical cooperation describes projects underway in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
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  19. 69

    Global action. The world's forests.

    Jeanrenaud JP

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1996; 5(4):13.

    This article reviews the major international efforts developed over the decade to save the world's forests. As a result of the growing fears about the world's forests, powerful nongovernmental movements interested in safeguarding natural and old growth forests around the world were created. Some of the major initiatives addressing the global forest crisis include 1) the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit); 2) the Commission on Sustainable Development; 3) the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests; 4) the UN Food and Agricultural Organization's Tropical Forestry Action Plan; and 5) the International Tropical Timber Organization. These different initiatives tackled diverse problems of the environment and development; however, they have all failed to either achieve their own aims or create sustainable results. In contrast to these initiatives, the Forest Stewardship Council is a wholly independent, non profit-making, nongovernmental, membership organization. It seeks to promote good forest management worldwide, based on a set of principles and criteria designed to ensure that forests of all kinds are managed in ways that are environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable. Moreover, it enjoys the support of the World Wildlife Fund, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, and a wide range of other nongovernmental organizations.
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  20. 70

    Female genital mutilation. Report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [3], 28 p.

    This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.
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  21. 71

    Living in Asian cities. The impending crisis -- causes, consequences and alternatives for the future. Report of the Second Asia-Pacific Urban Forum.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. x, 186 p. (ST/ESCAP/1660)

    This report is a reflection of the current debates on issues raised by the dramatic changes brought about by the rapid urbanization of the Asian and Pacific region citizens. The paper is comprised of four papers that set the discussions during the first Asia-Pacific Urban Forum held in Bangkok, Thailand on November 1993. The four papers are entitled "Where we have come from: historical perspective and major trends", "Raising the curtain on the urban drama: the need for a new approach to policy", "The present urban dilemma: macro imperatives versus micro needs", and "The new urban contract: institutional change". 12 specific issues were drawn from the discussion papers as subjects for focus group discussions during the Asia-Pacific Forum. This resulted in a total of 14 group discussions that are summarized in the second part of the document. Four subregional urban forums also provided a platform for examining urban issues in a subregional context. After the debate on the main issues, the international agencies with urban programs had an opportunity to present their current and future activities. The forum did not conclude with any resolution or declaration, but it took note of some of the more significant statements, particularly those made in the focus groups and subregional forums.
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  22. 72

    [An action program for children: its municipal and urban dimension] Un programme d'action pour les enfants: sa dimension municipale et urbaine.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1996. 12 p. (Urban Issue Vol. 22)

    The Mayors, defenders of children movement, launched in Dakar, Senegal, in 1992, made local officials aware of children s needs and the need to respect their rights in cities. International meetings of mayors facilitated the creation of a network of contacts through which local agents could share their concerns and organize development efforts in the interests of urban women and children. Mobilization activities at the international level encouraged the development of pilot development activities at the local level and gave rise to the exchange of early experiences at the regional level. The situation of children is discussed with focus given to areas of intervention, health and nutrition, drinking water and health services, education, children in particularly difficult situations, strategies for the implementation of a program to help children, community participation, the management of financial resources, cooperation with nongovernmental organizations, private sector partnership, urban programs, intergovernmental coordination, the role of women, children s participation, the choice of goals, the exchange of statistical information, the need to take personal responsibility for children, communications, municipal administration, and training.
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  23. 73

    Draft statement on human settlements.

    International Peace Research Association

    [Unpublished] 1996 Feb. [5] p.

    As a consequence of over three decades of peace research dealing with among other relevant topics, militarization and development, human rights and the sustainability of communities, the International Peace Research Association suggested the following purposes and recommendations be incorporated into the Plan of Action by Habitat II. In the process of reduction and elimination of armed violence, general and complete disarmament must become the goal and guidelines must be set for all arms negotiations; conflict resolution and peacekeeping should be the basis for policies and international legal precedents and agreements. Moreover, the conversion of the global war economy is essential to sustainable human settlements. Hence, economic decision making should be democratized; structural adjustment policies should be reviewed and amended; military expenditures should be reduced; and there should be conversion from military to civil sector economies. In addition, demilitarization of society can aid in the pursuit of sustainable development and the achievement of peaceful human settlements. Principal steps in this process include human rights education and conflict resolution training. Finally, the reconceptualization of security is necessary in setting in motion the three foregoing processes toward the achievement of truly sustainable, just and peaceful human settlements.
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  24. 74

    WHO fact sheet. Violence against women.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Press Office

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996 Aug. 3 p. (Fact Sheet No. 128)

    The WHO Global Commission on Women's Health, a high level advocacy body which promotes women health issues nationally and internationally, focused on the issue of violence against women at its meeting in 1996. Violence against women has become widely recognized as a major issue of women's human rights; however, there has also been growing awareness of the impact of violence on women's mental and physical health. Studies have shown that the most pervasive form of gender violence is violence against women by their intimate male partners or ex-partners, including the physical, mental and sexual abuse of women and children and adolescents. Approximately 40 population-based quantitative studies conducted in 24 countries revealed a range of 20-50% of women being victims of physical abuse by their partners; 50-60% of them were raped as well. Victims of violence are likely to develop behaviors that are self-injurious, such as substance abuse and smoking.
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  25. 75

    Note presented by the Director-General of UNESCO. United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II City Summit, Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996.

    UNESCO. Director-General

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 1996. 23 p. (SHS-96/WS/4)

    The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Director-General presented this paper at the 1996 UN Conference on Human Settlements held in Istanbul on June 3-14, 1996. Chapter 1 focuses on the diagnosis and prospects of cities in the 21st century, wherein cities are regarded as the focal point of social transformations. Urban revolution is also bringing about a qualitative shift, which can link to the globalization of the economy and technologies, and this in turn, makes far-reaching transformations whose consequences remain to be gauged. Chapter 2 describes the role played by UNESCO in the construction of the city of the 21st century, particularly on two fronts: knowledge and action in the field. Humanizing the city is the ethical message of UNESCO. The major aim is to provide shelter for every citizen, wherein homes are built by recognizing the right of every citizen to adequate housing. Chapter 3 discusses the directions and modalities of action undertaken by UNESCO. UNESCO will make every effort to ensure that the Habitat II Global Plan of Action will be implemented by adopting a partnership approach that involves nongovernmental organizations, cities and local authorities, universities and the world of research. The capacity for contribution, innovation, and action must be supported and enhanced through education, training, information, and communication. UNESCO has already undertaken this crucial mission by getting involved in the training of city technicians and decision-makers, setting up information networks and data banks, and communication activities designed for the media.
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