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  1. 51
    309702

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mozambique. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Mozambique has over one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.3 million as of the end of 2003). Although Mozambique's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the region, it is higher than the sub-Saharan African region overall and recent estimates suggest that the prevalence rate may be on the rise. The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Mozambique formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) in 2000, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  2. 52
    309711

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zimbabwe has almost two million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.8 million as of the end of 2003), representing the third largest HIV/AIDS burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world, although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline. The epidemic continues to pose significant development challenges to this low-income country, which faces additional complications including drought conditions, substantial internal migration and displacement, and other factors that exacerbate the epidemic's impact. The Government of Zimbabwe established a National AIDS Coordination Programme (NACP) in 1987. In 2000, the Government formed the National AIDS Council (NAC), and is currently developing its National AIDS Strategic Framework for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  3. 53
    309710

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zambia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zambia has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (920,000 as of the end of 2003). Zambia's HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall and the epidemic continues to pose one of the most significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Zambia established a National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in 1986. In 2000, the Government formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) and is currently implementing its National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Implementation Plan for 2002-2005. (excerpt)
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  4. 54
    309709

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Uganda. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Uganda has more than a half million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (530,000 as of the end of 2003). The country of Uganda is widely considered to be an HIV/AIDS success story, having reduced its HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) significantly over time, from one of the most severe epidemics in the 1980s, with a peak in the early-1990s, to a rate lower than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, the epidemic has already had a significant impact in Uganda, and continues to pose development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Uganda established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) in 1986, the first HIV/AIDS control program in the region. In 1992, the Government formed the Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), and is currently operating its National Strategic Framework for 2000/2001-2005/2006. (excerpt)
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  5. 55
    309708

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The United Republic of Tanzania (mainland Tanzania and the island of Zanzibar), the largest country in East Africa, had an estimated 1.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS as of the end of 2003. Although Tanzania's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the sub-Saharan African region, it is higher than the prevalence rate of the region overall (8.8% compared to 7.5%). The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. In 1985, the National AIDS Control Programme was established to respond to the epidemic. The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC) were created in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Tanzania is currently operating its National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2007. (excerpt)
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  6. 56
    309707

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Swaziland. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Swaziland has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (38.8% compared to 7.5%). Moreover, a recent survey suggests that HIV prevalence rates in Swaziland continue to increase. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 220,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, or almost 4 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Swaziland, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Swaziland created the Swaziland National AIDS Programme in 1987 to respond to the epidemic and declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster in 1999. In 2001, the National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS (NERCHA) was established, and the National AIDS Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2006 - 2008 is currently under development. (excerpt)
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  7. 57
    309706

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in South Africa. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    South Africa has the highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (5.3 million as of the end of 2003) and is one of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic. South Africa's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is much higher than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall, and although prevalence rates have begun to stabilize, the South African Government's most recent surveillance study indicates that prevalence may still be on the rise. The epidemic has already had a profound impact on many aspects of South African society and is projected to affect the country's economic, education, and health sectors if more is not done to stem its tide. As a middle-income country of significant political and economic importance in the African continent, the future course of South Africa's HIV/AIDS epidemic will have broader implications for Africa overall. The Government of South Africa established the National AIDS Coordinating Committee of South Africa (NACOSA) in 1992 and created the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) in 2000. The country's HIV/AIDS/STD Strategic Plan for South Africa: 2000-2005 is currently being implemented. (author's)
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  8. 58
    309705

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Seychelles. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with HIV/AIDS) in Seychelles remains fairly low, and significantly lower than other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence in Seychelles was 0.2% as of the end of 2002, or less than 200 people. However, the prevalence rate has increased over time, and data indicate that HIV/AIDS may be more widespread in this middle-income country than previously thought. The Seychelles Government began its response to the epidemic shortly after the first case of HIV was diagnosed in 1987, with an initial short-term plan; the following year, an AIDS-IEC Committee was formed within the Ministry of Health. The National AIDS Council (NAC) was launched in 2002. The Government also created a National AIDS Trust Fund in 2002 to help mobilize resources and coordinate prevention and care efforts. (excerpt)
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  9. 59
    309704

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Nigeria has the third highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (3.6 million as of the end of 2003), after South Africa and India. Although Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low compared to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is considered to be a "next wave" country; that is, it stands at a critical point in its epidemic where increased prevention and treatment efforts today could help stem the tide of a much more significant epidemic in the future. As the most populous country in Africa and one of the most populous nations in the world, even a small increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in this low-income country would represent a significant share of the global HIV/AIDS burden. The Government of Nigeria established the National AIDS Action Committee (NACA) in 2000 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for the 2005-2009 period. (excerpt)
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  10. 60
    309703

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Namibia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Namibia has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (21.3% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were 210,000 people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in Namibia, or more than one in five adults. Although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline, the epidemic already poses significant challenges to this middle-income country, and high levels of unemployment and income disparity may further the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The Government of Namibia established a National AIDS Committee (NAC) in 1990 and is currently implementing the third National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS (2004-2009). (excerpt)
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  11. 61
    309701

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mauritius. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius remains fairly concentrated. With fewer than one thousand people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (700 as of the end of 2001), Mauritius' HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is significantly lower than many of its neighboring countries and among the lowest in the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, there are signs of an increasing trend in HIV/AIDS cases in recent years in this middle-income country. In 1987, the Mauritius Ministry of Health and Quality of Life implemented a National AIDS Control and Prevention Programme. The Government of Mauritius also formed a National Coordinating Committee on HIV/AIDS and is currently operating under its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  12. 62
    309700

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Malawi. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Malawi has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (900,000 as of the end of 2003). Malawi's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is almost twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall (14.2% compared to 7.5% in 2003). The HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country, which has been exacerbated by high levels of food insecurity. In 2001, the Government of Malawi formed a National AIDS Commission (NAC), which has been led by the Minister of State Responsible for HIV/AIDS Programmes since 2003. The Government developed a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (2000-2004) to coordinate the country's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a new framework is being developed. (excerpt)
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  13. 63
    309699

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Madagascar. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 140,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Madagascar, up from 100,000 in 2001.1 Recent studies suggest that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Madagascar has begun to increase. Although Madagascar's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low (1.7%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to its neighboring countries, there is concern that high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STI's) such as syphilis, could fuel the HIV/AIDS epidemic in this low-income country, as could other factors such as poverty and limited access to health and social services. The Government of Madagascar formed a National AIDS Committee in 2002 and is currently operating a National Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  14. 64
    309698

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Lesotho. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Lesotho has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (28.9% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 320,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Lesotho, or almost 3 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Lesotho, posing significant development challenges to this very low-income country. The Government of Lesotho formed the Lesotho AIDS Programme Coordinating Authority (LAPCA) in 2001, and is currently developing a National AIDS Strategic Plan for 2005-2008. The Government has also established a National AIDS Commission (NAC) to coordinate the country's response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  15. 65
    309697

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Kenya. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Kenya has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.2 million as of the end of 2003). Kenya's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is just below that of the sub-Saharan African region overall (6.7% compared to 7.5%). Recent data indicate that the country's HIV prevalence rate may be on the decline in some areas. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Kenya first established a National AIDS Control Council (NACC) in 1999, and has a National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS for 2005-2010. (excerpt)
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  16. 66
    309696

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ghana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    There were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana as of the end of 2003. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Ghana is still relatively low compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall, and appears to be fairly stable, but there are an increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in this low-income country, posing challenges to both prevention and treatment efforts. The Government of Ghana created a National Advisory Commission on AIDS (NACA) in 1985 and established a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in 1987. The Ghana AIDS Commission was inaugurated in 2000, followed by the implementation of the country's National Strategic Framework (NSF) on HIV/AIDS for 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  17. 67
    309695

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.1 million as of the end of 2003). Although the DRC's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease), is still relatively low (4.2%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to some of the region's hardest hit countries, this low-income country is in a post-conflict period and faces numerous challenges including HIV/AIDS. The Government of the DRC established a National AIDS Control Programme in 1987 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for 1999-2008. (excerpt)
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  18. 68
    309694

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Botswana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Botswana has the second highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world (37.3%), a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana, or more than a third of the country's adult population. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Botswana, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Botswana created a National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) in 1999, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2009. (excerpt)
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  19. 69
    304801

    Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children. An independent review.

    Gosling L

    London, England, UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development, 2005 Jul. 63 p. (Orphans and Vulnerable Children)

    The Rapid Assessment, Analysis, and Action Planning (RAAAP) Initiative for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) was launched by UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS, and WFP in November 2003. The first round of RAAAPs were carried out in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004. The purpose of the RAAAP is to undertake an analysis of the situation of OVC and the response in each country, and then, based on this analysis, to produce a national plan of action to scale up and improve the quality of the response to OVC. This plan is then ratified by the government and provides a unifying framework that brings together the activities of all the different stakeholders under a set of common objectives and strategies. This includes all interventions for OVC, including activities of national and local government, donors and civil society organisations (CSOs). The first round of the RAAAP process consisted of a desk study, additional data collection and analysis in country, and a stakeholder workshop to validate the findings and draw up the OVC National Plan of Action. The process was led and coordinated by a national steering group which consisted of the government ministry with responsibility for OVC, other relevant government ministries and departments, development partners including UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS and WFP and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO). The involvement of different stakeholders in the analysis and planning process is critical for ensuring their ownership of the resulting action plan. (excerpt)
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  20. 70
    141423

    [Molecular epidemiology of HIV infection]

    Yin TM

    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi / Chinese Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Oct; 18(5):309-311.

    Global HIV infection and AIDS: according to WHO estimates, by mid 1996 there were 7 million cumulative AIDS cases. Today the number of people infected with HIV is even more alarming: roughly 21.8 million, of those 42% are women. By the year 2000 there will be between 40 and 50 million cases. Each day about 8,500 additional people are infected with AIDS; one can say the situation is grim. Currently, the AIDS and HIV epidemic regions are shifting, they have gradually moved from the original sites of North America and West Europe toward the mass populations of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In the Asian region which contains about 60% of the world's population, beginning in 1988, with Thailand and India at the center, an exploding epidemic has taken shape. Recent materials indicate, those infected with HIV in Thailand exceed 700,000, over 2 million in India, and the HIV epidemic has already spread to the near neighbors Burma, southern China, Cambodia, Malaysia and Vietnam. With the accumulation of molecular epidemiology research materials, the complete picture of the causes and characteristics of this massive epidemic happening in the Asian region is gradually becoming clear. (excerpt)
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  21. 71
    291869
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO clinical staging of HIV infection and disease, tuberculosis and eligibility for antiretroviral treatment: relationship to CD4 lymphocyte counts.

    Teck R; Ascurra O; Gomani P; Manzi M; Pasulani O

    International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2005 Mar; 9(3):258-262.

    Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Objectives: To determine in HIV- positive individuals aged over 13 years CD4 lymphocyte counts in patients classified as WHO Clinical Stage III and IV and patients with active and previous tuberculosis (TB). Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: CD4 lymphocyte counts were determined in all consecutive HIV-positive individuals presenting to the antiretroviral clinic in WHO Stage III and IV. Results: A CD4 lymphocyte count of =350 cells/µl was found in 413 (90%) of 457 individuals in WHO Stage III and IV, 96% of 77 individuals with active TB, 92% of 65 individuals with a history of pulmonary TB (PTB) in the last year, 91% of 89 individuals with a previous history of PTB beyond 1 year, 81% of 32 individuals with a previous history of extra-pulmonary TB, 93% of 107 individuals with active or past TB with another HIV-related disease and 89% of 158 individuals with active or past TB without another HIV-related disease. Conclusions: In our setting, nine of 10 HIV-positive individuals presenting in WHO Stage III and IV and with active or previous TB have CD4 counts of =350 cells/µl. It would thus be reasonable, in this or similar settings where CD4 counts are unavailable for clinical management, for all such patients to be considered eligible for antiretroviral therapy. (author's)
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  22. 72
    289232

    WHO approach to track HIV drug resistance emergence and transmission in countries scaling up HIV treatment [letter]

    Bertagnolio S; Sutherland D

    AIDS. 2005; 19(12):1329-1330.

    Treatment access programmes are currently expanding in resource-limited settings. The potential barriers to long-term success (such as intermittent drug supply, drug stock-outs, poor patient monitoring, incorrect prescribing practices and low adherence) as well as the need to begin programmes quickly to treat millions of individuals, have raised fears that the aggressive plan to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly in Africa, may generate an epidemic of drug-resistant strains of HIV. (excerpt)
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  23. 73
    287659

    The ICASO Plan on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV / AIDS.

    Garmaise D

    Toronto, Canada, International Council of AIDS Service Organizations [ICASO], 1998 Jun. 16 p.

    Over the past few years, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) and its component networks and organizations have undertaken a process to determine how best to highlight human rights activities within the work it does on HIV/AIDS. This process included the ICASO Inter-Regional Consultation on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV/AIDS, which was held in Toronto, Canada, in March 1998. This consultation constituted the first ever international meeting specifically focussing on HIV/AIDS and human rights, social equity and community networking issues. The plan described in this document is an important milestone in this process. It is part of ICASO’s ongoing efforts to provide a framework that will be useful in the work of community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. The consultation also formally endorsed the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Participants to the Consultation believe that the Guidelines provide a platform for the development of activities and initiatives, including advocacy education. Community-based organizations (CBOs) would need to prioritize and select specific issues they feel are critical to their efforts in prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the care and support of those living and affected by HIV/AIDS. Section 2.0 of the document describes the links between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Section 3.0 outlines a framework for the work ICASO will be doing over the next several years in the area of human rights, social equity and HIV/AIDS. The framework consists of guiding principles, role statements, goals, objectives, activities and structures. The framework has been prepared primarily from a global perspective. Finally, Section 4.0 contains work-plans from three of the five regions of ICASO (Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean) showing how human rights issues will be incorporated into their work. (excerpt)
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  24. 74
    285429

    Resource allocation within HIV / AIDS programs.

    Stover J; Bollinger L

    In: State of the art: AIDS and economics, edited by Steven Forsythe. Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 2002 Jul. 58-63.

    The Declaration of Commitment of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) calls for spending on HIV/AIDS programs to increase to US$7-10 billion annually by 2005. The Declaration specifies a number of goals at the global and national level and calls for specific actions to reach those goals, but it does not specify how the funding should be allocated. The Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimates that spending on HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries should increase by US$14 billion by 2007 and suggests that US$6 billion is needed for prevention, US$3 billion for care, and US$5 billion for antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. A detailed estimate of spending requirements prepared for UNGASS calls for minimum spending of US$9.2 billion annually by 2005 in low- and middle-income countries to provide coverage of essential prevention, care, and mitigation services in an effort to reach the UNGASS goals. Details of spending needs by category of intervention are shown in Figure 1. A recent analysis shows that these coverage levels are sufficient to achieve the UNGASS goals. However no analysis has been done to show whether this is the most cost-effective approach to achieving these goals or whether the same goals could be reached with less funding and a more strategic allocation of resources. (excerpt)
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  25. 75
    285422

    HIV / AIDS and globalization -- What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality, and pragmatism?

    Barnett T

    In: State of the art: AIDS and economics, edited by Steven Forsythe. Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 2002 Jul. 9-15.

    Disease epidemics have been related as both cause and effect to increasing integration of human economies, societies, and cultures throughout history. It is well known that infectious diseases are not equally distributed between different societies and different sections of the same society. This is clear on a global scale where disparities in exposure to infection and access to public health provision and health care are acute. There is a debate as to the meaning and effects of “globalization” as well as about whether it is “new” and, if so, in what ways. This paper briefly examines (a) the history of disease in relation to globalization; (b) the meanings and importance of “globalization”; (c) where and how the HIV/AIDS epidemic fits into the picture; (d) some of the theoretical and ideological implications. (author's)
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