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Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136): p.The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2002 Oct. 28 p.This manual was compiled during a seminar entitled "Approccio di genere in situazioni di emergenza, conflitto e post-conflitto" (Gender approach in emergency, conflict, and postconflict situations), which was held in Rome on 2-6 April 2001. The seminar was organized by the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery in Rome and the Emergency division of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and included participants from various Italian non governmental organizations (NGOs) and UN agencies directly involved in emergency, crisis response and recovery operations. During the seminar, a needs assessment session was held and participants expressed their interest in having a "how to" manual that could help them better integrate a gender approach during humanitarian, recovery and development activities. The first chapter contains information on the approaches to women and gender issues over the last 20 years. It provides the basic concepts necessary to understand how to address gender issues and improve the impact of humanitarian assistance. In the second chapter, the relevant international instruments protecting the rights of people affected by war and other emergency situations are presented. Relevant passages are quoted and explained. The full text of these instruments can be found in the annexed CD-ROM. The third chapter contains information that can be used as reference in programming and organizing humanitarian interventions with a gender perspective. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Apr 8; 367(9517):1193-1208.The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP), a joint project of the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health, the WHO, and The World Bank, was launched in 2001 to identify policy changes and intervention strategies for the health problems of low-income and middle-income countries. Nearly 500 experts worldwide compiled and reviewed the scientific research on a broad range of diseases and conditions, the results of which are published this week. A major product of DCPP, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2), focuses on the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of health-improving strategies (or interventions) for the conditions responsible for the greatest burden of disease. DCP2 also examines crosscutting issues crucial to the delivery of quality health services, including the organisation, financial support, and capacity of health systems. Here, we summarise the key messages of the project. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, .  p.Each year, more people are living with HIV than the year before. And each year, more people die of AIDS. This growing global tragedy has many faces: The desperation of a teenage orphan struggling to care for her younger siblings by trading sexual favours for food; The sorrow of a young mother who learns she is HIV-positive at a prenatal clinic; The anguish of an unemployed youth who fears he has acquired HIV, but has no access to counselling, testing or condoms. In the absence of a cure, HIV prevention offers the best hope of reversing the epidemic. Prevention works. Sustained political commitment through intensive programmes in diverse settings has reduced HIV incidence. Advances in treatment are reinforcing prevention efforts by encouraging voluntary testing and reducing the stigma associated with AIDS. Nevertheless, the pandemic is outstripping efforts to contain it and is gaining ground globally. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
Vienna, Austria, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006.  p.The present Toolkit was prepared because there is still much to be learned about what works best to prevent and combat human trafficking under various circumstances. It presents a selection of conceptual, legislative and organizational tools in use in different parts of the world. The Toolkit is based on the premise that the problem of trafficking in persons, whether at the national or local level, can only be addressed effectively on the basis of comprehensive strategies that are based on human rights and that take into account the transnational nature of the problem, the many associated criminal activities, the frequent involvement of organized criminal groups and the profound pain, fear and damage suffered by the victims. Although the Toolkit offers a few examples of comprehensive national strategies, most of the tools that it offers focus on one specific aspect of the comprehensive response required. Individual tools may be used to develop comprehensive strategies, or to augment or strengthen some of the essential components of existing ones. Many of these tools will need to be adapted to national or local circumstances. None of the tools, by itself, is sufficient to provide an effective response to the problem. (excerpt)
SCN News. 2006; (33):39-42.The 1996 Manila meeting and subsequent meeting in Cape Town in 1999 stimulated capacity development activities within UNU and IUNS. IN 2000, several African regional capacity task forces held initial planning meetings to develop an overall action plan. The plan was accepted during the SCN meeting in April 2001 in Nairobi. Most of the activities outlined in the action plan were implemented in 2002. This paper reviews progress of these activities, directly or indirectly through the work of Food & Nutrition Programme of the United Nations University (UNU-FNP). (excerpt)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
JAMA. 2007 Feb 21; 29(7):744-746.HIV disease is essentially the black death of the 21st century, killing on a massive scale and threatening to cripple economies and topple governments. However, the continued spread of the HIV epidemic and the new availability of lifesaving antiretroviral drugs have triggered an extraordinary response by governments, international organizations, philanthropies, pharmaceutical companies, religious organizations, and individuals. Campaigning against HIV/AIDS has no precedent in the history of medicine. Smallpox was eliminated by a globally coordinated strategy that required a single patient encounter to deliver the vaccine. In contrast, the directly observed therapy strategy at the core of modern tuberculosis treatment necessitates daily patient contact over much of the treatment course and, therefore, a much larger health workforce. Treating AIDS requires the daily delivery of medications as well as the clinical management of patients-- for the rest of their lives. Antiretroviral medications can help control disease, but do not cure it. More problematic yet, stopping treatment once started promotes the emergence of resistant strains of the virus, making halfway programs hazardous to public health. The sheer volume of health workers needed to tackle HIV disease--and the health systems to support their work--is off the scale of any previous public health campaign. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
A healthy partnership -- a case study of the MOH contract to KHANA for disbursement of World Bank funds for HIV / AIDS in Cambodia.
[Brighton, England], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2005 Mar. 12 p.In 1998, the Cambodian Ministry of Health was experiencing difficulties in disbursing World Bank funds earmarked for local NGOs/CBOs, and in 1999, contracted Khana to manage the disbursement process. Given the scarcity of documented successful government-NGO/CBO disbursement initiatives, the Alliance commissioned a case study of this mechanism of making World Bank funds more accessible to civil society organisations. This report of the case study outlines the background and context to adopting the disbursement mechanism, explains the selection of the disbursing agency and the process of contract negotiation, details the nature and quantity of the disbursement, and identifies the strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned from this model. (excerpt)
Resourcing global health: a conference of the Global Network of WHO for Nursing and Midwifery Development, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2006.
Midwifery. 2006 Sep; 22(3):200-203.With the focus of the World Health Report 2006 Working for health together firmly on the issue of human resources in health, the subject is officially placed among those at the top of the international agenda. The debates at this conference, held June 7--9 and hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nursing & Midwifery Education, Research & Practice, based in Glasgow Caledonian University's School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health, were therefore highly topical and drew significant speakers from both the host country Scotland and 20-plus other nations. The conference was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (excerpt)
AIDS Clinical Care. 2000 Jan; 12(1):1-3, 5.I am the Executive Director of UNAIDS and an Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. I have an MD and a PhD in microbiology. I've been working in AIDS full-time since 1983, when I was in Zaire documenting the epidemic in central Africa, which was still quite new at the time and -- unlike in the West -- was being transmitted mostly through heterosexual intercourse. UNAIDS was established 4 years ago by the member states of the United Nations to coordinate the efforts of the richly diverse UN organizations in combating the AIDS epidemic. I think that it was quite forward looking for the member nations to establish this agency, because it wasn't entirely clear at that time that AIDS was going to become the major threat to development that it now represents in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. UNAIDS is actually the secretariat of multi-agency effort including the World Bank, the WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), and several others. Each organization is equipped to handle different aspects of the epidemic. The WHO focuses on blood safety, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and care for persons with AIDS. UNICEF deals with prevention of perinatal transmission, care for orphans, and mobilization of youth groups. UNESCO deals with disseminating prevention information through schools. The World Bank works on financing these programs. (excerpt)
The 10-year struggle to provide antiretroviral treatment to people with HIV in the developing world.
Lancet. 2006 Aug 5; 368(9534):541-546.In March, 2006, the WHO took stock of the 3 by 5 initiative, which had been formally launched with UNAIDS 2 years earlier. With 1.3 million people on antiretroviral treatment in developing countries by the end of 2005, the world had not reached the target of treating 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS. In terms of numbers, at least, some said that the campaign failed. But the initiative did show that with the right vision and a determined effort by all relevant parties, development achievements that seem unthinkable are indeed possible. The apparent failure to achieve what was always an aspirational goal should not overshadow the fact that the progress on access to antiretroviral treatment might have no precedent in global public health. For no other life-threatening disease has the world moved from the first scientific breakthroughs to a commitment to achieve universal access to treatment in less than a decade. But we should not forget that the number of new HIV infections still outpaces the expansion of access to treatment, and that progress remains slow in view of the millions still dying from AIDS every year. (excerpt)
Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children. An independent review.
London, England, UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development, 2005 Jul. 63 p. (Orphans and Vulnerable Children)The Rapid Assessment, Analysis, and Action Planning (RAAAP) Initiative for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) was launched by UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS, and WFP in November 2003. The first round of RAAAPs were carried out in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004. The purpose of the RAAAP is to undertake an analysis of the situation of OVC and the response in each country, and then, based on this analysis, to produce a national plan of action to scale up and improve the quality of the response to OVC. This plan is then ratified by the government and provides a unifying framework that brings together the activities of all the different stakeholders under a set of common objectives and strategies. This includes all interventions for OVC, including activities of national and local government, donors and civil society organisations (CSOs). The first round of the RAAAP process consisted of a desk study, additional data collection and analysis in country, and a stakeholder workshop to validate the findings and draw up the OVC National Plan of Action. The process was led and coordinated by a national steering group which consisted of the government ministry with responsibility for OVC, other relevant government ministries and departments, development partners including UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS and WFP and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO). The involvement of different stakeholders in the analysis and planning process is critical for ensuring their ownership of the resulting action plan. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Jul; 84(7):506.June 2006 marks the 25th anniversary of a report of five cases of Pneumocystis carinii (now jirovecii) pneumonia in men who have sex with men, heralding the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over 65 million infections with the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have now caused at least 25 million deaths. Following recognition at the XI International Conference on AIDS in 1996, that combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically improves survival, various initiatives have helped to bring treatment to people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Although the target of treating 3 m people by the end of 2005 (WHO's "3 by 5" initiative) was not reached, about 1.3 m people now receive ART in low- and middle-income countries. Major lessons from the initiative include the utility of country-owned targets in mobilizing efforts and promoting accountability, the need for extensive partnerships to scale up activities, the importance of identifying and resolving health systems constraints, the challenges of ensuring equity, and the synergy between treatment initiatives and a simultaneous scaling-up of HIV prevention. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jul.  p.The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the world's most serious development crises. An estimated 3 million people died of AIDS in 2003 and 5 million acquired HIV -- bringing the number of people living with the virus around the world to 38 million. Without decisive action, not only will we fail to achieve the goal of reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, but worse: the number of people infected is likely to double in less than a decade. International funding to respond to the epidemic has increased, but it will take comprehensive and sustained intervention in both high and low prevalence countries to turn the tide. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Feb. 79 p. (UNAIDS/05.28E)This report summarizes UNAIDS' assistance to countries in 2004 and 2005. Drawn from the reports of UNAIDS' Country Coordinators from over 75 countries, the report is divided into five chapters. Basic information on UNAIDS and how it operates, especially at country-level. How UNAIDS is contributing to implementation of the "Three Ones" principles. The many ways in which UNAIDS has assisted countries in strengthening their responses to AIDS. How UNAIDS is working to enhance the United Nations system's capacity to assist countries in responding to AIDS. How UNAIDS plans to meet key challenges for the future. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jun.  p.This evaluation does not re-investigate the lessons and conclusions already acknowledged and documented during the past decades. It begins from the perspective that: (a) community ownership improves planning and performance of AIDS programmes, leading to improved population and individual health status; (b) governments and civil society can play a significant role in promoting community ownership; and (c) The joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), including UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, ILO, UNESCO, WHO, and the World Bank, can play a significant role in developing the agenda for community ownership of programmes. This evaluation measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the AIDS Competence Programme's process and outcomes. The evaluation's approach relies both on methods used in AIDS programme evaluations, and accepted sociological evaluation methods that define community capacity or the individual capacity (i.e., economic, social, pedagogical and politically related outcomes). The AIDS Competence Programme's potential to achieve impact is also examined. It should be noted that the evaluation of specific community interventions where the AIDS Competence Programme is used, e.g., in prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes, and the evaluation of the global AIDS Competence Programme follow significantly different approaches, as outlined later in this report. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):3-4.EDUCATION PROGRAMMES for young people can be intricately linked to development goals (left). This was illustrated in a document released last year based on a technical review of UNFPA's three-decade experience in Population Education (PopEd). UNFPA PopEd programmes could be categorized into: 1) Population and Family Life Education; 2) Sexuality Education; and 3) Life Skills Education. Common elements of all programmes are: advocacy to promote an enabling socio-political environment; capacity-building through teacher training and development of curriculum and materials; and peer education. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, . 8 p.Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, 2003. 36 p.Ukraine is a young nation on the move. The national response to HIV/AIDS is also gathering pace. It is bringing together fresh coalitions of people, leaders and institutions who want to stop the further spread of this virus and to ensure care for those who are in need. The good news for all is that there are now known ways of preventing the spread of the virus and treatment is increasingly available. The challenge remains immense -- to some overwhelming. The insidious nature of the virus is that it attacks men and women in the prime of their life -- between the ages of 15 and 40. It robs children of their parents, and society of its productive citizens. Limited budgets and ungrounded stigma have severely hampered a scaled-up nationwide response. Positive rhetoric is helpful, but it needs to be matched by personal commitment and concrete actions. With the infusion of new resources, now is the time to remove the log jams and unleash a broad-based national effort to change the current course of the epidemic. As the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan recently said, "We have come a long way, but not far enough. Clearly, we will have to work harder to ensure that our commitment is matched by the necessary resources and action." (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jun. 34 p.Something remarkable is happening in many parts of the world. Faced with a common enemy, people from different countries are discovering a shared goal. These are ordinary men and women who until recently had thought of HIV/AIDS as something that happened to other people. Responding to the epidemic has today become a passionate cause for each one. These individuals and groups are linked by one common factor: They have all been part of UNDP's Leadership for Results programme-- a unique and innovative process that helps to create an enabling environment to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, by fostering hope, generating transformation and producing breakthrough results. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UN-OHRLLS, .  p.Roughly a quarter of the world’s countries are classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs), who remain the most vulnerable and weakest segment of the international community, of these 34 are in Africa, 15 in Asia-Pacific and one in the Caribbean. It is now clear that without achieving a huge acceleration in their development efforts, few global development targets can be met. The AIDS pandemic is worsening the prospects of LDCs as many of the hardest hit countries are facing massive financial and human resource constraints. These countries by definition have limited resources to generate sufficient economic and social development, and as such are at greater risk. HIV/AIDS is eroding these limited resources and affecting the most productive people so urgently needed for development. In other words, HIV/AIDS affects the present and future human and institutional capacities of countries and consequently their capacity to generate economic and social development. (excerpt)
Committing to results: improving the effectiveness of HIV / AIDS assistance. An OED evaluation of the World Bank's assistance for HIV / AIDS control.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 2005.  p. (Operations Evaluation Studies)The global AIDS epidemic has profoundly affected the quality of life and progress toward poverty alleviation in many of the poorest developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since the late 1980s, but particularly over the past decade, the World Bank has launched efforts to prevent HIV/AIDS and to mitigate its impact through participation in global programs; financing analytic work; engaging in policy dialogue; and providing loans, credits, and grants for HIV/AIDS projects. As of June 2004, the World Bank had committed $2.46 billion in credits, grants, and loans to 62 low- and middle-income countries for 106 projects to prevent, treat, and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS, of which about $1 billion had been disbursed. (excerpt)