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  1. 51

    Combatting AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases in Africa: a review of the World Bank's agenda for action.

    Lamboray JL; Elmendorf AE

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xiii, 34 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 181; Africa Technical Department Series)

    Awareness of the patterns of HIV infection and the scope of AIDS worldwide has increased since the Africa Region of the World Bank issued its agenda in 1988 for action on AIDS in Africa. The Bank has therefore reviewed and reconfigured its approach to adopt a more broad and aggressive agenda against the pandemic. Once thought to be confined to urban areas, HIV infection is spreading rurally, AIDS has become the leading cause of death among hospital patients in several African capitals, and total AIDS cases are expected to reach 2.5 million in 1992. Projections even indicate that the prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa may increase from 2 million in 1988, to 6 million in 1992, and 10 million by 1994. HIV is spreading through virtually all African countries at all socioeconomic levels. AIDS clearly ranks among the top 5 health problems in Africa's urban populations and exacerbates the risk of other endemic diseases. HIV infection and AIDS may therefore certainly be considered as significant threats to population health and socioeconomic development in Africa. Accordingly, the World Bank should take a greater role in supporting research and the prevention of HIV infection. Specifically, the Bank may support the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases and research into the relationship of HIV with other potential cofactors, core transmitter groups, and the importance of not exhausting available resources exclusively upon AIDS. The Bank is currently developing country-specific multisectoral AIDS strategies to prevent new HIV infection and mitigate consequence. Internal interdepartmental coordination within the Bank could be improved and a more aggressive tack could be taken on lending for the prevention of HIV. The Bank also feels that the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS should be reviewed and refined.
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  2. 52

    World population: basic documents. Volume 4: World Population Year.

    Joyce JA

    Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, 1976. [828] p.

    4 volumes of text are dedicated to the discussion of rapid world population growth, especially in the developing countries, since the second World War and the role of UN organizations in checking this growth. This fourth volume of the series discusses the World Population Year with central attention given to the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania; purposes and the constitution of the World Population Fund as well as the global program of activities listed in UNFPA's 1973 report; purposes and programs of the World Population Year; and presents main documents prepared for delegate use at the Bucharest Conference, a summary report of the conference, and a selection of current annotated book lists and other bibliography related to subject matter of all volumes. Subtopics covered relating to the World Population Conference include: the provisional agenda and organization of work; recent population trends and future prospects; population change and economic and social development; a draft World Population plan of action; report of symposia on population and development, family, resources and environment, and population and human rights; population policy and the family; world fertility trends; population and education; health and family planning; use of models as instruments in formulating population policies; action taken at Bucharest; and Bucharest in retrospect. IPPF publications, random bibliographies of publications and visual materials, current publications and visual materials, current publications in population/family planning, and selected references to the social science literature on population policy are among selected bibliographical references.
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  3. 53

    1991 ESCAP population data sheet.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991. [1] p.

    The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
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  4. 54

    Interview: Mr. George Walmsley: UNFPA Country Director for the Philippines.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.

    George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
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  5. 55

    Long-term immigration to the United States: new approaches to measurement.

    Kraly EP; Warren R

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1991 Spring; 25(1):60-92.

    The United Nations has recommended the measurement of types of international migration using demographic criteria, including length of stay and purpose of travel. Information systems at the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) have the potential to provide a basis for documenting these demographic characteristics, in particular, length of stay of temporary migrants to the United States. This article analyzes these characteristics of selected categories of nonimmigrant aliens. The results of the analysis are used to produce series of estimates of alien immigration that conform more closely to the U.N. recommended definitions and better represent demographic concepts of long-term immigration. A strategy for measuring emigration of aliens from the United States using INS information systems is also described. (EXCERPT)
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  6. 56

    Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    Sibanda AE

    ZIMBABWE JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS. 1988 Jan; 2(1):81-100.

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.
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  7. 57

    The earth: can it support 5.2 billion people?

    Sadik N

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Dec; (22):24-7.

    In the last 20 years the world's population has grown by 1.6 billion and has reached 5.2 billion. The gap in population growth between developing and developed areas will increase in the next decade: at present 77% of the earth's population lives in developing countries. A major demographic factor is the future of urban growth where the number of cities over 5 million will increase to 45 by the end of the century. The aging of the population is another demographic factor found worldwide. By the year 2000, 13% of the population will be over 60: 70% of those will be in developed areas. Most developing countries now have a population policy. The total fertility rate has dropped more than 20% in developing countries since 1970. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has devoted a recent report to the purpose of investing in women. The key to the future of mankind is related directly to the extent that women can make decisions affecting their lives. It is apparent that the effects of resource misuse, environmental damage, and population growth crosses national borders indiscriminately. The key elements to a new approach of development are population, environment, and the role and status of women. In the development of national conservation policies and in the implementing a world strategy, the population environmental relationship will need to be addressed. Since women are directly and indirectly related to the environment by the tasks they perform they are also the most directly effected by environmental degradation. A new approach is needed for balanced development that recognized social, economic, population and environmental relationships. A realistic set of goals for population policy would be to slow the rapid population growth, decrease infant, child and maternal mortality, raise the status of women, and regulate the migration and distribution of population.
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  8. 58

    The state of world population 1990: choices for the new century.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 40 p.

    The decade of the 1990's, the Fourth Development Decade, will be "critical" because of the world's demographic situation will determine the future for the 21st century in terms of population growth and the effect of growing populations in terms of damage to the environment. Despite the fact that government political support for population programs and activities rose from 97 countries in 1976 to 125 in 1988 (Africa rose from 16 in 1978 to 30 in 1988), the contraceptive prevalence rates in developing countries (excluding China) during the 1980's fell below 40%. Many countries encountered a "mix" of difficulties maintaining their family planning programs (FP) because of declining political support and the debt burden forcing governments to reduce investments in health and social welfare programs, including FP. By the year 2025 the UN expects 8,467 million people; 147 million (<5%) will be in the industrialized countries and 95% in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia. This report discusses human resource development during the Fourth Development Decade. FP and population programs must become integral components of countries' development process to achieve sustainable economic growth. 19 recommendations are offered on how to achieve sustained fertility declines. This UNFPA report includes the following sections: Introduction; Part 1 "The Challenges Ahead"; Part 2 "Keeping the Options Open"; Part 3 "Human Resource Development-A New Priority"; Conclusion and Recommendations.
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  9. 59

    Case studies in population policy: Mexico.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1989. vii, 52 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 21; ST/ESA/SER.R/89)

    Since 1973, the Mexican government has been included in other development programs. At the macro-level, there is the assumption that linkages exist between population, development, resources, and environment. At the micro-level, there is the assumption that, given the interconnection between socioeconomic and demographic variables, population programs can only be demographic in nature, and that socioeconomic programs can reinforce the impact of population programs if they properly take into account the processes of policy formulation and implementation. The important factors for controlling both fertility and mortality trends include improved and universal education, changes in perceptions and attitudes toward family formation, and greater access to health and family planning information and services. Significant progress in controlling both fertility and mortality is not credited to any single population program but to the fact that levels of income, nutrition, education, employment, and housing have improved, and also to more adequate access to and use of health services and family planning clinics. Mexico's recent policy to curb rapid population growth appears to offer many positive indications, although the experience may not be directly transferable to other countries. The Mexican approach to promoting family planning and population awareness has been highly centralized and initiated from the highest levels of administration. 2 characteristics of the health sector have contributed to program success: 1) several institutions that were delivering services were well equipped to take on additional responsibilities and 2) the responsiveness of doctors employed by public institutions. The Mexican experience thus serves as an example of the speed and efficacy with which public opinion and governmental infrastructure can be mobilized and extended given the political will to do so. The present administration is now attempting to decentralize the nation's vast system of public administration. In general, population policy faces the great challenges of 1) moving in the direction of specifically targeted groups, 2) achieving changes in spatial distribution, and 3) absorbing new members of the labor force.
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  10. 60

    Population and development in the Sahel: the challenges of rapid population growth.

    Institut du Sahel. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]

    Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.

    The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
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  11. 61

    A demographic perspective on developing Asia and its relevance to the Bank.

    Pernia EM

    Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)

    Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
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  12. 62

    Republic of Korea.

    Hwan CD

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 187-8.

    Despite considerable economic growth, the government of the Republic of Korea is still experiencing population-related problems. Concern over population problems began in the 1960's. In response to a growing population, the government implemented growth control measures in order to stimulate economic growth. The government has implemented several comprehensive family planning programs which work to encourage Koreans to have smaller families. The country is also experiencing overcrowding in most of its major cities. Present population policies being implemented work to develop rural areas and their industries in an attempt to prevent further migration to the large cities. The government has also begun implementing programs to deal with the aged. The government of the Republic of Korea feels that it is important that comprehensive population policies are developed in order to deal with population problems on regional, national, and international scales.
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  13. 63

    Lesotho: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Jun. x, 66 p. (Report No. 81)

    A UN mission was sent to assess and recommend areas for assistance in the field of population assistance in Lesotho. The mission recommends a population unit be set up and staffed with personnel able to initiate, coordinate, and document population research. It also should assist in the integration of population data into the planning process. Data needed to accomplish these tasks includes current statistics on the size, demographic, and socioeconomic details of the population; migration and geographical distribution; general health and nutritional status, including adult and infant mortality; the size and distribution of the work force; and the employment market and manpower in the private sector. Research is recommended in the following areas: resource limitations on development and job growth; international migration; effects of infertility on population growth and distribution; religion and culture in family planning; women's status in work force; effects of land tenure, land use and distribution; teen pregnancy; resources available to women; and effects of returning migrants on households. Also recommended are expanding health facilities and increasing staff training for this network. Family planning should be integrated with maternal and child health services. The mission finds that the government needs to promote a longterm formal program on population education, and designate an agency to coordinate such a program. The mission suggests that women's role in agriculture and other employment be analyzed, and also laws that effect their rights and responsibilities. It also recommends more small projects in rural areas and designating funds to help women gain self sufficiency.
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  14. 64


    Planinc M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 175-6.

    10 years after the Bucharest Conference, which adopted the World Plan of Action, there is a second World Population Conference to be held in Mexico. The Conference will deal with considering progress since the Bucharest Conference and new population problems which need to be addressed, with respect to the diversity of the governments and cultures represented in Mexico. The Conference is faced with the prospect of deciding in which manner each country should deal with their population problems in the future. However factors such as inflation, growing debts, and unemployment should not be viewed as secondary to population variables. Factors such as bloc policies and arms races are other reasons for the depletion of funds which could be better used for economic and social development. The country of Yugoslavia is affected by these factors, as well. The government believes that peaceful development, globally, might lead to faster social and economic development in lesser developed countries which experience excessive poverty and population growth. Increase diversity in population problems is of great concern to the Yugoslavian government. However, support of United Nations programs, humanitarian aid from developed countries, and the increasing implementation of the World Plan of Action by various countries encourages the Yugoslavian people. However, it is up to each country to develop and implement its own population policy. Factors such as maternal and infant mortality; status of women; rights of each family to decide the size and spacing of their families; and the well-being of the family should be taken into account.
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  15. 65

    Democratic Yemen.

    Mohammed AN

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 48-9.

    In 1983, the population of Yemen was 2,055,000. It was 1,590,000 in 1973 when the first census was taken. The 1973 census is considered the first census since it employed modern means to calculate the population of Yemen. The period before that was characterized by illiteracy and backwardness which prevented any social and economic development. In order to deal with implementing development programmes, the government first had to remove certain social structures. The population policy of Yemen works to improve social and economic factors. Its main thrust is to improve living and working conditions; health care; education; housing; in addition to providing maternal and child care. Due to its democratic make-up, the government looks to include discussion from the people on the development of future and present population programmes. The results are increase in the standard in living, elimination of unemployment, and an increase in school attendance.
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  16. 66


    Schluter P

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 50-1.

    The world rate population growth has decreased slightly over the past decade. However, global development differs from country to country. In some countries, population growth has been replaced by population decline. This particular phenomena is being experienced in developed nations. On the other hand, the developing world is experiencing an alarming population increase, which compromises economic and social development. However, a problem common to both developed and developing countries is an increase in the population of the elderly. It is something that each nation must eventually address in the future. In dealing with present population problems, global cooperation is needed. Bi-lateral and multi-lateral assistance should be emphasized, in addition to programmes implemented by non-governmental organizations. All national programs should take into account the individual rights of all- those who wish to receive family planning services and those who do not. At the center of each population policy should be the improvement of the status of women. The Danish government offers assistance to those countries looking to implement programs which will deal with this particular problem. The government of Denmark looks forward to the World Population Conference to be held in Mexico. It recognizes the importance of reviewing and assessing progress since the Bucharest Conference in 1974.
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  17. 67

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    San KS

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 183.

    The government of Korea has formulated its population policy on the basis of the Juche idea, created by President Kim Il Sung. The plan is focused around serving the people and the individual rights of all. Korea, a socialist country, has a planned and managed economy which helps to develop all sectors of the community. The population policy implemented by the government works to help in the development of the whole country. Under the population policy, the government has: controlled overcrowding; improved health and living standards; experienced a decline in the birth rate (31.3/1000 in 1941 to 21.9/1000 in 1982) and mortality rate; and experienced an increased in the average life expectancy (38 years in 1938-1940 to 74 years in 1982). After the war, the government implemented a program to increase births so as to make up its population losses. However, since the 1970's, the government now works to control the rate of births in its country. Concerning women and children, the state provides free education and health benefits. The government strives to work with other socialist countries to promote peace and world free of subjugation.
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  18. 68


    Soares M

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 132.

    The government of Portugal, which has undergone various political transformations, has committed itself to improving the socioeconomic conditions of its country. Population problems, however diverse and numerous, still have an effect on the political, social and economic structure of various world societies. It is of utmost importance that population problems be attacked on a global scale, bearing in mind each nation's sovereign right to deal with their problems, individually. Of special attention to each nation and Portugal, in particular, is the status of women, and internal and external migration. The government of Portugal supports the establishment of an organization that protects the rights of emigrants. It is the hope of the government of Portugal that these problems are addressed at the 1984, World Population Conference.
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  19. 69


    Husein S

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 84-5.

    The president of Iraq wishes to express his best wishes for the success of the 1984 World Population Conference. The government of Iraq believes that the conference requires a great deal of effort to improve present-day problems. Several countries have experienced socioeconomic growth since the 1974 Bucharest Conference; it is necessary that these problems of development be addressed as well. The government of Iraq has paid special attention to its own development problems by addressing such factors as the labor force and the status of women. The government of Iraq has given financial and material aid to developing countries in an attempt to help build up these economies. It is up to the more developed countries to combat world poverty by giving assistance to the less developed. International cooperation is needed to deal with global problems; foreign aggression, as in the case of Israel and Iran, solves nothing - it only creates a state of instability within the Middle East.
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  20. 70

    The Netherlands.

    Lubbers R

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 116.

    The government of the Netherlands feels that is the duty and concern of all nations to provide favorable social and economic conditions. The 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico provides the chance for nations to meet and discuss present day population phenomena. The government of the Netherlands, recognizing the basic rights of couples and individuals concerning birth control, supports a non- intervention policy. However, the Dutch government does give its support to in-depth studies on population control and program implementation in developing countries. The United Nations supports and assists governments implementing population programmes. Central to the U.N. population and development efforts is improving the status of women. However, many member states of the United Nations support the freedom of choice concerning family planning.
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  21. 71

    Sectoral paper--policy development process.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 88 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. I)

    International population assistance defines the population aspects of development as the causes, conditions and consequences of changes in fertility, mortality and mobility as they affect developmental prospects and human welfare. Key elements in the policy-making process in the field of population are research, dissemination, policy formulation, policy planning, policy implementation and evaluation, policy analysis and data collection. The challenge is identifying where and how the population policy process needs are to be strengthened or modified to fit future needs. Political and substantive factors are the main causes for the lack of population policies in many developing countries; population assistance can begin to contribute to economic development by reaching the poorest classes of society; more focus has to be put on the interrelationship between gender roles and demographic behavior; more research is needed on the costs versus benefits of changing mortality, fertility and migration among the poor or will the focus remain on urban dwellers; more research and policy analysis are needed on the consequences of migration; there is the need for greater focus on integrating population with development and establishing appropriate institutional arrangements; data collection, tabulation and analysis will need to become more gender-specific and aimed at special target groups such as women, youth and the elderly. Data will need to be disaggregated for population subgroups and then integrated between different social and economic sectors. The availability of integrated statistics will be fundamental in the formulation and evaluation of programs for these special groups. When the policy development process is based on scientific data, research and analysis, there must be strong political commitment, institutional support, budgetary provision and a willingness to use the findings on an on-going basis.
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  22. 72


    Haidalla MK

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 105.

    Mauritania's Military Committee of National Salvation, inspired both by religious teachings and its participation in the 1974 World Population Conference, has adopted a social and economic development plan aimed at improving the quality of life of the population. With the financial and technical assistance of the United Nations, Mauritania has carried out its 1st national population census and fertility survey; in addition, a Center for Demographic and Social Research was established in 1983. Health efforts are currently aimed at reducing infant and child mortality. Mauritania's approach to population control primarily stresses improvements in maternal and child health. In education, efforts have been directed toward increasing school attendance rates and improving the quality of teaching. Unemployment and underemployment are also being given serious attention. To stem migration from rural to urban areas, which accelerated during the drought, sectoral projects seek to keep people in their areas. The creation of mass education structures is the most tangible expression of the Government's commitment to involving Mauritanians in shaping their own political, cultural, economic, and social destiny. For true harmonization of national population policies, however, a more just, humane international economic order is needed.
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  23. 73


    Jugnauth A

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.

    As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.
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  24. 74

    Family planning in a changing world: an IPPF reappraisal.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1987. v, 57, [6] p.

    The present survey of the international environment in which the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) operates shows many advances in family planning, in particular the strong commitment of most governments. But it also confirms that there is still an unmet need on a very large scale and in many countries the gap between knowledge and practice of family planning is striking evidence of the absence of services and of adequate motivation. The resurgence of opposition to family planning and the declining investment in contraceptive research are significant negative trends. A positive development of great importance to IPPF is the strong endorsement of the role of non-governmental organizations, and this represents a special challenge in the years ahead. Family planning associations (FPAs) retain, but could strengthen, their important role as advocates of family planning at the national level, now needed more than ever to counter new forms of opposition. Donors while anxious for FPAs to remain at the cutting edge, are in the main content with the contributions FPAs make as consumer-oriented, voluntary movements for family planning. The importance of IPPF for information, inspiration, and support is now more widely recognized among FPAs. IPPF's general principles include 1) human rights,2) a strong non-governmental role, 3) a voluntary movement, 4) autonomy and responsibility, 5) voluntary and informed choice, 6) advocacy, 7) improved service delivery, 8) increasing demand and practice, 9) meeting the needs of young people, 10) male involvement in family planning, 11) combining family planning with other development activities, 12) management training and program evaluation, 13) resource development at a local level, and 14) long-term planning.
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  25. 75

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, 1987/88.

    Singh JS; Cuffley CE

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Population Fund, 1989. xi, 902 p. (Population Programmes and Projects v. 2)

    The 15th edition of the INVENTORY shows at a glance, by country, internationally-assisted population projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and non-governmental and other agencies and organizations during the period from 1 January 1987-30 June 1988. Whenever possible, projects that may have been funded prior to 1987 and that are still being carried out in 1987-1988 are shown. However, it is a good idea to use this INVENTORY in conjunction with the 1986-1987 edition. The 18-month period was used as the base period, since, although there was bound to be some duplication between editions, coverage would be more complete. Entries are grouped by country. Each country listing includes assistance from multilateral organizations, such as the UN Population Fund and the World Health Organization, assistance from non-governmental organizations, demographic facts, and population policies. The basic source of demographic data for individual countries is the WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS: 1988 REVISION. The basic source of information for the section on government's views on population is the UN Population Division and its publication WORLD POPULATION POLICIES. The dollar value of projects or total country programs is given where such figures are available.
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