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  1. 51

    Conflict resolution and mediation for health professionals.

    Lewer N

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 375-387.

    Health professionals may find special opportunities for engagement in conflict resolution and mediation within their own communities and at other sites at which conflict is occurring or threatening to occur. This chapter briefly reviews the history of unofficial conflict resolution and mediation since 1945, describes the process of mediation, and considers applications of conflict resolution and mediation from the perspective of public health professionals. It is not within the scope of this chapter to delve into the complex history of international and domestic conflict management and resolution mechanisms. Useful reviews of the development of conflict resolution in historical, political, and theoretical contexts can be found in the background readings given at the end of this chapter. (excerpt)
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  2. 52

    War, children, and the responsibility of the international community.

    Grant JP

    In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 12-24.

    This is neither a plea to use the bottom line as an exclusive means of deciding where to put our resources nor a call to turn our backs on the victims of "loud emergencies." What I am saying is that humankind must invest far more than it is today in prevention of emergencies and conflicts, even as we go about the world putting out fires. The UN Secretary-General's Agenda for Peace also stresses prevention and makes the critical link to development and democracy. This investment in prevention will prove far less costly--and produce far greater results--than reliance on expensive and not-always-effective rescue operations. (excerpt)
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  3. 53
    Peer Reviewed

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene at Kyoto.

    Curtis V; Cairncross S

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Jul 5; 327:3-4.

    One promising strategy is to market sanitation and handwashing as if they were consumer products like cars or shampoo. Consumers see the building of a toilet as a home improvement not as a health intervention. Equally they use soap to make hands look, feel, and smell good, not to prevent sickness. Public money could be spent on marketing hygiene and toilets, thus generating demand that can then be met by the private sector. The private sector also knows how to generate behaviour change through marketing. If consumer demand for hygiene and toilets can be stimulated with the help of the private sector, public funds can be liberated to support public infrastructure and to help the very poorest who cannot afford to adopt new technologies. This approach is being tested in six countries, where public-private partnerships between soap companies, governments, and agencies such as theWorld Bank aim to increase rates of handwashing with soap massively ( (excerpt)
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  4. 54
    Peer Reviewed

    The postwar moment: lessons from Bosnia Herzegovina.

    Cockburn C

    Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):6-8.

    There are two main lessons that can be learned from the Bosnian experience. First, it is absolutely vital that a gender analysis from the very outset is placed at the heart of peacekeeping operations or postwar reconstruction. It should be main-streamed so that everyone, not just women, not just gender focal points, but everyone thinks about the gender realities of the war and of peace. Second, local women's NGOs must be consulted, befriended, made partners with the international community and have equal rights in the process. (excerpt)
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  5. 55

    Vaccines -- in Uganda, it's personal.

    Monico SM

    Global AIDSLink. 2003 Jun-Jul; 12.

    A bill was drafted and finally endorsed in early 1998 stating that the vaccine candidate had a favorable safety profile from pre-clinical and clinical testing in the country of origin; that there was evidence of clear benefit to the population; that there was a Memorandum of Understanding affirming interaction between UNAIDS/WHO manufacturers/sponsoring agencies and Ugandan representatives; and that the final decision about the vaccine candidate would be made by the government of Uganda, and endorsed by the parliament. The media closely followed these processes and, in February 1998, 40 army men -- a cohort that had undergone intensive preparation for 18 months since 1994 -- became the first volunteers recruited for the study. Despite the protracted nature of the process, it paved the way for other vaccine candidates to enter Uganda with minimal resistance, in an environment with the necessary infrastructure and level of community preparedness. Uganda now has an HIV Vaccine Preparedness Plan and, while the ALVAC trial ended successfully in 2001, three other vaccine candidates have already found their way into the country. (excerpt)
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  6. 56
    Peer Reviewed

    Health impact assessment in international development assistance: the World Bank experience.

    Mercier J

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jun; 81(6):461-462.

    Large infrastructure construction and rehabilitation works are the obvious priorities for integrating health impact assessment into the environmental assessment process, because of the specific risks generated by the sudden surge in human presence from migratory workers and because of the intrinsic health and safety hazards associated with construction. However, other sectors may also generate serious health hazards, for example, tourism development, an activity which is typically funded by the World Bank’s sister organization the International Finance Corporation (IFC). (excerpt)
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  7. 57

    Changing the focus.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. HIV and Development Programme

    New York, New York, UNDP, [2000]. 4 p.

    There is also a need for greater insight into why and how men and women enter into sexually-defined spaces and relations. For women, this may have to do with cultural imperatives which place high value on mother-hood and on the continuation of the lineage. Or the reason may have to do with economic imperatives, an inability to survive economically without the support of a man or except by commercial sex work. Or with a desire for the intimacy or companionship which a sexual relationship may give them or with a need for protection, a critical social role that men play. A women-centered analysis of desire and sexuality, of power and its impact, of relations of production and reproduction, of the social construction of kinship and gender, of the value of compassion and solidarity, that is, of the experience of being a woman, all contribute to a better understanding of why, for an individual woman, it may be so very difficult to remain uninfected. (excerpt)
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  8. 58
    Peer Reviewed

    Grappling with global concerns in the search for an HIV vaccine.

    Grady C

    Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 1999; 10(1):17-20.

    There is a need for increasing international collaboration in the search for a safe and effective HIV vaccine. In addition to the ethical issues that must be considered in conducting any clinical research, unique issues arise in vaccine research and in international research. Careful deliberation and guideline development regarding the ethics of international vaccine research was the focus of a series of recent consultations sponsored by Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) around the world. (author's)
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  9. 59

    [Editorial] Editorial.

    Tamboura-Diawara A

    In: Gender, economic integration, governance and methods of contraceptives / Genre, integration economique, gouvernance et methodes contraceptives, [compiled by] Association of African Women for Research and Development [AAWORD]. Dakar, Senegal, AAWORD / AFARD, 2002 Jun. vii-xi.

    The failure of the economic development policies of the 70s was recognized and replaced by other terms like "satisfaction of human needs", "humane appearance development." But this new discourse, not having any pertinent referential base towards the environment and the third-world realities, has done nothing but take advantage of structural inequality. Even worse, the southern countries have to face reimbursements "without end" of the debt. Elsewhere, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have set in place the political talks of Structural Adjustment (PAS), which hasn't responded to the needs of the populations, thus continuing the already existing inequality. Besides, they equally oblige the States to operate a group of compressions in their public dispenses especially in the domain of neuralgic sectors like health and education. These measures have contributed to aggravating the poor, above all the feminine population. As for globalization, it will accentuate the negative effects of the Structural Adjustment and will aggravate the social and economic crisis. (excerpt)
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  10. 60

    [Statement of Chile] Intervencion.


    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    Chile's statement to the plenary session of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo refers to Chile's recent political history and the recuperation of democracy, which makes possible construction of a model of growth with equity. Chile participates in the international search for principles, values, and actions that guarantee human rights; improvement in living conditions; and commitment to the struggle for a better world, which will strengthen peace and international security. It is hoped that the Conference will lead to a political and operational recognition of the interdependence of population themes, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. The persistence of poverty, inadequate satisfaction of basic needs, unemployment, and intolerance should be addressed by the Conference. Population measures adopted by Chile have their ethical basis in recognition of the family as the basic unit of society. Participation of women in decision making in all spheres of society is necessary if population goals are to be achieved. Chile's family planning policy is based on health and human rights. Chile subscribes to the concept of reproductive health but rejects abortion as a method of family planning. Chile supports sex education in the family and in the schools as a method of promoting responsible exercise of sexuality. Chile considers the struggle against extreme poverty to be a priority in the quest for a model of growth with equity.
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  11. 61

    Report of an International Consultation on AIDS and Human Rights. Geneva, 26-28 July 1989. Organized by the Centre for Human Rights with the technical and financial support of the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS.

    United Nations. Centre for Human Rights

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. iii, 57 p.

    In July 1989, ethicists, lawyers, religious leaders, and health professionals participated in an international consultation on AIDS and human rights in Geneva, Switzerland. The report addressed the public health and human rights rationale for protecting the human rights and dignity of HIV infected people, including those with AIDS. Discrimination and stigmatization only serve to force HIV infected people away from health, educational, and social services and to hinder efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. In addition to nondiscrimination, another fundamental human right is the right to life and AIDS threatens life. Governments and the international community are therefore obligated to do all that is necessary to protect human lives. Yet some have enacted restrictions on privacy (compulsory screening and testing), freedom of movement (preventing HIV infected persons from migrating or traveling), and liberty (prison). The participants agreed that everyone has the right to access to up-to-date information and education concerning HIV and AIDS. They did not come to consensus, however, on the need for an international mechanism by which human right abuses towards those with HIV/AIDS can be prevented and redressed. International and health law, human rights, ethics, and policy all must go into any international efforts to preserve human rights of HIV infected persons and to prevent and control the spread of AIDS. The participants requested that this report be distributed to human rights treaty organizations so they can deliberate what action is needed to protect the human rights of those at risk or infected with HIV. They also recommended that governments guarantee that measures relating to HIV/AIDS and concerning HIV infected persons conform to international human rights standards.
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  12. 62

    Health research: essential link to equity in development.

    Commission on Health Research for Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1990. xix, 136 p.

    The Commission on Health Research for Development is an independent international consortium formed in 1987 to improve the health of people in developing countries by the power of research. This book is the result of 2 years of effort: 19 commissioned papers, 8 expert meetings, 8 regional workshops, case studies of health research activities in 10 developing countries and hundreds of individual discussions. A unique global survey examined financing, locations and promotion of health research. The focus of all this work was the influence of health on development. This book has 3 sections: a review of global health inequities and why health research is needed; findings of country surveys, health research financing, selection of topics and promotion; conclusions and recommendations. Some research priorities are contraception and reproductive health, behavioral health in developing countries, applied research on essential drugs, vitamin A deficiency, substance abuse, tuberculosis. The main recommendations are: that all countries begin essential national health research (ENHR), with international partnership; that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that international mechanisms for monitoring progress be established. The book is full of graphs and contains footnotes, a complete bibliography and an index.
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  13. 63

    Children and AIDS: an impending calamity.

    United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], 1990. 24 p.

    In some parts of Africa, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has infected between 1/5 and 1/4 of otherwise healthy adults of reproductive age. This is a calamity. Those who are fighting AIDS in Africa believe that changes in behavior are the only way to stop the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). WHO estimates that already 6.5 million people are infected; at least 2 million are women. By the year 2000, there will be 6 million AIDS cases. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has been fighting to protect children and women from AIDS since 1987. Looked at here is the predicament of children and women in 3rd world countries. Also, the damage that AIDS is doing to families and communities and the need to contain it are discussed. Most AIDS cases in children are perinatal in origin. Barrier contraception is important in preventing the spread of AIDS. Deliberate family planning (FP) with modern contraceptive methods is unusual in most low-income African communities. Women frequently have less access to medical services than do men. The number of AIDS orphans is already beginning to affect family life. UNICEF estimates that worldwide 30 million children spend most of their time on the streets. They are then ripe for getting AIDS. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are being formed in response to AIDS. The primary health care structure is important for counselling and health education. During 1990 UNICEF plans to spend over US $6 million on special AIDS projects in Africa and almost US $2 million on global projects and projects elsewhere. In many countries UNICEF has helped develop information and education materials. UNICEF wants to reach young people. In Tanzania, workshops have been held to improve the accuracy of data given about AIDS.
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  14. 64
    Peer Reviewed

    Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    Wagstaff A

    Journal of Medical Ethics. 2001 Aug; 27(4):262-7.

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility". Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). (author's)
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  15. 65

    More people: less earth. The shadow of man-kind.

    Maguire DC

    In: Ethics for a small planet: new horizons on population, consumption, and ecology, [by] Daniel C. Maguire and Larry L. Rasmussen. Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1998. 1-63. (SUNY Series in Religious Studies)

    This essay on population, consumption, and ecology, opens with a short review of the crisis caused by overpopulation and the inequitable distribution of resources. This discussion is then amplified by a close look at conditions and responses to these conditions in Egypt, China, and the Indian state of Kerala and at the six most common interrelated problems that threaten our existence: maldistribution, the perversion of national governments into the service of the elite, unfair distributional patterns protected by a military support system, male dominance, indifference, and a lack of reproductive health services. Next, the essay considers the role of government and ways to achieve freedom of reproductive choices while reducing birth rates. The remainder of the essay is devoted to a consideration of the role of religions in the next millennium; the prospects for religious revolution and renaissance; the nature of religion and of God, whether God exists; the experience of the sacred; the relationship of ethics and religion; the incongruity of a sacramental, monotheistic view of God with the violence of nature; the maleness of the God-symbol; the "posthumous egoism" that seeks an afterlife and views the earth as a mere stopping-off place on the journey; and the need for religion, as a sense of the sacred, to fuel the cultural revolution needed to solve the planet's problems. The essay concludes that, despite the fact that the apocalypse is reality for much of the world, hope remains and was palpable during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.
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  16. 66

    Family planning: impact on the individual and the family.

    Sadik N

    In: Family planning. Meeting challenges: promoting choices. The proceedings of the IPPF Family Planning Congress, New Delhi, October 1992, edited by Pramilla Senanayake and Ronald L. Kleinman. Carnforth, England, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1993. 7-14.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been guided by the belief that family planning is a basic human right. The United Nations Population fund (UNFPA) and IPPF have had a long-standing cooperative relationship in this arena. Family planning is not only a human right, it is a necessity; projections indicate that world population will increase to 8.5 billion by 2025 and to 10 billion by 2050. The high and medium projections diverge sharply after the year 2000 depending on the effect of family planning acceptance and the spread of contraceptive prevalence. In 1989 the international community set a target of increasing contraceptive prevalence in developing countries from 387 million to 567 million by 2000. First the existing need for FP has to be met, since about 400 million couples do not have access to services. At least 150 million would use FP if services were available. The total cost of providing FP services would be $9 billion annually, which is a minute amount compared to total military expenditures. The positive impact of FP depends on voluntary acceptance, age, family, status, and parity, which fact rules out setting quotas or targets. A choice-based approach is preferred, which negates single-method FP programs. FP policies can succeed only if they invest in women with regard to education: this could end early marriage. The growing problem of adolescent pregnancy also has to be tackled. Maternal mortality and morbidity can be prevented by existing medical technology to treat their causes (hemorrhage, hypertension, infection, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion). The promotion of breast feeding is important both for the child's health and for its temporary contraceptive effects. FP programs should also combat HIV/AIDS by providing information and counseling for women. In recent years the quality of care has come to the forefront in FP clinics where accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality of services are needed.
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  17. 67

    [United Nations world population prize to Dr. Halfdan Mahler. Acceptance speech] Premio mundial de poblacion de las Naciones Unidas para el Dr. Halfdan Mahler.

    Mahler H


    The professional achievements of Halfdan Mahler, for which he was awarded the 1995 UN World Population Prize, are summarized, and Dr. Mahler's acceptance speech is presented. Dr. Mahler worked for reproductive health and sustainable development during his six years as secretary general of the IPPF. Under his leadership, the IPPF established world standards for family planning and reproductive health. Dr. Mahler also guided creation and implementation of the long-term IPPF strategic plan, Vision 2000. During his tenure as director general of the World Health Organization from 1973 to 1988, he established the special program of education, development, and training for research in human reproduction. Dr. Mahler's acceptance speech sketched a world of the future in which women control their reproductive lives and enjoy equality with men in work and at home, where adolescents understand and control their sexuality, where all children are desired and cared for, and where hard work brings success even in the poorest population sectors. The challenges of achieving this vision are enormous. The world's population will have doubled to 10 billion, and tensions and inequities will persist. But if the vision is not fulfilled, the present population will triple to 15 billion and competition for every kind of resource will be intolerable. In order to succeed, the rights to free and informed reproductive decision making must be guaranteed for every couple. Harmful practices that violate the right to autonomous reproductive decision making, such as early marriage or female genital mutilation, must be eliminated. Governments must commit themselves to educating and providing resources to women so that they can exercise their rights. Family planning services must be extended to the poor and marginal population sectors that still are denied access, and to adolescents who are at risk of unwanted pregnancy and disease.
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  18. 68

    Complexity, morality, and policy at the population summit.

    Johansson SR

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1995 Jun; 21(2):361-86.

    At the 1993 Population Summit in New Delhi, 60 scientific academies represented at the Summit signed a joint statement affirming that reducing population growth is a necessary part of ecological sustainable development and that action is needed now. As an explanation of this statement, the Summit produced a book of essays entitled Population--The Complex Reality. There is, however, little consensus among the contributors about the complex relationship between population, development, and the environment. Given that scientists remain uncertain about the causal relationships linking population growth to economic and ecological change, concerned governments must be equally uncertain as to which demographic policies to adopt for economic development. This review of selected essays from the Summit collection argues that the complexity of the relationships between population, development, and the environment should not be an excuse for unresolved uncertainty. Rather, this same complexity should inspire a new and comprehensive approach to explaining how human social systems work and how they can be managed to achieve outcomes that people value. Some of the contributors to the collection explore the concept of openly applying ethical reasoning to demographic policy. While their ethical reasonings may well be debated, they are right to openly discuss ethics as a normal part of social science discourse, rather than allowing unspoken, and thereby unchallenged, moral assumptions to covertly shape their policies. They also affirm the value of historical and case-oriented methods of research as a necessary corrective to the standard quantitative methods, which are given to minimizing complexity rather than coping with it.
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  19. 69

    The International Conference on Population and Development -- Prepcom II Meeting: intervention by the representative of the Family Planning Association of India.

    Wadia AB

    JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1993 Jun; 39(2):1-2.

    Family planning is needed to improve women's status, health, and welfare. The Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) wants women to live rather than die and to become their own persons, not just childbearers. The cultural and societal coercion to bear children needs to dissipate so women can gain equal status by having control over their own bodies and fertility and by practicing their rights as citizens. Insufficient health care and too frequent pregnancies kill too many women. Family planning use allows women to prevent pregnancy, the hazards of abortion, and premature death caused by pregnancy. Contraceptives seldom cause death, even when they have certain side effects. In developing countries, unwanted pregnancies and pregnancy complications kill millions of women yearly. India experiences more maternal deaths in 1 week than does all of Europe. Policies and programs must secure the availability of basic health care for women and men at every life stage, safe motherhood and child survival services, quality care and counseling for health and family planning, and information allowing people to make informed individual choices in family planning. Providers must clearly communicate the advantages and disadvantages of family planning methods so people can make choices that are right for them. Since population, development, and environment are interrelated, we must use measures that address all three issues. The Cairo Conference must address a broad spectrum of interrelated issues. It needs to clearly communicate that we can solve rapid population growth in a reasonable time period. Solutions must be ethical, humane, and beneficial as well as preserve human rights and responsibilities and achieve environmental balance with sustainable development.
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  20. 70

    A peace perspective on population and environment: people before weapons. Paz, poblacion y medio ambiente: el ser humano antes que el armamentismo.

    Arias Sanchez O

    Chicago, Illinois, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1995. 16, 16 p. (International Lecture Series on Population Issues)

    Humanity's ability to continue to inhabit the earth is threatened by population growth and environmental degradation, and population and the environment are threatened by the ever-increasing militarization of the world. Developing countries spend $200 billion a year on armed forces and approximately $20.4 billion on arms purchases, whereas 4% of this budget would increase literacy by 50%, 12% would provide universal primary health care, and 8% would provide basic family planning services to all willing couples and stabilize world population by the year 2015. Weapons also destroy the environment, as seen in the case of Agent Orange in Viet Nam, in the Persian Gulf area after the recent war, and in areas of the world contaminated by nuclear testing. The arms trade flourishes despite the fact that most of the developing world faces no external enemy. Instead, 58 military regimes committed violent crimes towards their own citizens in 1992 alone. The atmosphere of violence spreads until arms are everywhere. In order to halt this cycle of death and destruction, a Global Demilitarization Fund must be established to distribute as a peace dividend voluntary contributions arising from reductions in military spending, and the UN Register of Conventional Arms must be strengthened. The US in particular must accept its role as a superpower and its responsibility to help the people of other nations. Thus, the US must stop using the sale of arms as a foreign policy strategy. Also, the US should increase its per capita amount of development assistance from its current disproportionately low level ($44 in 1991-92). In order to create a new world order, we need leaders who will use their power to improve conditions for mankind.
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  21. 71

    Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Ruether RR

    IN / FIRE ETHICS 1994; 3(3-4):8-9.

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.
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  22. 72

    Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Jonsson U

    Florence, Italy, UNICEF, International Child Development Centre, 1993 Nov. [4], 44 p. (Innocenti Occasional Papers Child Rights Series, No. 5)

    UN declarations and conventions rarely refer to nutrition as a human right. Nutrition is mentioned only three times in the UN Convention on Rights of the Child. It is implied, however, when the UN cites food and freedom from hunger. The poor need improved access to and control of resources and need to be respected in order for nutrition to become a right. They must be active participants in reducing poverty. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is an effective means of establishing nutrition as a human right. Elimination of child malnutrition is not only justified as an investment in human capital, but more importantly, is ethically justified. The 1990 World Summit for Children (WSC) set moral minimum nutrition goals and pronounced that it is unethical for the global community to tolerate child malnutrition and child deaths from malnutrition when it has the knowledge and resources to prevent malnutrition. UNICEF reviews the history of the science of human nutrition and its current trends. Nutritional disorders have socioeconomic and political roots. UNICEF identifies immediate causes of malnutrition (diet and disease), underlying causes (inadequate access to food, inadequate care of children and women, inadequate access to basic health services, and an unhealthy environment), and basic causes (ecological, technical, social, political, and ideological). Following the WSC, and by July 1993, 71 countries had prepared national action plans including nutritional goals. The UNICEF report reviews the four major types of malnutrition: protein-energy malnutrition, iodine deficiency disorders, vitamin A deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia. Difficulties of determining the cost-effectiveness of nutrition interventions are discussed. For example, strengthening capacities and empowering the poor are needed interventions to increase sustainability, but they are hard to measure. UNICEF has a theoretical approach and a triple-A approach (assessment, analysis, and action) to nutrition problems.
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  23. 73

    Showdown in Cairo]

    Corey W

    CCL FAMILY FOUNDATIONS. 1994 Jul-Aug; 21(1):12.

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is a showdown between those who do and those who do not believe in the sacredness of human life. Believing in the sacred nature of human life means a belief in the right to marry and to choose freely the number of children to have unlike the situation in China, for example, where the government believes it has a right to dictate the number of children allowed. Whereas the Pope is a champion of the sacredness of life, the Director of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Dr. Nafis Sadik, who is Secretary-General of the ICPD, is not. The ICPD agenda couches a recipe for human misery in noble-sounding phrases. This recipe is based on a view of people existing to serve the economic and development plans of a state and on the notion that development in third world countries depends on a curtailment of population growth. In fact, Africa, for example, is underpopulated, and the idea of the population explosion has been a lie from its inception. There is no correlation between population density and development; development has occurred in dense areas like Hong Kong and Japan and in sparse countries like Canada and Australia. The environmental degradation of air and water pollution is a local rather than a global problem, is temporary rather than permanent, and is caused by the selfish action of industries and governments. The hole in the ozone layer may have always been there, acid rain is a natural process caused by trees creating the acidic soil conditions they need to thrive, and global warming cannot be a serious concern when scientists were issuing predictions of global cooling just 20 years ago. The ICPD is a potential disaster for the human race]
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  24. 74

    [Family planning associations and AIDS] Les associations de planification familiale et le Sida.

    Eugene KC

    In: Approches de planification familiale en Afrique: bilan et perspectives, sous la direction de Mohammed Bouzidi, Helmut Gorgen, Richard Turkson, Londres, Juillet 1992. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. 83-91.

    AIDS is a disease and should be treated as such. But the idea of AIDS induces psychological discomfort that can manifest itself in various ways. Family planning associations are urgently called upon to occupy themselves with problems of AIDS because of their interest in family welfare and their closeness to the intimate aspects of life. In 1987 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) began a program to assist family planning associations in combatting AIDS. The program required training in all aspects of AIDS and the creation and maintenance of a system to gather and disseminate information on AIDS prevention through condom use and sex education directed to various target groups. Rather than creating new vertical programs devoted to AIDS, strategies were integrated into traditional family planning programs. Some technical structures such as the AIDS prevention unit were created to coordinate regional programs. The Unit has produced educational materials and audiovisual supports on AIDS prevention and reproductive and sexual health in several languages. In 1989 the IPPF African Region was provided with two programs to stimulate and coordinate technical assistance to family planning associations. An English-language program is based in Nairobi and a french-language program is based in Lome, Togo. Assistance to family planning associations is organized around identification of needs, formulation of requests, and implementation of activities related to training, production of IEC materials, and evaluation. The question of AIDS prevention in Africa still lacks an organizing philosophy. For various reasons many individuals with confirmed positive tests are not informed of the results. A goal of the IPPf is to provide information directly and indirectly to target groups to reinforce their power in the process of sexual and affective negotiation. The obstacles and constraints faced by family planning associations and their programs result from the choice of preventive strategy. It is important that family planning associations develop their own strategies as a function of their priorities and plans in the area of IEC. Clients must be made aware of the need to use condoms and to modify their sexual and affective behavior to assure better sexual and reproductive health. The IEC strategy must be based on interpersonal communications and adapted to the specific circumstances of each community.
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  25. 75

    The decisive decade. Interview: Dr. Nafis Sadik.

    EARTHWATCH. 1989; (35):10-1.

    The interview with Dr. Nafis Sadik, Director of the UN Family Planning Association (UNFPA), involved questions about the Fund's major achievements, the effect of withdrawal of US funds on UNFPA programs, the role of UNFPA in bridging environmental, population, and development objectives as stated in the Bruntland Commission initiatives, awareness building, the role of UNFPA in dealing with resource deficits in countries with high growth populations, the seriousness of the 1990s decade as critical to the future. and UNFPA's priorities for the next 10 years. The Fund's accomplishments are in getting political systems to recognize as an important part of development, in broadening the concept of population to include quality of life and spatial distribution and growth, and in obtaining funding to continue operating without US funds. The US withdrawal of funds has affected UNFPA's funding in Africa since 1985. UNFPA is actively working to help other agencies integrate FP into conservation strategies, and to consider the education of women and provision for FP information in a variety of programs. Sustainable development must occur at the grass roots level, or from the ground up. Programs must be implemented with an understanding of local needs and desires and with cultural sensitivity. A review of findings over 20 years led to an understanding that many countries had no strategy or plans for population programs even with a lot of development assistance, and programs were transplanted without consideration of local needs. UNFPA is not urging that national development strategies must incorporate population planning, and to target education to young people who will soon be entering reproductive ages during the decade ahead. Governments have begun to recognize that the next 10 years will determine the future, and population does affect the crisis of resources. UNFPA's priorities are to the education of youth, to design special curricula in schools for educating about changing stereotypic men's and women's roles, to mobilize resources for US $6-10 billion, and to establish criteria for evaluating program effectiveness.
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