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[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This document presents the reactions of the European Union (EU) delegation to the 1999 World Population Monitoring Report. According to the EU delegation, the Monitoring Report contains valuable information on past and present trends of demographic change. It presents major demographic trends covering the period from the World Population Conference 1974 in Bucharest to the present and through the year 2050. Furthermore, the report offers some comments on the determinants of fertility and mortality changes, highlights the issue of urbanization, and discusses the socioeconomic implications and challenges of population aging. The EU believes that population aging and intergenerational solidarity are essential issues in the review of progress made toward the Cairo Program of Action for 2004. The report commends the quality of work of the Population Division and hopes that concerns about population growth, poverty, food provision and the environment will be addressed consistently over coming years. Concerning the future work program of the Population Division, the EU hopes that the 2000 monitoring report addresses issues of education, male identity and responsible fatherhood. In addition, they agree with the recommendations regarding topics for the years 2001-04. Lastly, the EU suggests that a thorough discussion of the quinquennial review and appraisal presented by the Population Division should be conducted.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This is a statement delivered by the leader of the Bangladesh Delegation to the Thirty-Second Session of the Commission on Population and Development; it focuses on issues related to international migration and on resources for the implementation of the Cairo Program of Action. The delegation reports that the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development has discovered complex interrelationships between poverty, environmental degradation and international migration. It is stressed that recipient countries should take greater responsibility for the protection of female migrant workers, since they are particularly prone to harassment and exploitation in the workplace. Furthermore, the delegation commends the symposium for its contribution to its understanding of the dynamics and effects of migration. It is noted that international collaboration is needed to prevent the loss of human assets from the investing country through a compensatory mechanism. In view of the importance of migration to both developed and developing countries, Bangladesh supports the holding of an International Conference on Migration and Development (ICMD). With regard to the issues of adequacy of resources for the implementation of the Cairo Plan of Action, it is observed that the donor community plays an important role in financing population activities in most developing countries. All countries should achieve the committed target for assistance in order to ensure the success of the implementation process of the Cairo Plan of Action. Finally, the delegation emphasizes that the mobilization of resources for population and development should be given a high priority in the global development agenda.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This is a statement by the Deputy Director of the Technical and Policy Division of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) on the Report of the Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development of the Administration Committee on Coordination Task Force on Basic Social Services for All. The technical symposium served as a forum for an objective discussion and assessment of approaches to international migration issues facing policy makers in both countries of origin and destination. The presentations provided insights on fostering orderly migration flows, counteracting the economic and social marginalization of migrants, and increasing the focus on the human rights and gender dimensions of migration issues. The Symposium underscored the impact of globalization of capital and trade flows and the emergence of regional economic cooperation modalities on migration. The importance of remittance was identified as a mechanism that influenced the development of international migration. Furthermore, the issues of irregular migration and irregular employment were presented, and the need to improve the situation of migrants and foreign residents in receiving countries were discussed. In addition, the Technical Symposium provided an objective examination of key policy issues in international migration and development. It emphasized the need to increase international cooperation in the development of an approach for orderly migration management that takes into consideration, human rights and gender issues. Lastly, it drew attention to both the media and education as important elements in the creation of a more positive attitude towards migration.
Statement to the Thirty-Second Session of the Commission on Population and Development. Report of the Secretary-General on population growth, structure, and distribution. Agenda item 3. Follow-up actions to the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development. Draft.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.The Report on World Population Monitoring, focusing on the population growth, structure and distribution is summarized by the Assistant Director of the Population Division of the UN. The report reviews changes in world population size and rate of growth. It also provides information on urban and rural areas, on changes in mortality, fertility and migration, and on the policies that governments have adopted in response to population and development concerns. Continued high rates of population growth remain an issue of policy concern for many countries of the world. On the other hand, a growing number of countries are expressing concern about their low rates of population growth. The impressive gains in health and life expectancy that the world has witnessed over the past decades have not been enough. About 40% of all deaths worldwide are due to infectious and parasitic diseases, respiratory infections, malnutrition, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality. Finally, the twentieth century has seen the rise of urban centers and the concentration of population in urban areas. If this trend continues, half of the world's population is expected to be urban by 2006.
From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.
New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. 24 p.This UN Population Fund Briefing Kit for 1997 provides information on ten topics. The first discussion, on reproductive rights, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) is augmented by information on how FP saves lives by allowing women to properly time, space, and end births and on recognition of the human right to plan and regulate family size. Section 2 covers issues related to population, development, and the empowerment of women and reviews the mandates included in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Section 3 links population with sustainable development and environmental degradation and calls for recognition of the skill of women as effective managers of natural resources. The fourth section reviews population trends which estimate an annual increase in world population of 81 million people at a growth rate of 1.5%. Section 5 presents demographic trends by region and highlights the concepts of the "rate of natural increase" and of the "total fertility rate." Section 6 considers migration in terms of internal migration and urbanization and of international migration. The seventh section discusses information, education, and communication as a means of increasing the empowerment contained in the acquisition of knowledge. Section 8 covers the data barrier posed by the lack of reliable vital statistics and/or the failure to disaggregate data in many countries. Filling this data gap is shown to be a priority, especially in order to include the work of women in national accounting and censuses. Section 9 outlines the challenges for population programs in the 21st century, and the final section considers the necessity to craft policies to support the family in its role of providing support and protection for its members.
APPLIED GEOGRAPHY. 1995 Jul; 15(3):197-202.This article considers the aftermath of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the later Laxon, Sweden meeting of about 40 academic geographers, who addressed the implications of the Plan of Action for national policy. A recent International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) member synthesized conference impact on member nations. Martens from IUSSP offered the critique that the 381 recommendations were philosophically incoherent and poorly integrated and did not distinguish between government as a "doer of things" from government as "organizer and guarantor of a legal-institutional framework for allowing individuals and voluntary groups to seek improvements." This article discusses the apparent gulf between the views of population researchers and that of policy makers. It is reasoned that population policies do matter. The Club of Rome world model confirmed rapid population growth during 1972-90. Population policies in the past emphasized a societal perspective rather than an individual one. Policies impact on individual decision making. Most population geographers emphasize four features of social change. 1) Policy must address suitable measures for easing social, economic, and political tensions that arise in the temporary experience of high population growth. 2) More sensitive models of demographic behavior need to be developed, in order to account for the highly uneven patterns of fertility and mortality. Policy should not focus exclusively on family planning and should take into account the cultural and socioeconomic context. 3) Migration pressures from poor to rich countries have increased. Policy should address international migration. 4) People adapt quickly to new policy measures and apply policies effectively in their own life. Policies fail when the top-down approach does not include adequate research into values and behavior of the persons most affected by policy. These four points were discussed throughout this issue of "Applied Geography."
Quebec, Canada, Universite Laval, Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Sante et Developpement, 1995 Oct. , 25, 7 p.The International Cooperation Center in Health and Development (CCISD) based at the Faculty of Medicine of Laval University in Quebec prepared this summary report on agencies that support AIDS control programs in West Africa. It allows one to know who is doing what and where. It is far from being complete since all who had been contacted were not necessarily available or did not always respond to questions. One will find this document appealing. Some sectors polarize funding agencies in AIDS control. CCISD does not aim to evaluate what is being done but to state what exists. It is still striking to see that sectors responsible for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not sufficiently financed in the subregion. It would be good for funding agencies and national AIDS control programs to plan regular regional meetings. This would allow them to specify courses of intervention and especially benefit both in terms of accumulated experiences in the field. The chapters of the summary report discuss the epidemiology of AIDS and STDs in West Africa (HIV/AIDS prevalence and the link between migration and AIDS), the role of funding agencies, lessons learned, the question of whether Africans have taken to heart the AIDS epidemic, the African Development Bank and AIDS control in Africa, the World Bank and the regional AIDS control project for Francophone Africa, and Canada and the AIDS control program in Francophone Africa. The report provides a list of funding agencies and a contact person in those agencies.
Statement by the Honorable Timothy E. Wirth, United States Representative to the Second Preparatory Committee for the International Conference on Population and Development, at the Preparatory Meeting, May 11, 1993. Press release.
[Unpublished] 1993. 5 p.The US representative to the second preparatory committee for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Timothy E. Wirth, opened his address to the committee by stating how honored he was to represent the US and congratulated Dr. Fred Sai on his election to the chairmanship. He also congratulated UN organizers for laying the groundwork for deliberations at the meeting and subsequent ones before the ICPD. Much remains to be done in the 15 months before the conference, but much progress has already been made. Mr. Wirth recognizes the critical role of nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and experts in preparations for Cairo, and notes that NGOs made outstanding contributions during the Earth Summit. NGO participation must be encouraged in preparation for Cairo, for such organizations will liven deliberations in Cairo and beyond. Mr. Wirth describes policy developments in the US since President Bill Clinton took office. The developments reflect the new determination to help lead and be part of a renewed global effort to address population problems. More importantly, the US is committed to helping promote international consensus around the world for stabilizing global population growth through a comprehensive approach to the rights and needs of women, to the environment, and to development. Mr. Wirth discusses the broader perspective in US policy, women's health and status, population and environment, migration, and new opportunities through the Cairo conference.
PEOPLE COUNT. 1995 Jan; 4(12):1-4.The three goals of the UN World Summit for Social Development are to attack poverty, build solidarity, and create jobs. Unprecedented population growth has led to recognition of the need for a new, people-centered vision of development to counter the mutually reinforcing threats posed to world stability by poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration. This population growth may result in an inability of humanity to adapt and create unrelenting pressure on the world's natural resources. It has become increasingly recognized that improvements in the status of women will be vital to ensuring the future of humanity. Giving women the ability to decide their family size will eliminate hundreds of thousands of maternal deaths each year and will slow population growth while it increases women's productivity and control over resources. As the industrialized nations engage in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, the lowest-income countries are caught in a "poverty-population-environment spiral." Although population growth is gradually slowing, the population of the world could double by 2050, with 95% of the growth occurring in developing countries. Concern is also mounting over the increasing urbanization of the world as well as the fact that while the populations of poor countries are becoming larger and younger, the population of industrialized countries are becoming older and smaller. The new vision of sustainable development involves generating economic growth, distributing benefits equitably, and allowing the regeneration of the environment. Without such security, the world can not achieve peace. The symptoms of social discrimination include social exclusion, which affects 90% of the world's population; sex and racial discrimination, which lowers the quality of life and increases life-threatening risks for women, indigenous people, and Blacks; violence and abuse, reflected in fact that the US has the highest incidence of murder in the world, in the 200,000 street children in Brazil, in the 500,000 child prostitutes in Asia, and in violence against women world-wide; crime, which is increasing and is often drug-related; migration, which affects 1/115 people on earth; and conflict, which increasingly occurs within national borders and involves civilian casualties and which leads to military spending of approximately $800 billion a year.
National perspectives on population and development. Synthesis of 168 national reports prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1995. viii, 112 p.This document highlights some of the most interesting and salient features of the 168 national reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and illustrates the variety and complexity of situations encountered across countries and regions. Part 1 presents insights into changing perspectives on population issues, especially into the recurrent themes of 1) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment and 2) the role and status of women. The evolution of political commitment to population concerns during the past two decades is also traced, and the challenges ahead are outlined. Part 2 deals with population dynamics issues through a discussion of the implications of population growth and structure, improving health conditions, influencing fertility, and internal and international migration. The statistics used in this document are those found in the national reports and complementary information forms. The UN geographic system of classification of countries is used, and frequent distinctions are made between developing and industrialized countries.
Population and the quality of life. A dialogue on values: a prelude to Cairo. National Council for International Health 1994 Conference. Insights from the international health community.
Washington, D.C., 1994. , 28 p.This report from the National Council for International Health (NCIH) presents synopses from 4 international health seminars held in 4 regions of the US: 1) California's Changing Population: What Role for Public Health; 2) Population Issues: Domestic and International Perspectives (at Tulane University); 3) Population, Health, and Development: The Road to Cairo (at George Washington University); and 4) Reproductive Health: Dilemmas and Dreams (from the University of Minnesota). The report then provides highlights of the 1994 NCIH conference entitled, "Population and the Quality of Life: A Dialogue on Values." The conference focused on 3 themes: 1) how population changes affect health and quality of life: what is getting better or worse and for whom; 2) how can we use what we know to improve policies and programs; and 3) ethics, goals, and values in population policies and programs: how to build towards a consensus; opportunities and limitations for public policy; how to achieve an appropriate balance. The plenary sessions and forums organized around these themes are summarized, and excerpts from keynote addresses, a public policy breakfast, and closing remarks are provided. The recipients of the award for international health leadership, the award for international service for an organization, and for an individual are identified, and the proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development are summarized. The report ends with a list of 1994 NCIH conference participants.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xiii, 730 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2)This inventory contains information about externally-assisted population projects and programs in developing countries which were funded, initiated, or implemented by international organizations in 1993. The description of individual country programs begins with demographic facts, which were gleaned, in general, from the UN Population Division's "World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revisions. For the most part, the demographic data apply to 1990. In addition to Population Division data, facts are provided for each country on agricultural population density (per hectare of arable land) and the gross national product per capita. Country descriptions continue with a table of population policy indicators (population growth, fertility level, contraceptive usage, mortality, spatial distribution, internal migration, immigration, and emigration). Projects are then listed for each country according to the source of assistance: multilateral, from the UN system; bilateral, which involves direct assistance from individual governments or their agencies; regional, which includes all organizations located and operational only within a specific geographic area; and nongovernmental or other, such as universities, research or training institutes, and corporations. Assistance is defined to include grants, loans, technical and operational support, training, and provision of equipment and supplies. Listings of research projects are based on an assessment of the value of the information for the donor community and the governments of developing countries. Dollar values are indicated, when possible. Information for regional (involving assistance to several countries within a given region under one program), interregional (activities in specific countries located in more than one geographical region), and global (not limited to specific countries, groups of countries, or regions) programs is organized similarly, but no population policy indicators are given. The inventory ends with a list of addresses and an index.
[And after Cairo? Sixteen chapters for a program of action] Le Caire, et apres? Seize chapitres pour un programme d'action.
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 1994 Oct; (4):3.The platform adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo has 16 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses how women must be partners in development otherwise the international community cannot successfully tackle problems linked to population and the development. Each State, based on its own laws, economic priorities, and religious, moral, and cultural values as long as they conform to human rights as defined by the international community, must put the 15 principles enumerated in chapter 2 into effect. Another chapter addresses the links between population, economic growth, and sustainable development. One chapter is dedicated to equality between the sexes. Society's base unit, the family, is discussed in another chapter. Population growth and structure comprise another chapter. Reproductive health and family planning are covered in another chapter. Other chapters address health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology and research (biomedical, social, and economic); national initiatives; international cooperation; and association with the nongovernmental sector.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
The Philippines: country report on population. International Conference on Population and Development, 5-13 September 1994, Cairo, Egypt.
[Manila], Philippines, Commission on Population, 1994. , 40 p.The country report on population prepared by the Philippines for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a discussion of the 3 interdependent strategies which will be used to achieve development: total human resource development, international competitiveness, and sustainable development. Since the Philippines envisions development proceeding primarily from the initiatives of individuals, families, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), cooperatives, etc., empowerment of the people is a major objective of the government. To this end, the family is seen as the focal point for analysis of needs and resource use and for mobilization. The problems which beset the Philippines today and which are exacerbated by rapid population growth are pervasive poverty, a heavy debt burden, high unemployment and underemployment, a decrease in productive land, environmental degradation, and a poor economic performance. The country report considers the relationship between population, economic growth, and sustainable development in terms of the demographic situation and the economic situation. The report provides a history of the development of population policy and population programs in the country. The concerns of the population program are the environment and development, transitional population growth, the population structure, urbanization, migration, the status of women, maternal and child health and family planning (FP), and data collection and analysis. Various components of the implementation of the population program are described including political and national support, the national implementation strategy, the integration of population and development and assessment of integration efforts, responsible parenthood/FP, and the assessment of FP service delivery. Mechanisms for program monitoring and evaluation are presented along with an assessment of program efficiency, and the financial aspects of the program are discussed. After touching on the relevance of the World Population Plan of Action, the report puts forth the national 9-point action plan for the future which has the following goals: 1) to integrate population and development planning; 2) to strengthen the responsible parenthood/FP program; 3) to strengthen population education and the adolescent fertility program; 4) to increase the participation of women; 5) to build capabilities and develop institutions; 6) to decentralize administration; 7) to develop a sustainable financial plan; 8) to increase NGO and people's organization participation; and 9) to develop a reliable data base. The appendices present the demographic, health, and economic indicators for 1960-90 in tabular form and provide an outline of population policies, legislation, and incentives.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):120-53.As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population distribution and migration was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993. Participants considered the scope of migration which included a net internal migration of between 75 million and 1 billion people during 1975-85 and international migration which census data put at 77 million in the 1970s and early 1980s. World economic trends during the 1980s were reviewed, as were changes in the nature and configuration of various countries. The following topics were explored: patterns of population distribution and development, policies affecting internal migration and population distribution, internal migration and its implications for development, economic aspects of international migration, international migration in a changing world, international migration between developing countries, and refugees and asylum-seekers. 37 recommendations were prepared for governments, social institutions, and the international community. The first 10 urge that population distribution be an integral part of development policies, that government policies and expenditures be evaluated for their contribution to social and economic goals, that the capacity and competence of municipal authorities to manage urban development be increased, that government funding be decentralized, that economic and institutional links be developed between urban centers and surrounding rural areas, that alternatives to out-migration from rural areas be created, that the income-earning capacities of migrants be improved, that group mobilization by and for people affected by migration be encouraged, that adequate access to health services and family planning be assured, and that the underlying causes of environmental degradation, natural disasters, and war be addressed with mechanisms developed to protect victims. 13 recommendations deal with international migration and call for appropriate policies, cooperation, protection of human rights, an end to discrimination toward women, the normalization of family life among documented migrants, the promotion of good community relations between migrants and the rest of society, the guarantee of equal economic and social rights to longterm foreign residents and facilitation of their naturalization, the provision of legal information to potential migrants, the provision of equal educational and training opportunities to the children of migrants, and the institution of sanctions against the organizers of illegal migration. The next 7 recommendations urge that the causes of forced migration be addressed, that refugees receive assistance and protection, that the responsibility for refugees be shared equitably, that the right to asylum be protected, that appropriate repatriation programs be supported, that long-standing refugee populations be helped to achieve self-sufficiency, and that the specific needs of refugee women be addressed. The final 7 recommendations cover data and research needs regarding population distribution and migration and urge support for research on population distribution, the collection of national statistics, a review of existing standard definitions and classifications of rural and urban populations and of international migration, cooperation in the registration and monitoring of refugee populations, and the promotion of an exchange of information on trends and policies of international migration.
In: Methodology for population studies and development, edited by Kuttan Mahadevan, Parameswara Krishnan. New Delhi, India, Sage, 1993. 82-121.Migration can be obligatory (transfers in job, joining husbands place) or sequential (the movement of dependents), besides being voluntary. The major data sources for the study of migration are population censuses, sample surveys, and population registers. A continuous population registration system has been in existence in the Scandinavian countries, a few West European countries, Taiwan, Israel, Japan, and some East European countries. Developed countries have developed techniques of estimating migration without sample surveys by using other sources built in within their social system. The censuses are the most widely used data sources for migration research where direct questions on migration (place of birth, place of last residence, place of residence at a specific prior date, and duration of residents) set the focus on the volume, level and pattern, differential selectivity, origin, and destination. Migration can be measured by the direct (census or sample survey) and indirect (residual methods from vital statistics and survival ratios based on census and/or life table) approaches. Selectivity in migration deals with differences in migration related to age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, ethnic origin, and language. Other topics addressed include determinants of migration; statistical generalizations and laws (Ravenstein's laws, push-pull theory); typologies; economic, spatial, behavioral, and mathematical approaches in migration theory; Zelinsky's hypothesis of migration/mobility transition; and the demographic, economic, and social consequences of migration. The migration process in multidimensional, time and space specific, thus a single theory is not comprehensive enough to explain its dynamics. Instead, a series of theories can be formulated: theory of migration for peasants, theory of migration for intellectuals, and theory of migration for cultural groups. This necessitates the development of comprehensive typologies of migration.
Europe and Central Asia Region, Middle East and North Africa Region, population projections, 1992-93 edition.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population and Human Resources Dept., 1992 Nov. xcv, 203 p. (Policy Research Working Papers WPS 1016)Statistical information and a summary introduction were provided for Eastern Europe and Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and North African regions for selected demographic and economic measures. Measures included income, birth and death rates, fertility rates, rate of natural increase, net migration rate, growth rate, infant mortality rate, dependency ratio, and population projections to 2150. Detailed age and sex distributions were also provided. Both World Bank and nonborrower countries were included. The figures were updated from the 1990-91 Edition. The summary described and discussed recent demographic trends and future projections, and reviewed countries and regions by income level. Noteworthy changes by country were indicated. World Bank borrower countries were divided into the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, which were regrouped into 4-6 country departments and into 4 income groups. The largest population was in East Asia and the Pacific with 30% of world population. Other large regions included South Asia with 21%, Africa with 10%, Europe and Central Asia with 9%, Latin America and the Caribbean with 8%, and the Middle East and North Africa with 5%. Country departments reflected the regions as a whole, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa with growth rates of 32.% to 2.8%. East Africa had the highest rates and Sahelian and South African countries the lowest rates. The Middle Eastern countries had rates of 3.0% in contrast to North African countries rates of 2.7%. Diversity was greatest in Asian departments. Rates were 2.0-2.6% in South Asia and 1.9-1.4% in East Asian and Pacific departments. The lowest rates were in European and Central Asian departments. In 1992, less developed countries comprised 77% of the world population. The projections indicated that by 2150 the population would reach 12.2 billion, of which 88% would live in developing countries. The 1992 projections differed from 1990-91's in that the projections were revised downward due to AIDS mortality. World fertility was projected to decline from 3.2 now to 2.9 by 2000 and 2.4 by 2025. Life expectancy was expected to reach 70 years in about 2010. The proportion aged would rise in more developed countries.
World population projections, 1992-93 edition. Estimates and projections with related demographic statistics.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. vii, 515 p.Statistical tales provided population projections every 5 years between 1985 and 2030 and every 25 years between 1985 and 2150. Data were also given for the birth, death, natural increase, net migration, growth, fertility, net reproduction, and infant mortality rates. The projections were an update of this series in 1990, and take into account the impact of AIDS; other changes included the inclusion of the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union, the combined Germanys and Yemens, and the former Yugoslavian republics of Croatia and Slovenia. The overview of trends and projections indicated that Southeast Asia and Latin America have had rapid mortality and fertility decline, while most sub-Saharan African and Middle Eastern countries have had little change. Population growth for mid-1992 was estimated to be 5.44 billion. the projection for the year 2000 was 6.17 billion, which was a 12% increase over 1992 figures. 8.34 billion was the expected population for 2025, and 12.2 billion for 2050, of which 88% would be in countries currently defined as developing. The difference between these projections and those previously published in the 1989-90 edition was minimal for more developed countries, and lower for less developed countries due to the impact of AIDS. Population concentration is currently 59% in Asia, 15% in Europe, 14% in America, 12% in Africa, and 1% in Oceania. Changes will occur such that Africa's population will double, Europe's will be halved, and Asia's will remain stable. The fastest growing region in Africa in East Africa, followed by West Africa and then North Africa in 1992. The lowest growth rates in 1992 are in Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Without China and India, the highest growth rates are found among low income countries. Upper income countries have only 10% of total world population. The population under 15 years of age is expected to decrease from 32% in 1992 to 25% in 2025; conversely, the elderly population aged 65 years and older is expected to increase from 6% in 1992 to 10% in 2025. Life expectancy is highest in Japan at 79 years and lowest in Guinea-Bissau at 39 years. The largest difference in life expectancy between men and women is in the Russian Federation at 10.5 years. There is low fertility, mortality, and slow growth in the Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, and Moldova; moderate growth in Armenia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan; and mid to high fertility in the other republics.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. , 21 p.This 4th edition of the Population Issues Briefing Kit considers 10 issues in population and development. Chapters discuss the changing landscape of population growth; the need and guest for balanced growth in developing countries; needs for population programs in the year 2000; the human right to family planning; growing support for population policy; the potential returns from country-level investment in gender equality; balancing people and resources in safeguarding the global environment; migration and urbanization; the role of information, education, and communication in creating awareness; and population data.
International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
Vital to future generations. The Bali Conference has recommended that 4% of all official development assistance be earmarked for population programs.
INTEGRATION. 1993 Mar; (35):32-4.The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was held in Bali, Indonesia, in August 1992. The highlights included: sustainable population and economic growth in a region with three-fifths of the world's population; the threat to the environment from the consumption of natural resources; high fertility; high dependency ratios and aging; land degradation; and migration. The Director of UNFPA revealed that the average rate of population growth had fallen to 1.7% annually since 1963, but an estimated 17.7 million persons were still being added to the region each year. The Conference urged improvement in reproductive health care to reduce maternal illness and death and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, and women-centered programs. Both long- and short-term rural-to-urban and international migration affects the development dynamic. The Conference viewed urbanization as inevitable, but cautioned against neglect of rural development. Improving the status of women through education will help reduce discrimination. The success of family planning efforts in the region is attributable to the changing behavior of women, age at marriage, and the number and spacing of children. 86% of the developing world's elderly will reside in Asia by the year 2000. The Conference recommended economic incentives and tax exemptions to assist families caring for older relatives, but stopped short of pension plans and social security systems. Mortality, however, may be reduced by increasing HIV infection and AIDS prevention. Poverty alleviation figured among agenda items. Robert McNamara noted in a 1991 address that over 1 million people suffer from hunger and over 900 million remain illiterate worldwide. To counter this, education, nutrition, and health services for the poor are needed; also needed are human resources development to raise productivity and income. It was recommended that donors allocate 4% of all development assistance for population programs.
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 191-206.Targeting on grounds of equity, cost, or minimizing interference fails to consider whether targeting is politically possible. In the case of the USAID-sponsored famine-relief and emergency food aid operation in Darfur, western Sudan, in 1985, the expressed intention of target this relief was not fulfilled. The target group received inadequate amounts of relief grain owing to the lack of targeting by area councils within Darfur, and the lack of targeting within area councils. After severe rainfall failures in 1982, 1983 and 1984, large numbers of people in western Sudan faced severe food shortage, abnormal migrations, and increased risk of destitution. USAID, the principal donor for relief operations to western Sudan in 1984-85, approved 82,000 metric tons (mt) of relief grain for western Sudan in September 1984, and then a further 250,000 mt in late 1984 and early 1985. The target population for the first 41,000 mt of relief sorghum was the neediest one-fourth later, the neediest one-third. A USAID document provided estimates of people and the way the area councils conceived sheltering throngs of the target group. There was 153,141 seriously affected in Kutum area council, 102,907 in Mellit, and 507,348 in Geneina representing around 25% of Darfur's population, the size of the target group envisaged for the first 41,000 mt of relief grain. USAID made concessions to the Darfur regional government allowing South Darfur a higher proportion of early allocations than need dictated. Save the Children Fund experienced serious difficulties with the local contractor to distribute food from area-council level. Aid agencies and donors need to consider how targeting is to be accomplished and how to confront influential local players with interests contrary to such targeting. Allocations of relief grain could be made on the assumption that targeting will be only partially achieved; and through alternative forms of relief.