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  1. 26
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO declares failure to deliver AIDS medicines a global health emergency.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Oct; 81(10):776.

    At a special session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York on 22 September, WHO declared the failure to expand access to antiretrovirals in the developing world a global health emergency. The announcement was made together with UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria. (excerpt)
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  2. 27

    Opportunities and challenges for men's involvement: the regional reproductive health strategy.

    Kosia A

    In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 85-87. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)

    The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa has identified reproductive health as a priority area in the delivery of health care services in the African region. This is in response to the persistently high levels of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The long-term vision of the Organization in the region on reproductive health is to ensure that every woman goes safely through pregnancy and childbirth and infants are born alive and healthy. In pursuance of this vision, the reproductive health strategy for the African region was developed in 1998. The strategy is aimed at assisting member states and partners to identify priorities and plan their programmes and interventions at various levels, particularly at the district level. Male involvement and participation is one of the strategic directions of the reproductive health strategy for the African region. The opportunities and challenges for the involvement of men in reproductive health programmes in the African region are described and the future perspectives highlighted. (author's)
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  3. 28

    Foreign aid, democratisation and civil society in Africa: a study of South Africa, Ghana and Uganda.

    Hearn J

    Brighton, England, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], [1999]. 28 p. (Discussion Paper No. 368)

    The 1990s have seen increased interest on the part of Western governments in funding civil society in Africa in an attempt to promote the continent's democratisation process. This discussion paper examines how a range of foreign donors has developed civil society initiatives in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. All three countries form part of the new generation of African states that are seen as turning their back on decades of authoritarian rule, instead embracing open government and open economies in productive 'partnerships' with the West. After defining what donors mean by 'civil society', this discussion paper is divided into two main sections. The first section identifies who the major foreign donors to civil society are in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. It examines the relative importance and differences in approach of the United States, Germany, the World Bank and the Like-minded Group of donors (the Nordic countries, the Netherlands and Canada). The second major section discusses the broad objectives of donors in African countries. The study found that civil society organisations committed to the promotion of liberal democracy and economic liberalism are the most popular with donors. The paper concludes that although assistance to civil society is relatively small, and is directed at a very particular section of civil society, in each of these societies it funds some of the key actors involved in influencing economic policy and defining the content of democracy. (author's)
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  4. 29

    Young people and HIV / AIDS. A UNICEF fact sheet.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. [2] p. (UNICEF Fact Sheet)

    The world’s young people are threatened by HIV/AIDS. Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, more than a quarter are aged 15 to 24. Half of all new infections now occur in young people. Young people are a vital factor in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS, and many of them are playing a significant role in the fight against it. But they, and children on the brink of adolescence, urgently need the skills, knowledge and services to protect themselves against becoming infected with HIV. (excerpt)
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  5. 30

    [Toward a new international penal law: some general reflections at the end of the century] Vers un nouveau droit international pénal: quelques réflexions générales à la fin du siècle.

    Aznar Gomez MJ

    In: La protection des droits de l'Homme entre la législation interne et le droit international. Actes du colloque organisé par le Centre de Recherches sur la Coopération Internationale pour le Développement de la Faculté de Droit de Marrakech avec le concours de la Fondation Hanns-Seidel, les 21 et 22 janvier 2000. Rabat, Morocco, Revue Marocaine d'Administration Locale et de Developpement, 2001. 33-56. (Thèmes Actuels No. 26)

    In classic international law, since the individual is separated from the international sphere by the legal fiction of the State, while international law at the dawn of the twenty-first century no longer governs only co-existence among States or the pursuit of their common goals, but also collective interests proper to the international community as a whole, the protection of human rights today is no longer part of the domain reserved to States. At the present time, we find that the individual is the subject of rights and the State is the subject of new duty, namely the respect of human rights. It is possible to identify, through the practice of diplomacy and international jurisprudence, a few general rules, divided into those relating to substance and those relating to procedure. Among the rules relating to substance, it is possible to identify the principles of sovereignty and cooperation, the elementary rules of humaneness and the rule of individual criminal liability. In the area of international sanction mechanisms in international law, the first image we see is that of the courts of Nuremberg and Tokyo. The classic approach to the sanctioning of individuals has really changed only since the end of the 1980's. These sanctions had long been in the hands of the State. In all cases, at least on the normative level, they left in their hands the obligation to obey and to enforce international criminal law, which at the present time is conveyed, among other ways, through the action of international tribunals, bilateral cooperation through international criminal judiciary assistance and multilateral cooperation. Several humanitarian tragedies, such as those in the former Yugoslavia, Iraq and Rwanda, have called into question the effectiveness of these new enforcement and sanction procedures; however the participation of public opinion and non-governmental organizations (NGO's), the political and judicial action of the United Nations have reinforced it.
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  6. 31

    How to bridge the gap between policies and implementation -- is effective AIDS control presently possible in sub-Saharan Africa? [editorial]

    Hanson S

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):765-766.

    The leaders of sub-Saharan states must act now, and the international community must be prepared to respond effectively to save these societies from further destruction. The international response would have to include a revision of current policies in the light of experiences gained. We need a mixed approach: support for both for ‘sustainable’ strengthening of the whole system in line with health sector reforms and non-sustainable project support for specifically directed temporary efforts in line with the thinking behind the establishment of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We owe this to the suffering people in these countries. We also owe it to taxpayers in industrialized countries who are both willing to pay and have a genuine desire to help. (excerpt)
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  7. 32
    Peer Reviewed

    Reactions of developing-country elites to international population policy.

    Luke N; Watkins SC

    Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.

    We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
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  8. 33
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO to strengthen commitment to polio eradication.

    Sharma DC

    Lancet. 2003 Aug 9; 362(9382):454.

    I am immediately upgrading WHO’s capacity to support India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Egypt in their efforts to immunise every child against polio”, Lee said in his first media encounter as Director-General. 99% of the 235 new cases reported this year up to July 29 have come from these four countries. (excerpt)
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  9. 34

    Senegal. Breakthrough conference on postabortion care in Francophone Africa.

    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. School of Medicine. Program for International Training in Health [INTRAH]. PRIME Project

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, INTRAH, PRIME, 2002 Apr 4. [2] p. (PRIME Voices No. 10; USAID Grant No. HRN-A-00-99-00022-00)

    Over the four days of the conference, speaker after speaker rose to emphasize the urgency of the risk to the lives of women who are endangered by the lack of access to quality PAC services. They also highlighted the importance of linking PAC with family planning to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancies, and with other reproductive health services. The key roles of primary providers and communities were also singled out in proposed interventions. (excerpt)
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  10. 35

    AIDS on the agenda: adapting development and humanitarian programmes to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS.

    Holden S

    AIDS Analysis Africa. 2003 Jun-Jul; 14(1):9-10.

    The opportunity which mainstreaming presents to development agencies is to build on the ways in which their ordinary work contributes, indirectly, to the overall response to HIV and AIDS. They can do this by ensuring that their core work -- such as promoting food security, improving water supplies and sanitation, or extending credit -- reduces susceptibility to HIV infection and vulnerability to the impacts of AIDS. For example, development work which empowers people, particularly women and girls, and addresses gender inequality and poverty, makes them less susceptible to HIV infection. And work which strengthens communities, and enables poor households to improve their livelihood security, also makes people and societies less vulnerable to the impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
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  11. 36

    Nyumbani Village, Nairobi, Kenya. Build community, rebuild hope.

    Noel Group

    Stevens Point, Wisconsin, Noel Group, [2002]. [34] p.

    Nyumbani Village will be successful because: 4 years experience with Ntokozweni 11 years experience with Nyumbani Globally responsible companies want to get involved Support exists from broad coalition of partners. (excerpt)
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  12. 37
    Peer Reviewed

    Globalisation, social values and human rights NGOs in Nigeria.

    Anugwom EE

    Africa Insight. 2002 Dec; 32(4):21-27.

    It is against this background that I attempt in this paper to ascertain the influence of globalisation on social values, focusing specifically on the human rights non-government organisations in Nigeria. In other words, this study seeks to establish a relation- ship between globalisation and the phenomenal growth of human rights NGOs in the past 15 years in Nigeria. The study makes use of a combination of documentary and questionnaire methods in describing a sample of 14 human rights NGOs in Nigeria. (excerpt)
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  13. 38

    Directory: Organisations involved in eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Kenya.

    National Focal Point on FGM; Northern Aid

    Nairobi, Kenya, Northern Aid, National Focal Point on FGM, 2001. 60 p.

    According to the 1998 Kenyan Demographic and Health Surveys, 38% of Kenyan women have been circumcised. The consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) are many including, high maternal and infant mortality rates, irreversible lifelong health risks at the times of menstruation, consummation of marriage and during childbirth, immediate and long-term physical, sexual and psychological complications among others. During the past decade, different governments including the Kenyan government, international development agencies, UN and international and national organizations developed policies condemning the practice of FGM. In accordance, the National Focal Point of Kenya has compiled a directory in an effort to identify all players in this field. This directory provides a profile or organizations ranging from the Gok ministries to religious/research/counseling organizations, other local and international nongovernmental organizations and donors, including UN bodies. This directory aims to assist organizations to establish links with each other, in order to share experiences and to consolidate their efforts, as this is crucial in the eradication of FGM.
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  14. 39

    Better health in Africa.

    World Bank. Africa Technical Department. Human Resources and Poverty Division

    [Unpublished] 1993 Dec. xii, 217, [2] p. (Report No. 12577-AFR)

    The World Bank has recommended a blueprint for health improvement in sub-Saharan Africa. African countries and their external partners need to reconsider current health strategies. The underlying message is that many African countries can achieve great improvements in health despite financial pressure. The document focuses on the significance of enhancing the ability of households and communities to identify and respond to health problems. Promotion of poverty-centered development strategies, more educational opportunities for females, strengthening of community monitoring and supervision of health services, and provision of information on health conditions and services to the public are also important. Community-based action is vital. The report greatly encourages African governments to reform their health care systems. It advocates basic packages of health services available to everyone through health centers and first referral hospitals. Health care system reform also includes improving management of health care inputs (e.g., drugs) and new partnerships between public agencies and nongovernmental health care providers. Ministries of Health should concentrate more on policy formulation and public health activities, encourage private voluntary organizations, and establish an environment conducive to the private sector. African countries need more efficient allocation and management of public financial resources for health to boost their effect on critical health indicators (e.g., child mortality). Public resources should also be reallocated from less productive activities to health activities. More commitment from governments and domestic sources and an increase of external assistance are needed for low income African countries. The first action step should be a national agenda for health followed by action planning and setting goals to measure progress.
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  15. 40

    The Egyptian NGO platform document, submitted to the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5 to 13 September, 1994.

    National N.G.O. Committee

    [Unpublished] 1994. [2], 80 p.

    This document was prepared in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in order to present the consensus of 450 Egyptian nongovernmental organization (NGOs) on the following: 1) the 6 major issues proposed in the draft program of action for ICPD approval (population and sustainable development, population and the environment, enhancing women's role in society, reproductive health, family and health education, and population policies and migration); 2) Egypt's policy in regard to population and development; and 3) the role of Egyptian NGOs in the field of population and development and their vision of the future. In addition, the Egyptian NGO National Steering Committee used this opportunity to organize the NGOs in preparation for co-hosting and participating in the international NGO Forum to be held concurrently with the ICPD; to establish a network for communication, coordination, and consensus building among NGOs operating at the local, provincial, national, and international levels; and to create an organization of Egyptian NGOs which will exist beyond the ICPD. The document concludes with 8 recommendations to governments of developed countries; 5 to international organizations; 19 to the Egyptian government concerning sustainable development, 14 on the role of women in society, 7 on reproductive health and rights, 7 on family education, and 15 on population policies and immigration; and 8 to NGOs.
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  16. 41

    2001 annual review. Partnership in practice. [Informe anual 2001. Asociaciones en la práctica]

    Healthlink Worldwide

    London, England, Healthlink Worldwide, 2001. [7] p.

    This 2001 Annual Review of the Healthlink Worldwide considers how the Communicating through Partnership model has been worked out in practice. It includes details of projects being carried out with partners in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. Healthlink Worldwide is a UK-based health and disability nongovernmental organization that works with partner organizations worldwide to improve the health of poor and vulnerable communities.
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  17. 42

    NGOs as partners in sexual and reproductive health: experiences and perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Tautz S; Baade-Joret B; Becker HJ; Goergen R; Heimsohn J

    Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technishe Zusammenarbeit [GTZ], 1999 Oct. 71 p.

    This booklet, prepared by the German development agency, GTZ, presents a critical look at how nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can partner with development agencies to advance reproductive rights. The first section deals with trends regarding sexual and reproductive health among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. The next section presents experiences with innovative approaches typically employed by NGOs in the area of sexual and RH such as community theater in Tanzania, peer education, and youth centers in Ghana. Following that are some examples of projects addressing specific target groups, including migrant girls, slum-dwellers, and women who have had an abortion. The fourth section discusses collaboration and networking with government services and other NGOs, the importance of the surrounding political climate for NGO work, and issues of sustainability. The final article reviews issues that cut across the experience of collaborating with NGOs, and respective lessons learned. It presents case studies from Ethiopia and Kenya.
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  18. 43

    Civil society, NGOs, and development in Ethiopia. A snapshot view.

    Clark J

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, NGO and Civil Society Unit, 2000 Jun. v, 21 p.

    This paper presents an overview of the potential role of nongovernmental organizations and other civil society actors in meeting Ethiopia's immense development challenges as the country moves to institutionalize fundamental changes in governmental structure and economic orientation.
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  19. 44
    Peer Reviewed

    Coordination of humanitarian aid -- a UN perspective.

    de Mul E

    Lancet. 2002 Jul 27; 360(9329):335-6.

    Hundreds of individual agencies around the world are now working in humanitarian assistance. Millions of lives are saved every year by programs that are launched, often by UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Although time consuming and sometimes a difficult process, coordination of humanitarian action is important to keep operations moving forward in order to avoid paralyzing the flow of aid. In Angola, the humanitarian operation is widely regarded as one of the most effectively coordinated in the world. It is reported that hundreds of humanitarian organizations are working in partnership in Angola to expand operations to meet the emergency needs of millions of people. Meeting these needs, however, will be impossible unless sufficient funding is provided for these operations. It is reported that only 30% of the UN consolidated interagency appeal for 2002 has been funded to date. Thus, reform of the UN is important, and serious efforts aimed at strengthening the system and making it more effective are needed.
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  20. 45

    In Angola, supporting a grassroots path to peace and democracy.

    Hudock A

    Monday Developments. 2002 Apr 8; 20(7):10, 15.

    With the death of rebellion leader Jonas Savimbi in February 2002, Angola now faces a challenge to put itself on the road to peace, prosperity, and democracy. The country's hope depends on grassroots organizations, which hold the key to citizen participation and attaining a transparent and accountable government. Angola confronts a critical stage that needs the support of the international community for its emerging organizations to advance towards democracy and prosperity. One of the small grassroots organizations to exemplify action against the government is the Coalition for Boavista Homeless. The coalition was established in July 2001 as a response to the government's policy of demolishing homes and taking over the land in Boavista. It distributed pamphlets about the government's action and circulated a petition in request to stop demolition. The coalition and other civil society groups were supported by international organizations like World Learning, which is committed in upholding democracy and human rights worldwide. Changes in Angola will not happen overnight, but are taking place with the effort of the civil society and with help of international community.
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  21. 46

    Weak UN presence and ongoing violence compound Burundi's internal refugee crisis. [Press release]. [La faible présence de l'ONU et la violence continue aggravent la crise des réfugiés internes burundais] [Communiqué de presse]

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2001 Jan 17. 2 p.

    According to this press release from the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, a weak UN has failed an estimated half million internal refugees in Burundi. A report entitled "Out of Sight, Out of Mind" urges the UN to appoint a strong and competent leader to coordinate protection and assistance to the displaced people. Furthermore, the report urges all parties in Burundi's ongoing peace process to continue to negotiate for a cease-fire. It is noted that the fighting is hampering already limited efforts to provide humanitarian relief. Moreover, the report recommends that the UN should work with international nongovernmental organizations to strengthen relationships with their local counterparts. Lastly, reproductive health services are especially needed to help those women who have suffered the trauma of rape and sexual violence, and to educate Burundians about the dangers of HIV/AIDS.
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  22. 47
    Peer Reviewed

    Refugees and environmental change in West Africa: the role of institutions.

    Black R; Sessay MF

    Journal of International Development. 1998; 10:699-713.

    This paper examines the relationship between forced migration and environmental change in West Africa, through an analysis of the changing institutional context through which resource use and management decisions are made. The paper draws on the work of Leach and Mearns (1991), who have highlighted how institutions shape the ways in which different groups of people gain access to and control over resources, and in doing so, affect environmental outcomes. This approach is used to illuminate two apparently paradoxical case studies of refugee influxes in Senegal and the Republic of Guinea, where despite significant increases in the population of host areas, degradation of natural resources has remained limited. It is argued that flexible local institutions have been able to adapt to the presence of refugees, providing regulated access to natural resources, and so reducing destructive behavior. (author's)
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  23. 48

    Ugandan Ebola outbreak over.

    AFRICA HEALTH. 2001 May; 23(4):37.

    WHO has announced that the Uganda Ebola outbreak, first reported in October 2000 is officially over. The announcement was made 42 days after the last person to be infected by the virus recovered; this is twice the incubation period. The international response, in support of the government of Uganda, helped to break the cycle of transmission of the virus which killed 224 people in the country. More than 20 international nongovernmental organizations and government agencies from the WHO Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network worked together to combat the outbreak. (full text)
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  24. 49

    Nairobi Declaration on NGO Partnerships for Sexual and Reproductive Health.


    Participants at the Conference on NGO (nongovernmental organization) Partnership in November 1999 adopted the Nairobi Declaration on NGO Partnerships for Reproductive Health. Organized by the Center for African Family Studies, its objectives were to stimulate communication and collaboration among NGOs, the private sector, and governments to identify priority areas and to develop a framework for partnerships in implementing the International Conference on Population Development Plan of Action. Partnership, which works well when transparency exists at all levels and clear objectives are determined, was accepted as an important strategy to improve health services. Aside from adopting the Nairobi Declaration, a Task Force was also established to chart the way forward, including the modalities of the partnerships.
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  25. 50

    Zimbabwe AIDS directory -- 1995: non-governmental organisations, AIDS service organisations, support groups, funders, resources.

    Zimbabwe AIDS Network; Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service [SAfAIDS]

    Harare, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe AIDS Network, 1995. ix, 126 p.

    As the AIDS epidemic has unfolded in Zimbabwe, a number of organizations have developed AIDS programs for awareness and prevention and to help people cope with HIV infection. This Directory aims to provide information on the nongovernmental organizations (NGO), AIDS service organizations, support groups and donors involved in AIDS work in Zimbabwe. It also identifies information sources and materials available internationally, particularly those available free or at low cost, and with special relevance for Africa. Entries are listed alphabetically by name and acronym. It is hoped that the Directory will assist many organizations within the NGO community and beyond to identify resources and improve links with sister organizations, donors, and others responding to the demands of the AIDS epidemic. Most importantly, it is hoped that it will help people directly affected by or infected with HIV/AIDS to gain better access to services and support.
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