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  1. 51

    Violence against women.

    World Organization Against Torture. International Secretariat

    [Unpublished] 1997 Sep 12. [4] p.

    On December 1, 1997, the Sudanese Women Association and the Mothers of the Sudanese Students Union marched silently to UN headquarters in Khartoum, Sudan, to protest the forcible conscription of students and to deliver a memorandum to the UN representative. When this delegation arrived, however, Cristopher Jaeger, the UN representative refused to meet with them or to receive the memorandum. Instead he called police who beat and arrested the women. A judge summarily sentenced the women to 10 lashes and a fine. The arrested women included a university lecturer, a nurse, and several lawyers. One of the women was in critical condition after the arrest with internal bleeding; another suffered a broken arm. One woman was sentenced to 40 lashes because she was wearing trousers. The judge also fined and imprisoned a male lawyer defending the women and expelled another from the courtroom. This article ends by asking readers to take action by writing to Sudanese authorities urging them to protect the women and their lawyers, order their immediate release, end corporal punishment, guarantee an impartial enquiry into this case, and respect human rights.
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  2. 52

    A glimpse of post-Cairo opinion in Brussels: fact or fiction?

    Indriso C

    Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):33-7.

    This article on the European response to the challenge of implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens by acknowledging that the European Commission (EC) is placing gender and reproductive health on its agenda but that progress has been slow. Next, the article introduces the advocacy groups that seek to promote an enhanced understanding of the population, development, reproductive health paradigm in the EC. The third section considers whether the "new" alliance called for by the ICPD between governments at all levels and nongovernmental organizations is working. One positive example given is the dialogue established between NGOs and the UK All Parliamentary Group on Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. It is noted, however, that more national-level agenda-setting and mobilization are needed to implement the ICPD goals. Next, the article reviews the "old" population/development tension and concerns about the continued existence of demographically-driven, coercive family planning programs and a dearth of development NGOs working with population NGOs. The article explores this problem in the next section and asserts that the population/development tension was not magically dissolved by the ICPD and that neither population nor development NGOs have all the answers but should share resources and engage in more dialogue. The article concludes that continued progress in implementing the ICPD goals will require a careful look at successful partnerships; finding ways to support an exchange of knowledge, views, and experiences; and fostering a working climate of openness.
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  3. 53

    The elusive agenda: mainstreaming women in development.

    Jahan R

    PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Winter; 35(4 Pt 2):825-32.

    The first part of this essay on mainstreaming women in development outlines the hard-won achievements of the women's movement in the past 20 years and acknowledges that the movement has failed to gain its fundamental objectives of transforming social and gender relations and creating a just and equal world. Considering the central question of why progress has been so elusive for women, the essay notes that the agenda the movement articulated challenged male power and privilege and called for investment in women that would require reallocation of existing resources or finding additional sources of revenue. Because women are differentiated by class, race, and nation, it is difficult to shape women into a powerful political constituency. Thus, the women's movement should adopt an agenda-setting approach and take a consistent stand on a core agenda. The next part of the essay describes some of the changes that a shift from an integrationist to an agenda-setting approach will entail and notes that this approach will require: 1) women to play a proactive leadership role and to clearly articulate a core agenda, 2) the strategic positioning of gender concerns in a period of change, 3) strengthening women's groups and networks, 4) using a new communication strategy to expand support, 5) developing context-specific concepts and analytical tools, and 6) building institutional capacities of aid recipients. The final section of essay notes that agenda-setting will raise awareness of the need to promote the equitable sharing of responsibilities in institutions such as families, communities, national governments, and global institutions.
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  4. 54

    All India Women's Conference Seminar on Habitat II and Human Settlement.

    ROSHNI. 1996 Jan-Jun; 1-3.

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the All India Women's Conference and the UN Information Center's Regional Seminar on Human Settlement which was held in 1996. The conference was attended by about 100 persons and 20 speakers. The main topics were megacities and infrastructure deficits; governance, poverty, and employment; and the role of women and nongovernmental organizations in human settlements. The article identifies 24 recommendations on community participation by women: the availability of drinking water and sanitation, access to schools and health care, provision of sanitary facilities, training programs for women in basic health care and hygiene, toilet facilities in slums and rural areas, housing provision for the poor, income generation programs for women, shelter to the homeless, available housing, equity in political representation and elections, sustainable development, rural development, resettlement of slum dwellers, improvements in quality of life, female ownership of housing, networking, and integrated approaches to the concept of habitat, among others. This regional conference followed up the Global Habitat II Conference. Provision of housing and shelters to millions worldwide will require creative programs, adequate financial support, and dedication to the ideals of Habitat II.
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  5. 55

    Panel session: the future agenda of the women's movement in relation to national and international structures.

    Macdonald M

    In: Women's rights and development: vision and strategy for the twenty-first century. A seminar organised by One World Action, Oxfam UK/I, the Gender Institute of the London School of Economics, and Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, held at Wolfson College, Oxford, May 24, 1995. Report, compiled by Mandy Macdonald. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1995. 35-9. (Oxfam Working Paper)

    This paper reports on a panel discussion that considered the future agenda of the international women's and "gender and development" movements as part of a 1995 seminar on women's rights and development. First, a member of the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex pointed out male biases operating at IDS and provided examples of the narrow, compartmentalized vision that dominates considerations of development and gender. The next speaker, a member of Development Alternative with Women for a New Era, 1) proposed a political agenda for the international women's movement; 2) called for the reversal of South-North hierarchies and for a new slogan, "think locally, act globally"; and 3) related the women's movement to national and international structures. The third speaker, from the Development Studies Institute of the London School of Economics, pointed to the 1) need to develop new interventions to help women during wars and conflicts, 2) move beyond international conferences, and 3) consider the impact of North-South relations on the women's movement. The director of CHANGE, the fourth speaker, identified current challenges for the women's movement while applauding the broadening of women's human rights issues. Finally, a representative of Oxfam UK/Ireland pointed to women's human rights as the future agenda for the women's movement and offered various strategies that could be used by the women's movement and development agencies to affect change.
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  6. 56

    Support to women's productive and income-generating activities.

    Albee A

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1994 May. 26 p. (Evaluation and Research Working Paper Series No. 1)

    This paper describes trends in income generation or women's productive program activities, UNICEF's experience in supporting women's productive activities, and women's and children's needs. This report was prepared as a stimulus to debate about UNICEF's role in supporting women's productive activities during the 1990s. It is emphasized that the term "women's productive activities" avoids the association of women's income generation programs with marginalized activities. "Support to women's productive activities" reflects UNICEF's growing approach to provision of direct economic tools, such as credit or skills training, and complementary services, such as child care and labor saving devices. UNICEF's models stress effective service delivery. Programs need to clarify to what extent resources will be applied to women's productive activities as a strategy of empowerment. Approaches require holistic strategies and a clarification of the objective of supporting productive activities. Three questions need to be answered. Strategies need to prioritize when the actions complement support given by other agencies, support experimental objectives, or advocate for legal and institutional change. The reproductive years are the primary years for economic production. Care must be taken not to sacrifice the daughter's future by restricting her to child care at the expense of education. There are many forces working against poor women in developing countries. UNICEF works to meet the practical needs of women. UNICEF works closely with sectors of health, education, water supply and sanitation, and basic services.
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  7. 57

    Women visible enough?

    Malik P

    EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 Jun 7; 5.

    The head of the UN Development Fund for Women's delegation at Habitat II, Achola Pala Okeyo, held a press conference to voice her concern that the women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attending the conference were not receiving enough visibility. Issues raised at the press conference included the important role played by the NGOs in taking the Habitat agenda to the grassroots level, the promotion of cooperative ownership of houses and equal inheritance rights, and the lack of input sought from "everyday" women in planning and development efforts in their communities. Okeyo noted that the Habitat conference was the first organized attempt to bring women's NGOs together since the women's conference in Beijing and that women were disappointed at their lack of progress in attaining equal rights.
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  8. 58

    New ways of working with partners. Women's forum in Bangladesh.

    LINKS. 1998 Jul; 3.

    In May 1997, Oxfam initiated an effort to help partner organizations in Bangladesh integrate gender issues into their management structures and programs. Oxfam's strategy involved inviting all 20 of its partners to send two women in management or staff positions to create a forum on gender. Oxfam kept the agenda open and included recreational activities. Within the first 24 hours, the group had produced an action plan and asked Oxfam to facilitate continuation of the forum. At first the women wanted Oxfam representatives to meet with their directors to discuss problems; after two meetings, the women only wanted Oxfam to witness the discussions and deflect objections about donor intent. Priority issues were maternity leave, equity with men in receiving resources for communication and transportation, and sexual harassment that occurred when directors extended the household roles of the women into the workplace. Lessons learned from this strategy are that 1) there is no quick fix, but this intervention is relatively inexpensive; 2) long-term support is needed; 3) involving middle managers is a concrete way to place gender issues on the agendas of partner organizations; and 4) a gender policy is important, but an action plan is even more important.
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  9. 59

    From Beijing to Istanbul: the Super Coalition on Women, Homes and Community.

    Abbot S


    In 1994, the Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community was formed from four worldwide networks so that women working on community development could be involved in Habitat II planning and could incorporate human settlement issues into the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and it attendant NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum. The Super Coalition paved the way for grassroots women to contribute ideas to the Preparatory Committee for Habitat II. When the women discovered that many of the gains achieved at the WCW were not reflected in the Habitat agenda, they drafted amendments that were later discussed by official bodies. The women also lobbied delegations and governmental groups on gender issues and found that many of their concerns were included in bracketed paragraphs for further consideration during Habitat II. Another success occurred when the Secretary-General of Habitat II appointed many women to the newly-created Huairou Commission, which will offer advice on gender issues and highlight women's concerns during Habitat II.
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  10. 60

    Next stop Istanbul -- but first, a few words on our accomplishments in China.

    GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):5, 9.

    GROOTS International (grassroots organizations operating together in sisterhood) played a major role in the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). GROOTS International coordinated the Grassroots Tent, one of the tents that promoted diversity. More than 1000 Grassroots Tent visitors signed up to be contacted by regional focal points in the grassroots network. In addition, a participant in a women's network that is a GROOTS partner gave a plenary speech on governance. By Day 3, the Grassroots Tent held a daily meeting of the Grassroots Caucus where over 40 women from eight regions outlined key women's concerns that coalesced into the Statement of the Women and Shelter Strategizing Group presented to the WCW. Meanwhile, a team of 15 official WCW delegates (including GROOTS representatives) acted as NGO liaisons and traveled back and forth between the WCW and the NGO Forum. GROOTS made a presentation to the WCW, and organized a panel on economic reform in the Grassroots Tent. The success of GROOTS partners was documented and presented in a report entitled "Restructuring Economic and Social Policy: Cross-Cultural Gender Insights from the Grassroots" given as part of a panel discussion on economic reform at the NGO Forum. Finally, a closing-day policy presentation and strategizing session with the UN Secretary-General for Habitat II led to the formation of the Huairou Commission designed to integrate grassroots organizations into preparations for Habitat II.
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  11. 61

    Building bridges from Beijing to Istanbul: Super Coalition launches Huairou Commission.

    GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):1, 3.

    In February 1996, the Secretary-General of Habitat II announced formation of a "Huairou Commission" named for the village where nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) met during the NGO Forum of the Fourth World Conference on Women. In Huairou, a grassroots Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community (that included a diverse group of women from around the world) worked night and day to develop a Statement of the Women and Shelter Strategizing Group for presentation to the Secretary-General of Habitat II. The Huairou Commission is the only UN working commission this decade that includes community-based organizations, private sector leaders, local authorities, NGOs, development agency officials, and senior UN officials. The mandate of the Commission is to 1) highlight women's concerns in the development of sustainable human settlements, 2) ensure that the Habitat Agenda reflects women's central decision-making roles and responsibilities, 3) develop a program for women's organizational capacity-building, and 4) identify and publicize the best practices that have evolved from women's perspectives.
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  12. 62

    Planning for a multi-site study of health careseeking behavior in relation to IMCI, November 4-11, 1997.

    Bhattacharyya K; Burkhalter BR

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [8] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This trip report pertains to a 1-week workshop held during November 4-11, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was to plan a study of healthcare-seeking behavior in Mexico, Ghana, and Sri Lanka. The study would develop a community and facility link as part of the WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) initiative. The theoretical framework identifies four types of maternal behavior (recognition, labeling, resorting to care, and compliance) and four types of channels (paid community health workers, volunteer health workers, mother support groups, and informal support from family and others). Project funding would be supplied by WHO. BASICS has the opportunity to collaborate with WHO and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine on the study, which is highly relevant to its work with behavior change and IMCI. The workshop was attended by about 18 persons and included teams from the three study sites. The workshop included presentations, plenary discussions, and small group sessions. The organizing committee prepared a review of the literature on healthcare-seeking behavior, evaluation techniques, WHO protocols for multi-center studies, targets, and budgets. Representatives from the sites prepared an overview of health conditions at their sites and some ideas for the study plan and intervention. The subgroups developed specific draft study plans, which were presented to the plenary. Final proposals are due in Geneva by November 30, 1998. BASICS will develop a review of mother support groups and provide position papers to sites.
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  13. 63

    Women seek accountability from International Criminal Court.

    ISIS-WICCE COMMUNIQUE. 1998 Apr; (3):4-5.

    In 1996, the UN resolved to establish an international criminal court (ICC) and scheduled sessions for 1997 and 1998 to debate its viability and effectiveness. Proposals for an ICC gained momentum after it became clear that national judicial systems in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia were unable to deal with genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The two ad hoc tribunals set up by the UN in these countries since 1993 have had limited success filling the gap. It is crucial for women's groups to support the ICC to actualize the gains they made when they were successful in having rape categorized as a war crime in the former Yugoslavia. Women's groups have the unique opportunity to have women's human rights considered by the ICC from its inception so that women's human rights can be fully realized through effective mechanisms to detect, document, and try gender-specific war crimes. The Women's Caucus for Gender Justice in the ICC is a group of women's human rights activists working to integrate gender issues into the ICC convention. The Caucus specifically seeks to achieve changes in the laws of evidence and procedure for gender-specific crimes to protect victims from facing their attachers in court and protect the witnesses' identity. In order to join the campaign to ensure the integration of gender issues in the ICC, activists should 1) determine the position of their own government and lobby for its support, 2) determine if their own government is sending a representative to the Preparational Meetings and make certain that the representative is informed of the concerns of the Caucus, 3) link issues concerning the ICC to ongoing work on gender violence and women's human rights, and 4) contact the Caucus directly to contribute recommendations.
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  14. 64

    Women and the environment.

    Abzug B

    In: Women: looking beyond 2000, [compiled] by United Nations. New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. 33-7.

    As the 20th century is drawing to a close, women have emerged as a powerful organized force engaged in environmental and democratic activism. Women's entry points in the global debate on the environment have been as diverse as reusing scarce water in the household, planting millions of trees, recycling garbage, resorting to civil disobedience to protect a natural resource, demonstrating against toxic dumps, opposing expulsion of people from their traditional lands, and launching an international campaign against genetic engineering of seeds and food by transnational corporations. In fact, in developing countries, women are often the primary users and managers of natural resources and grow about half the world's food. Women also bear the brunt of the worst consequences of such activities as industrial logging and commercial fishing. In industrialized regions, the purchasing choices of women have potentially tremendous impact over business practices, and women have initiated movements to promote consumers' awareness of such issues as the environmental impact of various goods like chlorine-bleached paper products or the links between environmental pollutants and reproductive system diseases. The global women's environmental movement was spurred by the UN commission that linked the environmental crisis to unsustainable development and deepening poverty and by the preparatory meetings for the 1992 Earth Summit that led to a Women's Action Agenda, which served as a unifying force among concerned women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The resulting network has led to NGO participation in record numbers and creation of transforming policy documents approved at subsequent UN conferences. Thus, the Draft Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women contains a section recognizing the crucial role of women in environmental management.
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  15. 65

    Grass-roots women's movements grow from conference to conference.

    Anand A

    In: Women: looking beyond 2000, [compiled] by United Nations. New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. 93-8.

    This chapter in a book that considers women's status in the near future opens by describing a 1991 meeting of about 100 peasant women speaking five different languages sponsored by the UN Fund for Women (UNIFEM). Many of the women had traveled from their villages for the first time but quickly became comfortable using microphones to discuss their problems with the group. UNIFEM had organized similar meetings in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh so that rural women could participate in the creation of national conservation strategies. Since the 1960s and 1970s, sparked by the UN Decade for Women, a variety of women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has grown up in all areas of the world with the mandate of improving the world, starting with women. The NGOs met at the landmark first UN conference on women in 1975 and shared views and information and laid the groundwork for the fundamental precept of networking. The emerging network led to increased women's participation at the 1980 Conference in Copenhagen and the 1985 Forum in Nairobi when the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 were adopted. The UN Decade for Women also sparked creation of the Women's Feature Service, an exclusively female international news agency that develops women's professionals and portrays women's initiatives for change. Women assumed center stage for the first time during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and drew attention to reproductive health issues and various forms of violation of women's rights. The growth of women's organizations has been attended by a realization that governments and funding agencies have a role to play in meeting women's concerns. The participation of women in political matters will ensure that policy-makers adopt a concern for equity issues.
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  16. 66

    Claiming our rights: a manual for women's human rights education in Muslim societies.

    Afkhami M; Vaziri H

    Bethesda, Maryland, Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1996. [4], xiv, 168 p.

    This manual presents a multidimensional framework that allows grassroots Muslim women from various backgrounds to examine the relationship between their basic human rights as inscribed in major international documents and their culture. The introduction contains the manual's objective and background, the major international sources of women's rights, the major premises upon which the manual is based, the theoretical framework of the communication model (involving a communicator, an audience, a medium, and a message), the general structure of the model, and a note to facilitators. The next section presents the learning exercises that can be used by facilitators and participants to discuss women's rights 1) within the family; 2) to autonomy in family planning decisions; 3) to bodily integrity; 4) to subsistence; 5) to education and learning; 6) to employment and fair compensation; 7) to privacy, religious beliefs, and free expression; 8) during times of conflict; and 9) to political participation. Section 3 contains a workshop and facilitator evaluation form. Appendices contain auxiliary material such as relevant religious passages, descriptions of the first heroines of Islam, samples of Arabic proverbs concerning women, the text of international human rights instruments, and a list of various human rights and women's organizations in selected Muslim societies. The manual ends with an annotated bibliography.
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  17. 67

    Principles and practice: gender relations in Afghanistan.

    LINKS. 1997 Jun; 1-2.

    Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate.
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  18. 68

    Refugee women: their perspectives and our responses.

    Wallace T

    FOCUS ON GENDER. 1993 Jun; 1(2):17-23.

    Development and implementation of policies concerning refugees must involve the refugees. This is particularly true of women refugees, who were the subject of 1990 guidelines drawn up by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. These guidelines state that program effectiveness depends upon consulting with women and their dependents and stress the need to protect the legal rights of women and to assure their access to special programs. In order to incorporate refugee women in policy development, a member of the assessment team must be able to perform gender assessment, women who can work directly with refugee women must be recruited, all staff must be briefed on the relevant issues, women's committees must be formed as soon as possible, refugee women must be recruited to do health and sanitation work, and evaluation must include a gender perspective. More research is needed to add to the little that is known about refugee women, and such research must be sensitive to the fears and concerns of the women and their host government. Various case studies provide examples of the importance of involving refugee women in planning and decision-making. In one case, problems that arose while women had to wait days for water could have been mitigated if the women had been informed about the reasons for the delay. In other cases, involving refugee women in decision-making led to a more appropriate choice of crops to plant and to more equitable distribution of land and tools. Training of women in water storage and use, preparation of new food, and health care can improve conditions in camps. Existing women's groups can be supported, and new ones formed where necessary, such as the group formed to help Guatemalan refugee women in Mexico deal with mental health problems. It is necessary to listen to women in order to meet their needs and design appropriate programs.
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  19. 69
    Peer Reviewed

    The International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994. Is its Plan of Action important, desirable, and feasible? ICPD Plan of Action: its ideological effects.

    Klugman B

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1996 Oct; 6(2):228-9.

    This editorial notes that essential debate arose from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). For example, it was charged that the ICPD Programme of Action (POA) fails to provide a realistic assessment of available resources. The POA, however, is extremely important in an ideological sense because it raises questions about development, about North-South economic inequities, and about production and consumption inequities, while it uncovers the underlying causes of resource shortages. The POA also has challenged conventional wisdom by placing "choice" on the agenda and by acknowledging the links between sexually transmitted diseases, family planning (FP), maternal health, and information services and by uncovering the fact that FP has been given a higher priority than such crucial services as provision of clean water. While resources are decreasing, the POA sets population goals in a broader context of equity and ethics, prods governments to reconsider their funding options, and encourages women's and community groups to challenge unacceptable practices. Many improvements in FP programs can be enacted without increased expenditures. While the POA focus on women (which is unique for a population document) has led to a backlash assertion of the central position of men in reproductive health, women are the most vulnerable to reproduction-related suffering, and limited resources must be focused on meeting their needs. While the POA cannot of itself alter the international order, it remains valuable for placing such issues on the agenda.
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  20. 70

    [Comments] Comentario.

    Palomino Ramirez N

    In: IV Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, [sponsored by] United States. Agency for International Development [USAID], Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Lima, Peru, PROPACEB, 1995 Sep. 214-7.

    The improved participation of women in development began in the 1970s by means of various initiatives, including the National Program for the Promotion of Women. The main problem of state initiatives was their lack of continuity. The improvement of the condition of women took place in education and in the change of sexist attitudes with the assistance of nongovernmental organizations, the associations of rural women, and programs such as the Glass of Milk. It is critical to involve women in development and induce them to participate in political, economic, and social changes to humanize Peruvian society. Advances and challenges of the International Conference of Population and Development in Cairo concerned the recognition of the human rights of women as individuals, their economic, social, and political rights as well as their reproductive and sexual rights. Furthermore, the contribution of women to development was also recognized. The conceptualization of population and development was another significant contribution of the women's movement. The empowerment of women means development of all their potential to obtain the benefits from development. It is also important to point out the active participation of nongovernmental organizations, which made a difference at the conference.
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  21. 71

    Women's Declaration on Population Policies (in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development).

    In: Towards women-centred reproductive health. Part 2. Ideas for action, [compiled by] Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women [ARROW]. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ARROW, 1994. 30-5. (Information Package No. 1)

    In 1992, women's health advocates representing women's groups throughout the world met to create this draft declaration on population policies, for which they would seek widespread endorsement and which they would contribute to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The document opens by listing seven fundamental ethical principles that must be honored by population policies and programs in order to assure women's well-being. These principles cover women's ability to make responsible decisions for themselves; women's rights to express their sexuality as they wish; women's rights to decide whether, how, and when to have children as well as how many children to have; men's responsibility for their own sexual behavior and fertility; violence against women and harmful traditional practices; and the necessity of including women in all aspects of decision-making. The minimum requirements of population programs are seen as 1) seeking a reduction and elimination of all pervasive inequalities suffered by women; 2) supporting women's organizations committed to women's reproductive health and rights and linked to women to be served; 3) assuring appropriate, affordable, good quality, comprehensive reproductive and sexual health care for women of all ages (without incentives or disincentives); 4) developing and providing the widest possible range of contraceptives to meet women's multiple needs throughout their lives; 5) ensuring sufficient financial resources to meet these goals; and 6) seeking wider social, political, and economic transformation to equalize the status of women with that of men. Specific priority actions include filling at least half of decision-making posts with women, increasing financial resources by 400%, allocating 20% of available resources to women's health and reproductive rights organizations, and instituting accountability measures.
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  22. 72

    Breast-feeding: the technical basis and recommendations for action.

    Saadeh RJ; Labbok MH; Cooney KA; Koniz-Booher P

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1993. vii, 119 p. (WHO/NUT/MCH/93.1)

    This World Health Organization (WHO) publication was prepared to provide current technical information and recommendations to policymakers and program planners involved in the promotion of breast feeding. This book summarizes the discussions and recommendations that grew out of the 1990 WHO/UNICEF Technical Meeting on breast feeding. The first chapter presents a technical overview of global breast-feeding prevalence and trends for each WHO region (Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific). Chapter 2 looks at the practices related to breast feeding in maternity care services and in postnatal services. The implementation of programmatic changes to support breast feeding as well as cost issues are also considered. The third chapter provides a technical overview of lactation management training as well as a comment on program implementation. Chapter 4 considers the role of breast-feeding support groups from a technical and implementation viewpoint. Chapter 5 is devoted to issues of information, education, and communication in support of breast feeding as well as examples of program implementation in Brazil, Iran, Guatemala, Australia, and Kenya. Specific problems in implementation are also covered. The final chapter discusses breast feeding in working situations and covers such issues as maternity and child care entitlements on the international, national, community, and individual levels as well as cost issues. Each chapter contains specific recommendations, referrals for further reading, and references (if applicable). The Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding is annexed to the volume.
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  23. 73
    Peer Reviewed

    Engendering world conferences: the international women's movement and the United Nations.

    Chen MA

    THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. 1995; 16(3):477-93.

    This article gives a brief history of how women's groups internationally have shaped UN and World Conferences for Women, the changes in the relationship between women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the UN over time, and effective strategies for putting the women's agenda on international agendas. The article focuses on three recent UN conferences: the Rio conference on the environment, the Vienna conference on human rights, and the Cairo conference on population. The UN Decade for Women reshaped the international women's movement by including new players and by increasing the number and types of women's groups, particularly in developing countries. Women's NGOs learned how to operate on a global scale and to gain attention. New NGO alliances and networks were formed that were cross-regional and crossed North-South divisions. An increasing number of women's groups contributed to national and international policy-making situations. Women's groups were successful in receiving international and national recognition because of the effort expended to become well prepared in collecting, knowing, and analyzing their facts and in building broad-based coalitions. The key strategies that were used in participating effectively in the conference preparatory process and formal policy-making groups involved five types of activities: 1) NGOs mounted global campaigns on a variety of issues having to do with women's rights and women's involvement in the process; 2) NGOs held multiple strategic planning meetings and built coalitions and consensus at all levels; 3) women's NGOs drafted policy documents, resolutions, treaties, protocols, conventions, and platform documents; 4) women's NGOs gained seating on official delegations by publishing reports, holding meetings, and lobbying and nominating women as representatives; and 5) women's NGOs formed caucuses that met at a daily time and place for holding dialogues with official delegates and policy-makers.
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  24. 74

    Guyanese women on the road to Beijing, and after.


    CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1995 Jul-Sep; 7(3):1, 9.

    This article describes a number of issues of critical importance to Guyanese women. These issues were presented in the Guyana National Report for the National Preparatory Committee of the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women. The National Preparatory Committee in Guyana was headed by Magda Pollard. Representatives included women from ten national women's organizations and independent members from a range of government and nongovernmental groups. The report was the outcome of three technical workshops, public education sessions in the ten regions of the country, and media coverage. The women concluded that their position had deteriorated since 1985 as measured by their work and income and the rise in sexual and physical violence against girls and women in homes, institutions, and on the streets. Indigenous people were found to be the most disadvantaged. Critical issues were identified as 1) factors contributing to poverty, such as poor access to resources and structures of economic decision making and opportunities only in low wage jobs and sectors; 2) obstacles to women's reproductive health; 3) the deteriorating status of the girl child in school enrollment, teenage pregnancy, and child labor; and 4) women's low level of political participation. Caribbean countries focused together on the problems of migrant women. Women's status deteriorated due to Structural Adjustment. The result was inadequate social services, massive labor migration, and an increase in unpaid and low wage work for women and girls. The Caribbean delegations attended the Beijing conference as a group and acted as a team. Their voices called for the international community to establish an International Fund for Social Development, innovative approaches by the World Bank to relieve the debt burden in low income countries, debt cancellation, and review of Structural Adjustment human impacts. A Domestic Violence bill was introduced in Guyana, and the cabinet agreed to establish a quota for women in decision making positions. Deficiencies in the Beijing Platform of Action were identified. The Platform was commended for its detailed language on gender equality and women's rights over sexuality and reproductive health.
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  25. 75

    Rape as a metaphor for modernity.

    Banuri T

    Development. 1994; (1):6-9.

    The "rape of nature" is language out of context that does not serve the interests of the oppressed. The act of oppression can be gauged in terms of successful outcomes. The outcomes can be assessed in a variety of ways. Modernity can be taken as an "attitude that makes fair gain of any vulnerable group." The guiding principles can be confused with the manifestations of modernity. Modernity is taken within population, development, and gender discussions to justify itself. Blame for disfunction is diffused by blaming nonmodernity (for instance, the Nazis or the American slave owners, or the ignorant farmer or landholder, ancient patriarchal customs, male domination, religion, lack of modern knowledge). The solution to problems is modernity. Prior violence and oppression are used to justify continued violence and oppression. Population growth only becomes a problem when man as individual or collective entity loses the sense of the limits of nature. The environment is being destroyed by man's knowledge and the breakdown of barriers between man and nature. Modernity has brought with it political violence, intolerance, genocide, ethnic cleansing, terrorization of whole societies, the epidemic of civil wars, and the persecution of minorities and other unwanted people. Humanity speaks in an impersonal voice; the alternative is to talk about technical things in a personal and embodied way. Rape is an apt description of modernity literally and metaphorically. Feminists demand the spoken language of women. Violence is the silencing of voices. Modernity has seen an increase in the violence towards nature, individuals, bodies, and communities. Knowledge is related to the privilege of an impersonal and objective attitude toward people or nature that predisposes violence. The thought is that superior knowledge will dominate nature. Vulnerable groups everywhere are armed to prevent the "never again" will we be the objects of violence. The use of rape in this context has the danger of potentially becoming an impersonal objectification. The alternative for sustainable development is to accept vulnerability and place ourselves in others' trust, which requires subjectivity, dialogue, and empowerment and local, national, and global governance to obstruct local tyrannies. Reciprocity of interests must prevail.
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