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  1. 51
    066507

    The surge of new interest in breastfeeding. Why now?

    Shelton J

    In: Lactation education for health professionals, edited by Rosalia Rodriguez-Garcia, Lois A. Schaefer, Joao Yunes. Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], 1990. 113-20. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    The practice breastfeeding has begun receiving increased interest, generated in part by better a understanding of its beneficial consequences. Evidence shows that breastfeeding greatly reduces level infant mortality and morbidity. A 1989 study in Brazil concluded that a breastfed child has 14.2x less likely to die from diarrhea, 3.6x less likely to die from respiratory infection, and 2.5x less likely to die from other infections. Besides its well-documented immunological properties, studies have shown that breastmilk can adapt, over time, to meet the changing needs of an infant. The practice of breastfeeding has also demonstrated contraceptive effects. Women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding, amenorrheic, and less than 6 months postpartum have 98% protection against pregnancy. Furthermore, longer birth spacing results in healthier mothers and infants. The renewed interest in breastfeeding is also the result of breastfeeding promotion campaigns, the successes of other child survival intervention programs, and the collaboration of international agencies. A study in Honduras indicates that promotional campaigns (involving the education of the public and the medical community) significantly increases the average duration of breastfeeding. And a study in brazil shows that the use of mass media can increase the prevalence of breastfeeding. Health care professional have also been encouraged by the success of oral dehydration and immunization campaigns, which have a natural link to breastfeeding, and the establishment of the Interagency Group of Action on Breastfeeding, a collaborative effort by 5 international agencies. With the increasing interest, health care officials hope to reverse the decline in the practice of breastfeeding.
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  2. 52
    065518

    Population Information Network for Africa.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Population Division. Population Information Network for Africa [POPIN Africa]

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1990 Apr. [4], 23 p. (RAF/88/P16)

    POPIN-Africa, or Population Information Network for Africa, was conceived in 1982 and designed to enable ECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa) member states to develop national information centers and infrastructures to support their policies of development planning. It allows information to be standardized and encourages formulation of sound population policies based on accurate information. POPIN-Africa is a decentralized network comprising National Population Information Centers, (NPICs), and Subregional/Sectoral Participating Centers linked by a Coordinating Unit (CU). Associated are an Advisory Committee (PAAC), a Technical Working Group (PAT), and a Working Group on Information Dissemination and Diffusion (PAWID). Major services of POPIN-Africa include documentation in the form of Country Bibliography Series, Databases, Training, a Clearinghouse, news agencies and media links for dissemination of information. Publications include African Population Profile, African Director of Demographers, Popindex-Africa, POPIN-Africa Country Bibliography Series, African Population Newsletter, POPIN-Africa Info, and Scanning Sheet.
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  3. 53
    065509

    Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS.

    Hyden G; Lanegran K

    AIDS AND SOCIETY. 1991 Jan-Feb; 2(2):1, 6, 12-3.

    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.
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  4. 54
    064029

    Cote d'Ivoire. Finalization of Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project.

    Kumah OM

    [Unpublished] 1990. [5], 6, [2] p.

    Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
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  5. 55
    052045

    Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Caribbean Community [CARICOM]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [4], 30, [49] p.

    To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
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  6. 56
    061790

    Guide to planning health promotion for AIDS prevention and control.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1989. iv, 71 p. (WHO AIDS Series 5)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion--the use of information and education to influence individual and group behavior so as to limit the spreads of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection- -should be an integral part of all national programs for the prevention and control of AIDS. This guide was prepared by the World Health Organization to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with the skills and knowledge required to develop action plans for AIDS health promotion as well as to implement, monitor, and evaluate such programs. 10 elements of planning are identified, and the steps, processes, skills, and institutions involved in each are spelled out in separate sections of the guide. These elements are as follows: 1) a clear definition of goals based on the national AIDS plan; 2) an initial assessment of local epidemiology of AIDS and prevalent sociocultural practices; 3) identification of a target audience; 4) definition of objectives and performance targets; 5) the development of educational materials and messages for the target audience; 6) selection of the most appropriate communication channels, institutions, and program activities; 7) development of support services such as counseling, training, and condom distribution; 8) monitoring and evaluation; 9) preparation of a budget and timetable; and 10) reassessment and appropriate programmatic modifications.
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  7. 57
    060093

    AIDS health promotion: guide for planning.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1988. [2], 39 p. (GPA/HPR/88.1)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion involves the use of information and education to change the behaviors of individuals and groups in ways that will control the spread of the virus. Effective promotional activities can make AIDS prevention a high public health priority, promote social support for positive behavioral changes, establish public support for the community and institutional responses required to control the transmission of AIDS, and support the training of workers in the health care field. Through its reliance on multiple communication channels and cooperation with the health and social service sectors, health promotion seeks to achieve sustained change in practices crucial to public health. The key to effective health promotion is adequate planning, services, and the supplies. This guide is aimed at providing planners, manages, and technical staff with a frame of reference for planning, implementing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating AIDS health promotion programs. Discussed in detail are the following elements of program planning: establishing goals, initial assessment, targeting audiences, setting objectives and targets, developing messages and materials, developing communication strategies, providing support services, monitoring and evaluation, scheduling and budget, and reassessing the program. Dispersed throughout are examples of promotional materials and strategies.
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  8. 58
    059738

    Report of the Meeting on HIV Infection and Drug Injecting Intervention Strategies, Geneva, 18-20 January 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 12 p. (WHO/GPA/SBR/89.1)

    To reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, new and innovative strategies must be developed for reaching intravenous drug abusers. Drug injection is the risk factor in at least 21% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Europe and 25% of US AIDS cases. Moreover, a major proportion of heterosexual AIDS cases in developed countries are a result of sexual contact with an HIV- infected intravenous drug abuser. At a meeting organized by the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS in January 1988, the following approaches were identified as effective for HIV risk reduction among this population: 1) outreach programs that provide education and social support to drug injectors who are attempting to change their behavior; 2) access to sterile needles and syringes in return for used injection equipment; 3) information on the decontamination of drug injection equipment, e.g., through bleaching; and 4) wider use of methadone and other detoxification methods to decrease the prevalence of the drug addiction problem. Given the numerous problems inherent in contacting drug abusers for testing and treatment programs, community outreach programs independent of the formal health care system are needed. The greatest success has been achieved in outreach efforts that involve former drug addicts who are familiar with the life-style and needs of drug injectors. The staff of drug treatment programs within the health care system needs education on the promotion of safe sex practices, condom and virucide use, and family planning techniques. Voluntary testing of drug injectors for antibodies to HIV can provide essential data on the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in this population and provides an opportunity for counseling; mandatory testing is not warranted, however.
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  9. 59
    060080

    Broadcasters' questions and answers on AIDS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. [4], 55 p. (WHO/GPA/HPR/89.1; AIDS Prevention Through Health Promotion)

    This document was prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS as a resource for radio broadcasters. Radio broadcasters are in an ideal position to increase public knowledge about AIDS and reduce misconceptions; however, to play this role, they must themselves to be well informed. The information in this manual is organized into 13 topics: what is AIDS, AIDS background, AIDS and nightlife, AIDS and you, AIDS next door, AIDS on the street, AIDS at work, AIDS and pregnancy, insects and AIDS, AIDS and travel, international AIDS, national AIDS, and AIDS radio serial. The presentation of each of these topics includes questions and answers, as well as a brief scenario that places the information in the context of daily life. The information can be used by radio broadcasters for shows that cover health topics, question and answer programs, plays, stories, short talks, public service announcements, and radio spots. It is expected that broadcasters will adapt the material to local languages, use scenarios relevant to local high-risk populations, respect local customs and values, use familiar characters and place names, and prepare dialogue and narratives.
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  10. 60
    058904

    Report on the evaluation of Indonesia country programme.

    Chee S; Kittle D; Pullum TW; Rimon JG 2d; Sarvaas CD; Munthe-Kaas AC

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1988 Nov. [2], xvii, 81 p.

    A mission team evaluated the UNFPA supported country program in Indonesia for 4 weeks in 1988. The team found that country program staff had progressed greatly towards institution building and had sufficiently upgraded its capacity, both primary goals in the design of the program. On the other hand, the evaluators observed that the program did not sufficiently emphasize or consider women's issues, except a project for income generation among women's acceptor groups. No comprehensive record of income generating programs exists, however, and should be developed. 4 population dynamics research projects involved improving individual and institutional capability to conduct research in development and implementation of population policies. In addition, the program also supported training programs and computer equipped resource centers at 2 university centers. The team noted, however, that research and analyses should also be conducted using the available primary data, e.g., census data and annual surveys. Even though the 2 projects in strengthening family planning management and operations research have basically achieved their goals, they need to foster linkage between the 2 and to include gender issues in their designs. Indonesia has been successful in delivery of family planning services through community involvement and women's group. Nevertheless, some areas of improvement include development of a transport policy to continue and expand family planning services and investigating the potential for NORPLANT production in Indonesia. In terms of education and communication, the program has satisfactorily focused on motivating couples and youth to use contraceptives. Yet it needs to know its target audiences better so as to develop more effective materials and presentations.
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  11. 61
    058903

    Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.

    Obeng-Quaidoo I

    GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.

    In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
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  12. 62
    055333

    Towards effective family planning programming.

    Dondi NN

    Nairobi, Kenya, Family Planning Association of Kenya, 1980. [5], 164 p.

    The proceedings of the Second Management Seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), held in December 1979, with appendices, are presented. The 1st 3 days consisted of lectures and plenary discussions on topics such as communication strategies, family guidance, youth problems, and contraceptive methods; the last 2 days were group discussions, reports and summary evaluations. 40 participants took part in the evaluation, expressing satisfaction with knowledge gained in communications, family life education, and IPPF organization and skills. They expressed the need to learn more about family counseling, youth problems, population, and integrated approaches. The seminar recommended that FPAK be more innovative to retain volunteers, plan its communication strategy more carefully, train and involve volunteers in programming, study traditional family planning methods, provide family counseling services, fully exploit the media, and use it to clarify misconceptions and introduce community-based distribution.
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  13. 63
    049682

    Training in management of population communication programmes.

    Mathur KB; Bhatia B

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the ICOMP Biennial International Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 1-4, 1986. 11, [1] p.

    Communication is a basic part of population and development programs and is necessary to ensure that people participate and improve their quality of life. The management of the communication process in these programs requires not only knowledge and comprehension of the process, but also the structure of media and local organizations. The direction of management has shifted from a vertical to a horizontal communication structure. To be an effective manager, the following traits are needed: The ability to understand policy, develop strategies, provide and seek support, produce unique messages, make media choices, mobilize personnel, prepare training activities and work plans, and be able to implement research. The skills needed are the ability to foresee and act on problems, communicate and listen effectively, motivate and persuade, and adapt to changing demands of a program. Based on these and other needs a 2 week pilot training program was developed containing 3 modules. After evaluation of the pilot program the course was lengthened to 3 weeks with additional time for special needs asked for by the students. Unesco together with the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development developed courses in the management of population communication programs and also with the Arab States Broadcasting Union. These programs are the beginning of an integrated effort for population and development management training.
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  14. 64
    063310

    Population information, education and communication [sectoral paper].

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 148 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. III)

    Population information, education and communication (IEC) are essential ingredients to promote awareness and understanding of population issues. Population information is the technical and statistical information used to create awareness of population issues among governments, NGO's, communities, families and individuals. This report is a comprehensive overview of IEC activities in population programs. The section on population information includes listing of all available publications and a history of population information centers and networks by region. The priorities for future population information activities include: 1) improving data bases and research; 2) linking population to environmental and other development issues; 3) identifying the role of women in population and development; 4) reiterating the case for family planning; 5) attracting and maintaining media attention and political commitment; and 6) applying new technology to population information programs. The section on population education discusses the early development of introducing and institutionalizing formal educational programs. The major issues in the future are: 1) awareness creation and sensitization; 2) coordination with other groups and sectors; 3) training; 4) conceptualization of population education; 5) content; 6) student grade levels; 7) materials; 8) evaluation and research; 9) institutionalization. There are also lessons to be learned from the section on non-formal population. The final section on population communications (PC) discusses lessons from 9 major different types of programs. The major issues for the future of PC are: qualitative research techniques; health educators/communicators; social marketing; language sensitivity; coordinated messages; target groups; opposition to population; institutionalization; technological advances; human sexuality and family size norms.
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  15. 65
    050804

    [The street: a scenario for health] La calle: un escenario para la salud.

    Leon R

    In: Materiales del "Segundo Seminario de Comunicacion en Poblacion" organizado por AMIDEP, Lima, 23-27 de marzo de 1987, [compiled by] Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion [AMIDEP]. Lima, Peru, AMIDEP, 1987. 71-84. (Cuadernos de Comunicacion AMIDEP No. 1)

    The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has substituted the infant mortality rate for per capita income in determining its plans for cooperation with poor countries. More than 15 million infants under 1 year die each year from such causes as dehydration during diarrhea, malnutrition, illnesses preventable by immunization, and immunological deficiencies caused by early weaning. In 1984 a 4-pronged approach to control of infant mortality was announced by UNICEF. It called for treatment of dehydration by oral rehydration therapy, immunization against 6 killing diseases, use of growth charts by mothers, and promotion of breast feeding. UNICEF based the strategy on a number of elements not directly related to public investment, including a high level political commitment, consensus of the most dynamic social forces, intense social mobilization of the priority sectors for application of the strategy, and full support of the mass media. Most of the interventions in which UNICEF has cooperated have been of the campaign type, raising questions about the permanence of the actions. Compromises were believed to be needed to ensure that activities go on in circumstances that would otherwise overwhelm the public health services. The job of communication in such circumstances is to find ways of guaranteeing that the new health behaviors become routinized and incorporated into the everyday life of the target population. The communication program for the vaccination campaign in Peru in 1985 faced specific challenges: understanding the relationship between mass communication and social mobilization, and providing mass media for a single campaign that would be valid for the entire country in its geographic and social diversity. Although no formal pretesting was done of the mass communication materials, the impact of the messages, music, slogans, and images was informally measured in the early phase of diffusion. Messages for the 1st vaccination day were created for radio, television, and the press that tried to maintain a festival atmosphere while attracting parents of infants and children under 5, dispelling their resistence, furnishing information on the location of vaccination posts, and emphasizing the date. Themes stressed for the 2nd vaccination day were the need to attend all 3 days to be fully protected, changes in location of posts, and continuing need to overcome fear of side effects. It became clear that more stress was also needed on the risks and consequences of not being vaccinated. The festival atmosphere was maintained in the numerous social mobilization activities held at the local level to publicize the vaccination days.
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  16. 66
    051347

    [Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year] Borns sundhed. 40. Uacceptabelt at 14 millioner born dor hvert ar.

    Bergqvist LP

    SYGEPLEJERSKEN. 1987 Oct 7; 87(41):30-1.

    The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers.
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  17. 67
    052821

    Report of FAO Expert Consultation on Development Support Communication, Rome, 8-12 June 1987.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1987. [2], ii, 30 p.

    Development communication is a social process that involves the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs, and capacities of all concerned. Communication by itself cannot bring about rural development, but the other components of development--infrastructure, supplies, and services--will not be used to full advantage without an exchange of knowledge between people at all levels. Past experience confirms the value of development communication when it is built into development programming from the start and influences project design and implementation. The strategic role of communication in development has been insufficiently recognized by governments, donor agencies, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself. A technological emphasis has predominated, with little attention to the behavioral changes required by the development process. The FAO's Development Support Communication Branch has focused on media-oriented approaches without promoting communication systems that integrate multimedia approaches with interpersonal approaches at all levels. To remedy this situation, it is recommended that the FAO provide orientation to programming staff and missions on the role of communication in development; improve linkages between the Development Support Communication Branch and the technical divisions of the FAO; reorient the Branch's activities to strengthen its training functions; and disseminate research and information to member governments. In addition, governments are urged to recognize more fully that development is based largely on voluntary change by people; that communication can lead to the proper situation analysis, research, and participation testing necessary to ensure that activities are people-oriented and needs-related; and that suitable budgets must be allotted for development communication.
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  18. 68
    048153

    New approaches to Family Planning Programme.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.

    Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
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  19. 69
    049313

    [Social mobilization and information, education, communication (IEC) in the area of population] Mobilisation social et information--education--communication (I.E.C) en matire de population.

    Zigirumugabe S

    FAMILLE, SANTE, DEVELOPPEMENT / IMBONEZAMURYANGO. 1988 Apr; (11):23-8.

    Despite efforts by Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) to increase awareness of Rwanda's population problems, there has been little change in the reproductive behavior of the rural population. ONAPO plans to formulate an overall information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign in the area of maternal-child health and family planning to inform the population about Rwanda's sociodemographic problems and the solution offered by family planning. The campaign will have 3 main components: 1) provision of information to the general population through the informal educational system 2) training and school-based population information and 3) production of educational materials to support the training and communication programs. IEC programs for maternal-child health and family planning will be integrated into more widely accepted activities having some degree of permanence, such as the school system, health centers, and religious institutions. The communal centers for development and permanent training will play an especially strong role in the integrated IEC plans for rural areas. Center personnel will help the population understand the connection between family planning and the socioeconomic and health status of families and will motivate couples to use family planning. The overall IEC plan will receive support from the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, the Association of Rwandan Women for Development, the Ministry of the Interior and of Communal Development, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs. Various other ministries, religious organizations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations should also support the IEC effort.
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  20. 70
    047781

    A grand alliance.

    Allan D

    DEVELOPMENT FORUM. 1988 Mar-Apr; 16(2):11, 14.

    Facts for Life is a 50-page compilation of priority messages focussed on infant and child health and designed to reach parents directly, so that they will have the facts they need to keep their children alive and healthy. The "Facts for Life" initiative is expected to reach the parents through a grand alliance of communicators -- nongovernmental organizations and individuals -- who come directly into contact with parents. The initiative has the backing of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is also supported by nongovernmental networks such as the Children, Rotary, and Junior Chambers of Commerce as well as officials of the International Pediatrics Association, London University Institute of Child Health, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Topics covered in the "Facts for Life" messages include safe motherhood, breast feeding, immunization, acute respiratory infections, malaria, timing births, promoting child growth, diarrhea, home hygiene, and AIDS. The booklet is available in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for 25 cents (US) a copy from UNICEF.
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  21. 71
    052125

    A simple solution: how oral rehydration is averting child death from diarrhoeal dehydration.

    Williams G

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund, 1987 Jun. 62 p.

    Worldwide, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) still claims only a modest niche in the market alongside a vast array of modern drugs and traditional treatments of diarrhea, the majority of which are either ineffective or harmful. Often, ORT is used as an adjunct therapy for drugs, instead of as a replacement. Drugs are also several times more expensive than ORT. ORT is not yet seen for what it rally is: the most effective treatment for a major killer disease in the developing world. Recent research has identified a total of 25 different virsues, bacteria, and parasites that cause diarrhea, and more are still being found. Cholera accounts for <1% of all types of accute diarrhea. It can usually be treated with ORT alone. The progressive symptoms for diarrhea are identified, and how ORT replaces salt and water is explained. A 2-tier strategy is recommended by WHO and UNICEF--90-95% of patients can be treated with ORT alone; the remainder require intravenous therapy. Continuation of feeding during diarrhea and additional feeding afterward is recommended. A review of antibiotics, absorbents, antimotility drugs, and anti-emetics shows why they do not work or should not be used. Training in diarrhea management for doctors, nurses, and midwives is inadequate. Supply problems are significant. Yet because OR solution needs no refrigeration and local production is more feasible than vaccines, logistic do not have to be complicated. Effective use of ORT needs to be promoted through communication. Social marketing and information campaigns in Gambia, Haiti, and Egypt are reviewed. The issues concerning use of standardised ORT formula. Salt-and-sugar solution are addressed. The future for ORT includs finding a better formula that would also reduce the volume and duration of the diarrhea itself.
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  22. 72
    054773

    Health-related population issues: report of a study group, Brazzaville, 7-9 October 1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa, 1985. vi, 78 p.

    This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction. (ANNOTATION)
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  23. 73
    200602

    Features of the 1982 China census from international standpoint.

    Kannisto V

    In: A census of one billion people. Papers for International Seminar on China's 1982 Population Census, edited by Li Chengrui. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1986. 37-52.

    This paper examines how the 1982 China census met the standards prevalent in the world at large and formulated by the international community into recommendations under UN guidance. It also examines to what extent the China census met the recommendations, what alternatives were adopted and why, and what methods it used to carry them out. China's 1982 census met the criteria of individual enumeration, universality, simultaneity, and defined periodicity. The 1982 census was a register-based de jure census in which the field interview and its checks determined the final content of census information. It was necesary to restrict the number of census questions to fewer than would have been desirable. The questionnaire included 5 household and 13 individual topics. Questions on live births and deaths in the household since 1981 were included, although not generally recommended. Age data is unusually accurate due to people's awareness of what animal sign they were born under. Housing questions were not asked in this census, but may be included in the next census. Sampling was used only in the small-scale post-enumeration survey. In China, the administrative network is so complete and reaches down to so small a unit that no further subdivision for census purposes is needed at all. A most unconventional feature of the censuses of China has been the virtually complete absence of mapping. An extensive program of 4887 pilot censuses ensured the success of the full census. The publicity effort involved 2-way communication from the national office to the public and back. The issue of confidentiality was felt to be problematical in China and best solved by not asking questions that people would be reluctant to answer. The method of enumeration differed greatly from the usual ones in that it centered on enumeration stations with home visits used to a lesser extent. Several questions were precoded, but the enumerator had to write in the number as well as circle the correct item. 10% advance tabulations were made for all units and found to be very representative.
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  24. 74
    033363

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  25. 75
    267879

    Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.

    UNESCO. Population Education Programme Service

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.

    This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
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