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[Bangkok, Thailand], ITPC, 2007 Dec.  p.In the first section of the report, nine country teams provide first-hand reports on central issues related to AIDS service scale-up in their countries. Each demonstrates that increasing access to AIDS treatment brings not only better life and new hope, but also shines light on challenges and effective approaches to a spectrum of health, poverty, and human rights issues. In part two of this report, 14 national teams review drug access issues, and find that global and national processes for AIDS drug registration are burdened by inefficiencies, duplications, delay, and, in some instances, corruption. In many cases key ARVs, particularly newer and second-line therapies, are not yet registered in high impact countries - an administrative roadblock that puts lifesaving care out of reach for hundreds of thousands of people. The report makes a number of concrete recommendations to the key players who are responsible for making near universal access to AIDS treatment a reality by 2010. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, .  p. (Policy Brief)Driven by the increasing demand for and popularity of family planning, increasing population size, and changing demographics with more couples entering their fertile years, the financing requirement for contraceptives has become increasingly onerous. Strategies to finance contraceptives include expansion of the donor base; increased use of cost recovery, including revolving drug funds; greater use of the private sector; and direct government financing of contraceptive procurement. None of these is mutually exclusive, and to ensure contraceptive security, most countries are likely to use some or all of these approaches, and many others. Evidence suggests that many governments are beginning to finance contraceptive procurement using national resources, but limited data are publicly available regarding the global extent of this financing. This brief details the findings of a survey of the extent to which national governments of developing countries are using national resources to finance contraceptive procurement. The brief examines the different types of financing used, some of the benefits of this type of financing, and some of the issues it raises. Hopefully, this study can be repeated to track spending and will spur more rigorous efforts to measure this practice. (excerpt)
Integration of human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Letter dated 16 May 2003 from the Permanent Representative of Bhutan to the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Jun 12. 3 p. (E/CN.4/2004/G/3)I wish to refer to Addendum 1 to your report to the 59th session of the Commission on Human Rights containing an analysis of developments in the area of violence against women at the international, regional and national level, and to provide the following additional information regarding the entry on Bhutan, with a request that these be reflected in the final report. Most national studies on gender show that Bhutan is relatively "gender-balanced" and that there is no overt gender discrimination. Bhutanese women enjoy freedom and equality in most spheres of life. In view of the general overall equality of women and men, no legislation explicitly prohibits discrimination against women. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. 4 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/77)Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and accepted humanitarian rules, as set forth in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have freely undertaken under the various international instruments. Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to several international human rights instruments and has obligations to report on their implementation. Recalling also the relevant resolutions and decisions of the Commission on Human Rights, the relevant resolutions and presidential statements of the Security Council, the reports of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2002/1299) and on women, peace and security (S/2002/1154) and the most recent resolution adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Beijing betrayed. Women worldwide report that governments have failed to turn the Platform into Action.
New York, New York, Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO], 2005. 207 p.Beijing Betrayed is the fifth global monitoring report published by the Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) assessing governments' progress in implementing the commitments they made to the world's women at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, 1995. Beijing Betrayed brings together the diverse voices of women in some 150 countries in subregions across Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, Latin America and the Caribbean and West Asia to influence the United Nations 10 Year Review of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. This report presents women's realities - their concerns, experiences, perspectives and analyses - in the implementation process and contrasts sharply with the more formal and often abstract reports governments have presented. The reports presented here are a testimony to women as agents of change and give us cause for celebration. They show that women advocates everywhere have stepped up their activities since Beijing using the Platform for Action and other key global policy instruments to push governments into taking action. In every region of the world, women have taken the lead in crafting legislation and conducting public awareness activities to promote women's human rights, peace, and sustainable development. (excerpt)
Journal of North African Studies. 2008 Mar; 13(1):55-73.This paper examines the current efforts being made in Morocco in the field of women's education and evaluates the success of the Moroccan Development Model in the field of women's education by examining the topic through three lenses: international aid agencies, Moroccan government and royal efforts and the Moroccan Women's Movement. Consideration of the historical, religious and economic frameworks for each actor maintains priority within the study as a means of evaluating the progress made to date, the current status of women's education and the long-term goals and timeframes. The findings within this paper are primarily based on UN statistics, ratings, and definitions as well as other reputable sources such as the World Bank. Sources used include magazine articles, websites, academic journals and papers, and sociological, political and anthropological books on Morocco and women. It must be noted that this evaluation focuses on Anglophone and Francophone sources only and does not consider Arabophone sources. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Nov; 85(11):824-825.The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) found that there is overwhelming evidence that humans are affecting climate and it highlighted the implications for human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is helping countries respond to this challenge, primarily by encouraging them to build and reinforce public health systems as the first line of defence against climate-related health risks. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Jan; 8(1):14.A report from the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) warns that meeting the "near universal access target" to AIDS drugs access by the 2010 deadline will require an enormous effort by governments, global agencies, and drug companies. According to the report, which looked at AIDS treatment access in 14 countries, "scale-up is working but high prices, patent and registration barriers, and ongoing stock-outs are core issues impeding AIDS drug delivery". "The issues highlighted in this report are real and widespread", said Nathan Ford of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; Johannesburg, South Africa). The HIV programmes run by MSF across the developing world are struggling against user fees, high drug costs, lack of human resources, and poor health infrastructure, he told TLID. The ITPC, a group of 1000 treatment activists from more than 125 countries, highlights that the high cost of antiretroviral drugs is a particular barrier in Argentina, China, and Belize. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Nov; 7(11):705.An expert advisory group, convened by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), has concluded that it would be inadvisable to embark on a widespread pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccination programme in European countries at the present time. Pre-pandemic vaccines, currently being developed by several pharmaceutical companies, can be made ahead of the emergence of pandemic influenza virus, unlike "true" pandemic vaccines. However, experts have concluded that there remains too much uncertainty as to whether the H5N1 avian influenza virus, on which pre-pandemic vaccines currently under development are based, will ever be responsible for a pandemic. According to Johan Giesecke (ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden), "If there is an H5N1-based pandemic, the strategy of having stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines, even if the vaccines incompletely match the pandemic virus, may prevent more infections and deaths than waiting for specific "true" pandemic vaccines...however, there is no guarantee that the next human influenza pandemic will evolve from the current H5N1 avian influenza virus". (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Nov 24; 370(9601):1744-1746.The four papers in this Series called Who Counts? describe the state of the world's vital statistics, and the fact that few countries derive these from routine compulsory measures through civil registration. However, every country in the world has the capacity to produce useful economic data. Because of its particular interest in, and requirements for, demographic and epidemiological data, the health sector should raise similar expectations of national capacity to produce vital statistics. Unrepresentative, biased, incomplete, and often out-of-date, the world's vital statistics compare poorly with the detailed information available on every country's economy. The effort and expense of gathering and interpreting data on national income and trade balances are accepted costs of monitoring economic prospects in an international market. Health is arguably as important as economics, and establishing their mutual interdependence has made a big difference to the funding and attention that health attracts.Sen proposes mortality as an indicator of economic success or failure, but many countries are still making patchy and incomplete efforts to count lives and deaths, and to document how their people die. (excerpt)
In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Oct 27; 370(9597):1471-1474.With the Paul Wolfowitz era behind it and new appointee Robert Zoellick at the helm, it is time for the World Bank to better define its role in an increasingly crowded and complex global health architecture, says Jennifer Prah Ruger, health economist and former World Bank speechwriter. Just 2 years after taking office as president of the World Bank, Paul Wolfowitz resigned amid allegations of favouritism, and is now succeeded by Robert Zoellick. Many shortcomings marked Wolfowitz's presidency, not the least of which were a tumultuous battle over family planning and reproductive health policy, significant reductions in spending and staffing, and poor performance in implementing health, nutrition, and population programmes. Wolfowitz did little to advance the bank's role in the health sector. With the Wolfowitz era behind it and heightened scrutiny in the aftermath, the World Bank needs to better define its role and seize the initiative in health at both the global and country levels. Can the bank have an effect in an increasingly plural and complex global health architecture? What crucial role can the bank play in global health governance in the years ahead? (excerpt)
International Affairs. 2006 Mar; 82(2):269-284.This article attempts to lay out a set of broad theoretical questions, illustrated with material from two visits to sub-Saharan Africa, including interviews with government officials and international organization representatives in Botswana and Malawi, about 70 interviews with staff from AIDS NGOs across sub-Saharan Africa, and an initial effort at mapping the universe of organizations responding to Africa's AIDS pandemic. The article focuses on four issues: (1) the nature of the organizations responding to AIDS in Africa; (2) the relation of AIDS governance to existing patterns of African governance, including the possibilities of syncretism and, conversely, a stand-off between the organizational models created by AIDS NGOs and existing patterns of authority and cooperation in African societies; (3) the problems and possibilities of 'cultural match' between existing repertoires of 'collective action schemas' and those proffered by NGOs and international organizations;1 and (4) the slippery matter of the play of power, money and identity in a field of power with very unequal players. (excerpt)
The Global Campaign for the Health MDGs: Challenges, opportunities, and the imperative of shared learning.
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1018-1020.On Sept 5, the International Health Partnership (IHP) was launched by the UK, and on Sept 26, Women and Children First: the Global Business Plan for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health will be launched by Norway. These two new efforts, along with the Canadian Catalytic Initiative to Save a Million Lives, have been packaged as part of a broader Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Goals (MDGs). Such an explosion of proposals, which is meant to accelerate action for achieving MDGs 4, 5, and 6, should be welcomed by the world's health community. The proposals are further recognition of the continued commitment by high-income countries to address key health challenges in low-income and middle-income countries. Building on a decade of expanding work in global health, we can hope that these high-profile initiatives will sustain interest and address major obstacles to improving the health of the poorest people in the magnitude and time-frame demanded by the MDGs. Nevertheless, as is often the case with new policy efforts, the main operative aspects of the proposals and their likely consequences can be difficult to identify. We frame questions on five key issues that these announcements highlight. (excerpt)
Commentary: From scarcity to abundance: Pandemic vaccines and other agents for "have not" countries.
Journal of Public Health Policy. 2007; 28(3):322-340.The recent impasse between the Indonesian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) over sharing H5N1 viruses in return for access to affordable pandemic vaccines highlights slow progress in defining an antigen sparing vaccine formulation, developing licensing requirements that meet the needs of populations and obtaining government funding for vaccine trials. Currently, vaccine-producing countries would have difficulty producing enough doses for their own people and few doses would be left over for non-producing ("have not") countries. Yet within a few months of the onset of a new pandemic, several billion doses of live-attenuated and recombinant hemagglutinin H5 vaccines could be produced for "have not" countries, provided a new and disruptive system of "top down" management could be organized. In its absence, a "bottom-up" alternative that uses widely available and inexpensive generic agents like statins must be considered. The "have not" countries must continue to put pressure on WHO and leading countries to ensure that they will have access to the interventions they will need. (author's)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Communications to and from governments.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Mar 3. 51 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66/Add.1)The Special Rapporteur wishes to inform the Commission that during the period under review she transmitted communications to the Governments of: Angola, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Uruguay. In addition the Governments of Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, China, Egypt, Greece, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Uruguay provided the Special Rapporteur with replies on cases and reports submitted during the year under review, whereas the Governments of Australia, China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka did so with respect to cases submitted in previous years. This report contains, on a country-by-country basis, summaries of general and individual allegations, as well as urgent appeals transmitted to Governments, and their replies thereto. Observations by the Special Rapporteur have also been included where applicable. The names of some of the victims whose cases are presented in this report have been replaced by initials, in order to respect their privacy and to prevent further revictimization. The full names of all victims have been provided to the Government concerned. (excerpt)
AIDS is not a business: A study in global corporate responsibility -- securing access to low-cost HIV medications.
Journal of Business Ethics. 2007 Jun; 73(1):65-75.At the end of the 1990s, Brazil was faced with a potentially explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic. Through an innovative and multifaceted campaign, and despite initial resistance from multinational pharmaceutical companies, the government of Brazil was able to negotiate price reductions for HIV medications and develop local production capacity, thereby averting a public health disaster. Using interview data and document analysis, the authors show that the exercise of corporate social responsibility can be viewed in practice as a dynamic negotiation and an interaction between multiple actors. Action undertaken in terms of voluntary CSR alone may be insufficient. This finding highlights the importance of a strong role for national governments and international organizations to pressure companies to perform better. (author's)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Development. 2004 Aug; 2(2):96-99.The World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations (UN) agency responding to humanitarian emergencies by delivering food aid to vulnerable populations worldwide. The protracted insurgency in northern Uganda resulted in the displacement of up to 1,619,807 people, largely women and children. The humanitarian situation among displaced persons in northern and eastern Uganda led to diminished coping abilities and increased food aid needs. Access to food through productive means varies but, on average, households can only access about 0.5 - 0.75 acres of land. Recent nutrition and health assessments conducted in Pader District, in Feb 2004 and in Gulu District, in June 2004, highlight high mortality rates of more than 1 death/10,000 people/day. While Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) rates appear to fall within the normal range expected within African populations (<5% GAM), high mortality rates consistently highlight the severity of the health situation in the camps. The WFP Uganda Country Office currently implements a Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO) and a Country Programme (CP). The PRRO targets Internally Displaced Persons in Northern Uganda through General Food Distribution (GFD) activities, school children, HIV/AIDS infected and affected households and other vulnerable groups. In partnership with the Government of Uganda (GOU), sister UN agencies, international and national NGOs and Community Based Organisations, WFP currently assists the 1,619,807 Internally Displaced Persons, (IDPs), including 178,741 school children in the Gulu and Kitgum, 19,900 people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS in Gulu and Kitgum and more than 750 food insecure persons involved in asset creation. Whilst WFP and other humanitarian actors continue to provide relief support to the displaced communities of northern Uganda, it is clear that without increased security the crisis will continue. (author's)
Health Policy and Development. 2004 Apr; 2(1):30-32.On the eve of the 3rd millennium, stock was taken of PHC and health sector reforms. The results of a shocking failure of previously advocated goals were evident. Therefore a new set of goals and mechanisms were adopted under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are 8: on hunger, education, gender disparity, child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/AIDS, safe drinking water and partnership. They have implications for multi-laterals as well as for national Governments. Multi-laterals are expected to implement unified and harmonized programmes. Governments are also expected to improve governance, respect the law and mobilise resources for social investment. Recent reviews do not show that much progress has been made. But perhaps it is still too early. What seems to be missing though is a powerful lobby for the implementation of MDGs. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2006 Jul. 7 p.A Grant from the World Bank provided a strong impetus to Djibouti's national HIV response in 2003. Clear objectives and priorities, effective government action and commitment, and close cooperation among the key donors and government organizations have contributed to strong results in the national response to HIV. The Global Fund cites Djibouti as a "best practice" example of donor coordination and harmonization and UNICEF recognizes the outreach to young people and community interventions as best practices. (author's)
Ottawa, Canada, Youth Coalition, 2006. 30 p.The current global generation of young people is the first in history to have lived their entire lives in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and are disproportionately affected. Millions of children and youth have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS; thousands of others are HIV positive themselves; and many others are affected by it in a variety of ways. None of us are immune to it. In response to the pandemic, governments and international organizations have adopted a variety of responses, but the numbers show that what has been done thus far clearly is not adequate. The reality is that none of these responses, initiatives or programs will be truly successful and effective until they integrate a sexual and reproductive rights and a gender perspective. Furthermore, every initiative must include youth from the beginning to ensure that we young people, have the youth-friendly information, education, services and products that we are entitled to as our human right, in order to make informed and healthy decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives. This guide is intended to: Provide an overview of the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights and HIV/AIDS; Explain the importance of HIV/AIDS initiatives having a sexual and reproductive rights perspective, as well as a youth perspective; and Discuss ways that young people can advocate for their sexual and reproductive rights within HIV/AIDS frameworks, in their countries, regions, and globally. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006 Jun.  p.This study reviewed the gender-related aspects of the work of TCs in Peru, Sierra Leone, and South Africa, as expressed in their daily work, in the drafting of the commission's mandate, in the participation of civil society institutions, and in the preparation of the final report. The three country experiences were selected as informative examples. Following a description of the experiences in the three countries, this study focuses on the Peruvian case to illustrate how the formal and informal justice systems have responded to the gender-relevant findings of the TC. The study also provides general suggestions for the consideration of World Bank staff, particularly in the incorporation of gender issues into the Bank's postconflict interventions in relevant sectors. Finally, the study reviews some basic indicators of progress and impact in Bank-financed interventions in postconflict and transitional settings. (excerpt)