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  1. 276

    The global partnership for environment and development. A guide to Agenda 21.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. [4], 116 p. (E.92.I.15)

    The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
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  2. 277

    WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction. 2nd ed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1987. [7], 67 p.

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction has revised its manual designed to standardize procedures for the examination of human semen. This revised manual, for instance, describes a simplified method for screening the morphology of cellular elements other than spermatozoa; the previous method now appears in the section on optional procedures. WHO has also included methods to determine the presence of spermatozoa antibodies. The manual has guidelines on measurement of biochemical components of seminal plasma to evaluate the secretory function of accessory glands (e.g., fructose indicates secretory function of the seminal vesicles). Even though these biochemical tests may not mark a man's fertility, they demonstrate the functional state of these glands. Besides, someday they may even help assess the possible effects of xenobiotic factors and of disease. Some researchers believe adenosine triphosphate levels are linked to spermatozoal function and that the zona free hamster oocyte test can determine the ability of human spermatozoa to join with the oocyte; so WHO has listed protocols for these 2 tests. The manual also has protocols to assess the ability of spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus in vitro: the microscopic method and the capillary tube test. WHO believes that determining this ability is important when evaluating the fertility of a couple. The Standard Procedures section on collection and examination of human semen considers appearance, volume, consistency, pH, motility, preparation and grading, agglutination, sperm viability, sperm count, and testing for antibody-coating of spermatozoa. The section on sperm cervical mucus interaction examines volume, consistency, ferning, spinnbarkeit, cellularity, pH, and in vivo and in vitro tests. It hopes that researchers will adapt the standard procedures presented in this manual to improve quality control between laboratories and allow aggregation of data from several sources for analysis.
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  3. 278

    How to estimate incremental resource requirements and costs of alternative TT immunization strategies: a manual for health and program managers. Revised version.

    Brenzel L; Foulon G

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1989 Jun. [4], 22 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    The REACH Project originally prepared this manual for health and program managers for WHO workshops in Africa on the control of neonatal tetanus. The manual provides rapid methods for determining incremental resource requirements and costs of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization programs. Its design allows for flexibility. It categorizes costs into variable costs such as vaccines, syringes, and needles and fixed costs such as training, personnel, supervision, and transportation. The manual provides a worksheet for calculating the variable costs for programs which requires the managers to consider the target population (pregnant women or women of childbearing age) and coverage objective (TT2 or TT5). Further it presents a formula for determining costs of additional personnel (a variable cost): personnel costs=number of workers x proportion of time for TT vaccination for each worker x annual gross earnings of each workers. It also has guidelines for determining fixed costs such as cold chain equipment costs. Transportation costs consists mostly of fuel costs but also includes the costs of vehicles to move vaccines, supplies, and personnel. Training costs include production of training materials, travel, per diem, and proportion of annual salaries of trainers and trainees for training time. The manual also has worksheets for determining supervision and monitoring costs. Further it has a worksheet to calculate additional media costs for TT immunization including radio. TV, and posters. Once managers have determined the costs of various components of TT immunization programs, they can sum the costs up and determine the cost effectiveness of TT immunization strategies on another worksheet. The manual concludes with a formula to assist managers determine whether changing from 1 strategy to another would save them more money and be more cost effective.
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  4. 279

    Caribbean family planning guide: a self-instructional manual for health professionals.

    Parris OE; Lee Poy PI; Kopp Z

    New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1990. xiii, 431 p.

    This is the 1st instruction manual dealing with the delivery of family planning services in the Caribbean. It will be of great value to nursing and medical students, clinicians, and other allied health care professionals. Most of the contributors came from the West Indies because of their wealth of knowledge and experience in the practice of family planning in the region. The material has been crystallized into clear steps to help beginners and quick, accurate references for those already in the field. Each chapter has a pretest in the beginning and a posttest at the end to help with selfanalysis. The subject matter ranges from contraceptive technology, family planning as a human right to dealing with sexual molestation, HIV infection, mental and physical handicaps, and teenage pregnancy. Students will find useful information about the rationale and significance of family planning, its history, and essential skills like counseling and communication, in depth information on each type of contraceptive is also included. There is a list of recommended activities encouraging the application of learning to real-life situations. And there is a section of recommended references for further study. The material in this manual is designed to be appropriate for Caribbean health professionals, but can also be used in countries of similar economic development as well as more developed nations.
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  5. 280

    Developing communication strategies and programs: a systematic approach.

    Elkamel F

    Amman, Jordan, UNICEF, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1986 Feb 28. xi, 98 p.

    This handbook is intended help improve the effectiveness of development programs through the appropriate use of communication and social marketing strategies and techniques. UNICEF developed the handbook in order to better utilize communication and social marketing in the achievement of Child Survival and Development goals. The handbook has 3 functional uses: it can serve as a guide for planning and implementing development programs; it can be used as an evaluation and monitoring tool by both program administrators or outside evaluators; and it can serve as a textbook in training workshops designed to improve communication skills -- particularly with respect to public health issues. The handbook begins with an conceptual discussion of communication and social marketing. The handbook then provides 10 interdependent modules involved in the development of a communication or social marketing program: problem identification, audience analysis, examining social factors, identifying obstacles, setting objectives, developing a strategy, material production, pretest and piloting, launching and monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the handbook contains the following appendices that can be useful in fulfilling one the handbook's 3 functions: exercises, a sample of a survey questionnaire, a sample of a pretest questionnaire, a sample of a moderator's guide for a focus-only group, request for proposals, a sample request for proposals, a sample of a proposal evaluation sheet, audit of evaluation research, an assessment checklist for research and evaluation reports or proposals, a checklist of contract provisions, media selection and mix matrix, and other additional aids.
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  6. 281

    WHO specifications and guidelines for condom procurement. Draft.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991 May. iii, 61 p.

    This WHO Specifications for Latex Rubber Condoms is appropriate for photocopy as an attachment to the Invitation to Bid and Purchase Order. Section 6 provides a place to indicate size or other specifications. The standard provided is the minimum for use and storage and delivery. Procurement needs to take into account 1) quality of design, and 2) conformance to specifications. Essential criteria are uniform high strength and elasticity and the absence of holes. Chapters include: 1) reason for specification and guidelines, 2) choice of design features, 3) alternative design specifications. The specifications include: 1) scope and definitions, 2) international standards and other publications, 3) requirements for materials, construction, lubrication, tensile properties, freedom from holes, bursting volume and pressure, colorfastness, individual packages, identification marking on individual packages, workmanship, 4) quality assurance provisions for compliance, objective evidence, inspection by purchaser, sampling procedures, examinations and tests for specific properties, inspection of packaging and marking, 5) packaging for delivery (inner boxes, consumer packs, exterior shipping cartons, markings for lot traceability) 6) ordering data. The WHO guidelines for condom procurement reports on 1) testing to insure conformance to specifications, 2) qualifying condom suppliers, 3) invitation to bid, 4) purchase order, 5) predelivery quality check. Additional support documents include: 1) essential performance criteria (limiting condoms that will break during use, that may leak during use, that may deteriorate on the shelf), 2) choosing from available design options (length, width, thickness, shape, lubrication, color, packaging), 3) manufacturers list, 4) invitation to bid, 5) WHO forms: Request for offer and request for sealed bids, 6) purchase order, 7) aggregate analysis criteria for shipments or orders. The recommended condom is parallel sided, reservoir end, 49 2 mm flat width or 53 2 mm flat width, 170 to 180 mm length, .05-.08 mm single wall thickness, smooth surface, no color, translucent, silicone fluid (plain) lubricant, and packaged in square plastic-aluminum foil laminate in 100 units per inner box.
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  7. 282

    Essential drugs for primary health care. A manual for health workers in South-East Asia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    New Delhi, India, WHO, SEARO, 1988. [4], iv, 105 p. (SEARO Regional Health Papers No. 16)

    The use of primary healthcare as a key approach in achieving Health For all by the Year 2000 is now west established. Community healthworkers and other paramedical personnel play an increasingly important role in healthcare delivery. Although the emphasis in primary healthcare is on health promotion and disease prevention, healthworkers must learn how to use simple drugs to treat common illnesses and thus gain the confidence of the community. They also need to learn when to refer to physicians. Most countries in WHO's Southeastern Asia region have now prepared lists of essential drugs to be used by primary healthworkers. Drugs have been selected on the basis of their proven quality, efficacy, safety, availability, and low cost. For the proper management of some common illnesses, it is not only necessary to know the properties, uses, and possible adverse effects of essential drugs, but also to have a reasonable knowledge about the illnesses themselves. The healthworker should also be able to identify the stages of illness that call for physician assistance. This manual attempts to provide guidelines for the use of essential drugs by community healthworkers and paramedical/auxiliary health personnel. It also provides guidelines for treating certain common illnesses and identifying situations which require doctor referral. Furthermore, it provides information regarding the management of injuries resulting from accidents, burns, and poisoning (including snakebite). This manual should prove useful to trainers of paramedical and healthworkers. An attempt has been made to write the manual in simple language and to give clear, practical instructions to help the user in deciding what to do in a given situation. Wherever necessary, illustrations have been included to amplify the technical information. The responsibilities given to community healthworkers and paramedical personnel vary from country to country as do the number of drugs allowed for use by such persons. Although a single manual may not fulfill all the needs of all countries, it is intended to be a core source. Accordingly, the number of drugs and other topics discussed has purposely been kept large in order to facilitate the work of those who will be selecting material and adapting it to suit the specific needs at the country level. (author's)
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  8. 283

    Community involvement in health development. An examination of the critical issues.

    Oakley P

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1989. viii, 73 p.

    Community involvement in health development (CIH), while not a new concept, has only been introduced in recent years as a worthwhile strategy for improving the health systems of developing countries. The author draws upon the conclusions of the June, 1985, WHO inter-regional meeting on the Yugoslavian island of Brioni as the basis of a text exploring the theory, practice, and main issues of CIH. The Brioni conclusions are reviewed and expanded especially for the benefit of health professionals involved or planning to become involved with CIH in their work. Due to limited wide-scale implementation of CIH, information on CIH practice is sparse. Direct references to CIH practice are provided in the text. After reviewing the basis and nature of community involvement and community participation in the context of health development, the text turns to a more lengthy discussion of critical issues in CIH. The community, support mechanisms, education and training, promotion methodology, evaluation, and research are discussed as they relate to the practice of CIH.The community, support mechanisms, education and training, promotion methodology, evaluation, and research are discussed as they relate to the practice of CIH.
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  9. 284

    Hormonal contraception.

    Kleinman RL

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1990. 122 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)

    This booklet intended for family planning doctors primarily in developing countries updates the previous IPPF edition, with new information on oral contraceptives, chapters on the subdermal implant Norplant, post-coital contraception, injectables, and appendices on statistical methods and post-partum contraception. Each chapter contains text with a statement by the IMAP (International Medical Advisory Panel) of the IPPF. After brief introductions on historical background and reproductive physiology, the main part of the book concerns the use of combined oral contraceptives, their actions, beneficial and adverse effects, indications and contraindications, and several aspects of use such as community-based distribution. There are chapters on progestogen-only pills and on orals in chronic disease. Post-coital contraception is discussed, considering combined pills, progestagens, IUDs, Danazol, RU-486, which all have different time limits of effectiveness. Both DMPA and NET-EN injectables, by 3-month and monthly protocols are described, with a section on the controversy regarding their distribution. The chapter on Norplant comprises mostly the IMAP statement: more information would be needed for training in this method. The book ends with remarks on the use of hormonal contraceptives to enhance safe motherhood, taking into account the fact that the pill offers no protection against STDs.
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  10. 285

    Measuring childhood mortality: a guide for simple surveys.

    David PH; Bisharat L; Hill AG; Bennett S

    Amman, Jordan, United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North America, 1990. 172 p.

    This handbook is intended to aid the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) handle surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage surveys (expanded program of immunization- -EPI) surveys or to diarrheal mortality and morbidity surveys (MMT). By including all women of reproductive ages in each household as part of EPI coverage surveys, the survey window has widened. The core modality module (CMM) locks neatly into this flow. It is not intended to be a substitute for other ways to measure child mortality. Infant and under- age-5 mortality are indicators of social welfare. The reasons why these surveys are called "simple" or "rapid" are listed. Measurement of mortality is covered in Chapter 1. The Brass method, the birth history, the preceding births technique, and the design and execution of a simple mortality survey are discussed here. Formulating the questionnaire is covered in the next chapter. Discussed here are the mortality module; translation, layout and pretesting of the questionnaire; the screening questionnaire, and the mortality questionnaire (Modules A and B). Chapter 3 discusses the design of a sample survey to measure childhood mortality. Discussed here are cluster and stratified sampling, modifying EPI surveys for purposes of mortality estimation, selecting the sample and the clusters, determining sample size, and the requirements of a good sample. Collecting the data is discussed in chapter 4. Topics discussed include field work, preparation of the interview instructions, field supervisor and interviewers, selection and training of field staff, training course outline, selecting households in the sample, quality control; supervisor's responsibilities, how to handle an interview, and how to fill in the questionnaire. The 5th chapter discusses data analysis. Under data analysis, data tabulation of the mortality data, the Brass estimates of childhood mortality and trends, preceding birth technique estimates, estimates from the short birth history, technical note: calculating sampling error for proportions and points to remember are described. How to write the report is discussed in chapter 6.
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  11. 286

    AIDS health promotion: guide for planning.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1988. [2], 39 p. (GPA/HPR/88.1)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion involves the use of information and education to change the behaviors of individuals and groups in ways that will control the spread of the virus. Effective promotional activities can make AIDS prevention a high public health priority, promote social support for positive behavioral changes, establish public support for the community and institutional responses required to control the transmission of AIDS, and support the training of workers in the health care field. Through its reliance on multiple communication channels and cooperation with the health and social service sectors, health promotion seeks to achieve sustained change in practices crucial to public health. The key to effective health promotion is adequate planning, services, and the supplies. This guide is aimed at providing planners, manages, and technical staff with a frame of reference for planning, implementing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating AIDS health promotion programs. Discussed in detail are the following elements of program planning: establishing goals, initial assessment, targeting audiences, setting objectives and targets, developing messages and materials, developing communication strategies, providing support services, monitoring and evaluation, scheduling and budget, and reassessing the program. Dispersed throughout are examples of promotional materials and strategies.
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  12. 287

    Natural family planning. A guide to provision of services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1988. vi, 82 p.

    There are 4 natural family planning (NFP) methods: rhythm, cervical mucus (Billings), basil body temperature, and symptothermal. The rhythm method is one in which cycle history of last 6-12 months is used to estimate the possible days of fertility. In the cervical mucus method a women must be able to detect changes in the cervical mucus discharge during the cycle. The basil body temperature method uses the difference in temperature that occurs after ovulation, and can only be used to detect the infertile time after ovulation. The symptothermal method combines the mucus method and the basil body temperature methods. In addition it uses other physiological indicators such as breast tenderness, pain, bleeding, and abdominal heaviness. The use of natural planning methods demands the cooperation and motivation of both partners to be successful. The methods can be taught by midwives, nurses doctors and other health care professionals. NFP teacher training is the cornerstone of the NFP programs and service. Teachers must have the technical ability and practical experience to carry out training programs. NFP programs can only be successful in areas that are receptive to NFP and have high literacy rates. To plan and implement NFP services, one must take into account community needs, resources available, and the structures needed to deliver these services. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, including formal evaluation of the teachers, monitoring of the users, and getting feedback from both.
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  13. 288

    Studying maternal mortality in developing countries: rates and causes. A guidebook.

    Maine D

    [Unpublished] 1987. 65 p. (WHO/FHE/87.7)

    The World Health Organization's handbook on the study of maternal mortality in developing countries is designed for medical personnel, administrators and social workers and planners in addition to anyone who desires an insight into the problem. The 1st edition of this guidebook was undertaken in response to consistently high rates of maternal mortality in recent years. The WHO guidebook offers a way of determining some of the factors necessary for a proposal of research. For anyone who is considering undertaking such a task, there are questions and considerations that must be thought through. It is important that the researcher identify the potential use of the results of the study. It is also important that the government or organization sponsoring the research recognizes the problem of maternal mortality as a priority for research. While data exists on certain aspects of maternal death such as the influence of maternal age and parity on morality, scarce information exists on the relationship of other factors such as accessibility to health care and medical services to maternal mortality. Studies of maternal mortality in Bali, Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Jamaica and Tanzania are incorporated in the guide book as examples of previous studies.
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  14. 289

    Barrier contraceptives and spermicides: their role in family planning care.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1987. vii, 80 p.

    This WHO manual on barrier contraceptives and spermicides covers all methods, their effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, non-contraceptive advantages, uses in special cases, family program considerations, the logistics of supply, monitoring shelf-life and quality control, and application of condoms in AIDS prevention programs. Condoms and foaming tablets are the most appropriate methods for developing countries, especially those in the tropics. Other methods present problems such as expense (diaphragms, foams, sponges), unavailability outside the U.K. and U.S. (caps, sponges), bulk and expense (canned foams). Certain individuals are particularly good candidates for barriers and spermicides: lactating women, people using abstinence or natural family planning, adolescents, older women, women waiting to start using other methods, and those at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Program officials should consider providing supplies in their special environments, with limitations such as transport, reliability of shipments, storage requirements, cultural sensitivity, multiple outlets for supplies, and cost both to the program and to the users. Methods of insuring steady supply and techniques of testing condoms are described. Barrier methods, condoms in particular, help stop the spread of gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, Candida, Trichomonas and HIV. An appendix describes basic information about AIDS and the relevance of barriers and spermicides, as well as monogamy and abstinence, in preventing AIDS transmission. Other appendices list sources of supply for developing countries, addresses of manufacturers and sources of further information, techniques for using these methods, and teaching methods for illiterates and semi-illiterates.
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  15. 290

    Handbook of population and housing census methods, part VI: sampling in connection with population and housing censuses.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1971. v, 34 p. (Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 16.; ST/STAT/SER.F/16 (Part VI).)

    This is the 6th part of a 7-part HANDBOOK OF POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS METHODS. This handbook is intended to give assistance to governments in the implementation of the PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE 1970 POPULATION CENSUSES and the PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE 1970 HOUSING CENSUSES. Accordingly, it elaborates on the various aspects of census work that are briefly presented in the 2 sets of recommendations, and offers suggested approaches to problems frequently encountered in the planning and execution of population and housing censuses. Part VI of the handbook is concerned with sampling in connection with population and housing censuses. Chapter I on sampling a an integral part of the census covers general considerations, advantages and disadvantages of sampling and conditions of acceptable sample operations, and applications of sampling methods. Chapter II deals with the census as a basis for subsequent sample inquiries.
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  16. 291

    Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.

    Haaland A

    Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.

    This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.
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  17. 292

    The prevalence method.

    Bongaarts J

    In: Addendum. Manual IX: The methodology of measuring the impact of family planning programmes on fertility, by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. 9-14. (Population Studies No. 66; ST/ESA/SER.A/66/Add.1)

    This chapter describes and applies a new methodology for estimating the fertility impact of contraception obtained through a family planning program. This approach is called the prevalence method because the principal data required for its application are estimates of the prevalence of contraceptive use at a given point in time. It is the objective of the prevalence method to estimate the number of births averted as well as the reduction in the crude birth rate that results form the use of program contraception. A single application of the procedure produces these estimates for 1 year, but repeated applications for different years can yield a time-series of births averted or other impact measures. The procedure for calculating births averted by program users consists of 6 parts to obtain, consecutively, estimates of: natural fertility, potential fertility, fertility impact of program use, births averted, birth rate impact, and method-specific results. Each of these steps is described in some detail. This new approach provides a simple and straightforward alternative to existing methods for estimating the gross fertility impact of program contraception. In contrast to several of the other procedures, the prevalence method does not require detailed input data on numbers of past acceptors and continuation rates. Instead, estimates of the prevalence of program and non-program contraception by age and method are required as principal input data. While such data were rarely available in the past, prevalence estimates are now routinely obtained from national surveys in many developing countries, thus making the application of the prevalence method possible.
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  18. 293

    The 1980 census data processing exercise and experience and the 1990 census data processing: what should be done.

    Demissie B; Muzeya IN

    [Unpublished] 1985 Nov. 28 p.

    This document is a description of the data processing operation for the 1980 Zambia population and housing census, carried out with the cooperation of the UNFPA. Collecting and checking census books, manual editing and data coding, keypunching operations, transferring information to computer tape, and processing and tabulating the results are described in Part 1. Interview schedules are described. Personal, fertility, and housing data were used, organized into books, and classified in Lusaka according to provinces and districts. Computer training was done by local supervisors and a UNFPA advisor. Editing and coding organization is described, along with difficulties. Data entry definitions and concepts and planning and production are discussed. Machine editing (i.e. checking of value ranges) was next. Programs and procedures are described. The data were finally tabulated. The categories were general population, economic, social, migration, fertility, and housing tables. A program package called COLENTS was used. Census analysis and the use of computer programs, and documenting and data archiving are discussed. Part 2 discusses improvements to be made for the 1990 census, in relation to the shortcomings of the 1980 census. The importance of data processors' early participation, and the need for realistic planning (budgeting, scheduling, organization and staffing, training needs, equipment, and space) are suggested. The questionnaire design should be considered for simplicity and code allocation. The use of microcomputers should be considered, as being deployable regionally, and for other advantages. Appendices detail the projected and actual schedule of the project, and an error study.
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  19. 294

    Reaching out-of-school youth: a project planning handbook for population-family life education.

    Johnston JA

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1975. 75 p.

    The handbook is the result of a workshop held by IPPF in Singapore in 1972 for cross-disciplinary teams from 9 countries in the IPPF Southeast Asia and Oceania Region that included family planning workers and government and nongovernment workers involved with youth groups. Each national team planned specific pilot projects in population-family life education for a target population of out-of-school youth, i.e., children who did not have the opportunity to go to school, as obviously such children would not profit from family planning education offered in schools and, more importantly, as such children generally are part of that segment of the population most in need of family planning education and information. The Southeast Asian area was selected in part because of its acute demographic situation and in part because it contains a sizable chunk of the world's population. Futhermore, 59% of that population is under the age of 24 years. The book is divided into 2 sections: program planning, which includes identification of objectives and target groups, decisions on content, and planning for communication, resources, and evaluation; and the pilot projects designed by the country teams. The section on program planning is based on the contributions of J.A. Johnston, J. Jayasuriya, D. Harman, and Mechai Viravaidya. The appendices include extracts from background papers by S. Heerdjan and P.P. Narayan, workshop details, and a bibliography.
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