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  1. 26

    Report: Albania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Division for Arab States and Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [6], 33 p.

    A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
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  2. 27

    Training materials in population education.

    Maldives. Ministry of Education. Non-Formal Education Unit

    Male, Maldives, Ministry of Education, Non-Formal Education Unit, 1988 Nov. [2], 86 p.

    The population growth rate of Maldives is over 3.2% and is one of the highest in the region. The development rate is over 12% and the literacy rate is 93% for both males and females and there is a high participation rate for basic education. The government has launched a population education program with assistance from UNFPA and UNESCO. Through the educational process people will be equipped to make rational decisions on population problems of the future. The long range objective of this program is to make young adults aware of the inter- relationships of population and aspects of quality of life, and that population growth rate is an important factor affecting their lives as well as the socio-economic development of their family. The immediate objectives are to strengthen the educational development center, to contribute to life preparation of children, to enhance social living of adults and youth not in school, to develop the competence of over 500 teachers, and to convey population education messages to as many islanders as possible. The messages that will be included in the curriculum include family size and family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population and resources, and population related beliefs and values. The teaching process for addressing the moral dilemma includes introducing and confronting the dilemma, then establishing individual positions for action and establishment of the class response to the position of action. The next step is selecting an appropriate strategy and examining different individual reasons within the class group. Major methods used in this training include hierarchical, peer group, mobile training, self learned, correspondence, linked training, mass media, field operational seminars, and internships.
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  3. 28

    Global estimates for health situation assessment and projections, 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Situation and Trend Assessment

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1990. v, 51 p. (WHO/HST/90.2)

    Some estimation of the magnitude of global health problems and trends is essential for the formulation of international health policies and strategies. Toward this end, in 1987, the World Health Organization published a document based on statistics available at the time on global health-related estimates. This document updates and refines the earlier report on the basis of more reliable data. State-of-the-art data are presented for 7 major categories: 1) demographic factors; 2) socioeconomic development; 3) general health problems (e.g., low birthweight, infant mortality, disability); 4) specific health problems (infectious and parasitic diseases, cancer, endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional disorders, anemia, mental and neurological disorders, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, occupational injuries and diseases, and oral health; 5) health-related issues (e.g., alcoholism, smoking, breastfeeding, and sanitation); 6) health services aspects (e.g., family planning, immunization); and 7) health resources (human resources, health expenditures, and pharmaceuticals). In most cases, statistics are presented for the 1985-90 period. It is emphasized in the introduction that, while these statistics provide orders of magnitude sufficient to support health policy planning, they lack the precision required for the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of disease-specific intervention strategies.
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  4. 29

    [Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.

    Zaire. Departement du Plan. Direction des Etudes Macroeconomiques

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.

    The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
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  5. 30

    Social studies and population education. Book Two: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
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  6. 31

    Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.

    Israel. Ministry of Health

    Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.

    Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
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  7. 32


    United Nations. Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. Papers of the United Nations Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections, United Nations Headquarters, 16-19 November 1981. New York, United Nations, 1984. 4-6. (Population Studies No. 83 ST/ESA/SER.A/83)

    These recommendations refer specifically to the work of the Population Division of the UN and the regional commissions and more generally to the work of the specialized agenices, which prepare projections of labor force and school enroolment. The current recommendations may be regarded as updating an earlier detailed set that was issued by a similar group of experts who convened in New York in November 1977. The recommendations cover general considerations, sources and assumptions, evaluation of projections and their uses, and internal migration and urbanization. The Population Division should consider the question of an optimal time schedule for publishing new estimates and projections in order to avoid unduly long intervals between publications and intervals so short as to cause confusion. The UN Secretariat has an important role in pursuing work on methodology of projections and making it available to demographers in the developing countries. Unique problems of demographic projection exist for those countries with particularly small populations. It is proposed that the Population Division prepare special tabulations, whenever possible, giving the estimated age and sex distribution for these countries. Future publications of population projections prepared by the Population Division should indicate the major data sources on which the projections are based and note if the data were adjusted before inclusion. In addition, some grading of the quality of the base data should be presented. For the UN set of national and international population projections, a more comprehensive system of establishing assumptions about the future trends of fertility is needed. The Secretariat needs to focus more attention on the evaluation of its population projections. UN publications of projections should report on the main errors in recent past projections with respect to estimates of baseline levels and trends and provide some evaluation of the quality of the current estimates. It is recommended that the UN encourage countries to establish a standard definition of urban which would be used for international comparisons but generally not replace current national definitions. The Secretariat should review the techniques currently used to project urban-rural and city populations and search for methodologies appropriate to the level of urbanization and the quality of data which would improve the accuracy of the projections. The Division should regularly produce long range population projections for the world and major countries and should continue and expand its household estimates and projection series, which provides information essential to government administrators and planning agencies, businesses, and researchers in all countries.
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  8. 33

    Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.

    World Population Conference (1954: Rome)

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.

    The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
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  9. 34

    Role of structural components in fertility decline in Indonesia 1971-1997.

    Satria Y

    Jakarta, Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordinating Board [BKKBN], 2000. 13 p. (Technical Report Series Monograph No. 98)

    This paper quantifies the effects of certain demographic factors in fertility decline in Indonesia during the periods of 1971-80, 1980-90, and 1990-97. Using the UN standardization approach, the role of the three main demographic components such as the age structure; marital status; and marital fertility is assessed in the decline of the crude birth rate and general fertility rate. Specific age groups are also identified that are responsible for individual contributions of each of the above factors to the decline in fertility. Overall, the findings revealed that among the three components considered, marital fertility seemed to play the most important role in fertility decline during that period. The marital status component contributed less than marital fertility, while age structure had an offsetting effect on the decline in fertility, except for the period 1990-97, in which the age structure was the second biggest contributor. The biggest contribution of marital fertility came from the age groups 20-24 and 25-29, which may reflect the postponement of age at first marriage.
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  10. 35

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 July 2000.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2000 Jul. 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. LII, No. 3; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/214)

    This issue of the Population and Vital Statistics Report presents the 1999 and 2000 estimates of the global and continental population, as well as the corresponding 1999 estimates for 229 countries or areas around the world, which are listed separately in the Report. Also shown for each country or area are results of the latest nationwide census of population and, wherever possible, nationally representative statistics of live births, deaths and infant deaths (death under 1 year of age) for the most recent year available. If a nationwide population census has never been taken, but a sample survey has, the survey results are shown in the "Latest population census" column until census data become available. Countries or areas are arranged in alphabetical order within continents.
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  11. 36

    1993 African socio-economic indicators. 1993 indicateurs socio-economiques africains.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    [Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, 1994 Dec. xvii, 77 p.

    This report provides socioeconomic statistical data for 53 African countries including totals by region, on vital statistics, demographic and socioeconomic indicators, and land use and food production. The data pertain to 1990 and 1993 on a regular basis and occasionally other decennial or quinquennial periods back to 1970. Demographic and social indicators include mid year population, female population, age and sex ratio, annual growth rates of total and urban population, age dependency ratio, total fertility and reproduction rates, crude birth and death rates, economic dependency ratio, economic activity by sex and sector, activity rates, survival indicators, infant mortality rate, health care indicators, access to social and health facilities, illiteracy, and school enrollment by level. Economic indicators include gross domestic product (GDP) by activity and expenditure; annual growth rates of GDP; land use and per capita land use; production of agriculture and forestry; agricultural products by broad groups; index number of food production; production and consumption of fertilizers; mineral sector production; value added in manufacturing; consumption of electricity; crude petroleum production; trade of solid fuels; imports and exports by structure, commodity group, and annual growth rates; balance of trade; share of value of world exports and imports; balance of payments; external debt; central government tax revenue; consumer price index; length of asphalt roads; motor vehicles; and shipping and air traffic.
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  12. 37

    Resource requirements for population and reproductive health programmes. Programme country profiles for population assistance: sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Pacific Islands, Latin America, the Caribbean.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. [8], 165 p. (E/500/1996)

    This compendium provides socioeconomic and demographic statistical profiles for developing countries in the major regions of the world, estimated annual financial resource requirements for population programs for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the stated population policy of each country. About 76% of the almost $5.6 billion available for global population and reproductive health services was provided by developing countries. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a formula for satisfying future population and family planning needs. Developing countries should contribute about $11.3 billion from domestic resources, an increase of $7 billion over 1995 figures. Donor nations should increase support by $4.4 billion. The needs for family planning are summarized by region. For example, sub-Saharan Africa includes 29 of the least developed countries in the world. The socioeconomic and demographic predictors among African countries indicate a poor quality of life and a lack of sustainable development. Most African countries need to expand services and improve quality in the delivery of reproductive health care. African countries are suffering from resource constraints that will make it difficult to meet their ICPD commitments. Most African countries will need external support on a concessional or grant basis. Countries in Eastern Europe and the Central Asian Republics are expected to have a continuation of slow population growth. The needs of North African, Asian, and South Pacific Island countries with 60% of global population include infrastructure, human resource development, and external support.
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  13. 38

    Programme review and strategy development report: the South Pacific.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. vi, 141 p.

    This program review and strategy development report for the South Pacific focuses on Fiji, the Cook Islands, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. A brief summary of geographic features and demography precedes the discussion of major regional issues and problems and current strategies for dealing with political commitment and other affairs. The needs assessment and recommendations are prepared by subject area and by specific country. The review of national population programs and the proposed general and sectoral strategies includes a discussion of administrative structures, development, maternal and child health, IEC (information, education, and communication), population education, women in development, roles of nongovernmental organizations, trends in technical cooperation, and the environment, family planning, and population policy formulation. The UN mission recommends that Leadership Orientation Programs be established for 1992-94 in all South Pacific countries. Conferences and exchanges between governments heads need to take place. National population councils should be formed and chaired by Prime Ministers. Law and social policy should reflect encouragement of the practice of family planning as a way of life and promotion of a higher marriage age. Registration of births and deaths needs to be improved. Family planning services, education, and training need to be expanded rapidly. Laws need to be strengthened in ways to benefit women and to protect reproductive rights, maternity leave, property rights for women, and child allowances. Laws must also permit the manufacture, importation, display, and sale of contraceptives. Population activities need to be centrally located. Training must allow for the continuance of personnel in population activities. Other considerations are the improvement in coordination of research needs throughout the region, in policy formulation skills, and in program implementation and evaluation skills. Serious deficiencies are found in the health information systems and regular contraceptive provision. Teenage pregnancy and prostitution are emerging issues. Women's leadership training is a top priority. The UN Population Fund should increase resources and promote integrated programs.
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  14. 39

    Programme review and strategy development report: Ethiopia.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994 viii, 82 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 34)

    This report describes the present demographic and socioeconomic situation in Ethiopia; the national population program, policies, and supporting international agencies; and recommendations for a population and development strategy. The recommendations involve general proposals on population policy, service delivery, IEC (information, education, and communication), social mobilization, human resource development, resource mobilization and program coordination, sectoral strategies, data collection, training and research, maternal and child health, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, adolescent reproductive health, population IEC, women in development, and environmental and population issues. Currently, programs are implemented in fragmented and uncoordinated ways. The recommendation is to create mechanisms for an integrated approach and an institutional mechanism for mobilizing and coordinating external assistance, such as a UN Population Fund (UNFPA) catalytic role in organizing meetings between government, donor agencies, and nongovernmental groups. There is currently a low level of infrastructural and technological development. The government social development initiatives will be directed to economic recovery and reconstruction. Policy makers have been made aware of the importance of integrating population into development. UNFPA has given its support since 1973; its second country program for 1987-1992 met with obstacles such as political instability, lack of a comprehensive and explicit population policy, lack of a policy-making institution for population programs, insufficient data, lack of culturally-sensitive IEC, and lack of defined policy guidelines. The health infrastructure only meets the needs of about 50% of the population. Awareness of the interrelationships among women, population, and development is insufficient.
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  15. 40

    Western Pacific Region data bank on socioeconomic and health indicators. Revised.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1994 Jun. [170] p.

    This document presents four configurations of tabulated socioeconomic and health data from the Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World Health Organization. Part 1 considers each of the 35 countries in terms of the following indicators: area, population, annual population growth rate, age distribution, urban population, rate of annual natural increase of the population, crude birth rate, crude death rate, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, total fertility rate, socioeconomic indicators for the year 2000, per capital gross national product (GNP) at market prices, rate of growth of per capita GNP, percentage gross domestic product derived from manufacturing industries at constant factor cost, economically active population in primary sector, daily per capita calorie supply, daily per capita protein supply, adult literacy rate, health budget/expenditure, health manpower, 10 leading causes of communicable diseases morbidity, 10 leading causes of death, cases and deaths from 18 selected diseases, proportion of infants fully immunized and pregnant women immunized against tetanus, percent of population served with safe water, percent of population with adequate sanitary facilities, percent of low birth weight infants, and maternal mortality rate. Part 2 presents these same data organized by country or area. Part 3 tabulates data on global and regional indicators used to monitor/evaluate the strategies for "health for all" by the year 2000. These indicators fall under the following headings: mortality trends, nutritional status of children, safe water and basic sanitation, maternal and child care (including family planning), immunization, treatment for common diseases, primary health care coverage, national health policies and strategies, community involvement, international support for health system development, financial resources, human resources for health, trends in education, and economic trends. Part 4 reorganizes these data according to country or area.
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  16. 41

    Inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, 1993.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xiii, 730 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2)

    This inventory contains information about externally-assisted population projects and programs in developing countries which were funded, initiated, or implemented by international organizations in 1993. The description of individual country programs begins with demographic facts, which were gleaned, in general, from the UN Population Division's "World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revisions. For the most part, the demographic data apply to 1990. In addition to Population Division data, facts are provided for each country on agricultural population density (per hectare of arable land) and the gross national product per capita. Country descriptions continue with a table of population policy indicators (population growth, fertility level, contraceptive usage, mortality, spatial distribution, internal migration, immigration, and emigration). Projects are then listed for each country according to the source of assistance: multilateral, from the UN system; bilateral, which involves direct assistance from individual governments or their agencies; regional, which includes all organizations located and operational only within a specific geographic area; and nongovernmental or other, such as universities, research or training institutes, and corporations. Assistance is defined to include grants, loans, technical and operational support, training, and provision of equipment and supplies. Listings of research projects are based on an assessment of the value of the information for the donor community and the governments of developing countries. Dollar values are indicated, when possible. Information for regional (involving assistance to several countries within a given region under one program), interregional (activities in specific countries located in more than one geographical region), and global (not limited to specific countries, groups of countries, or regions) programs is organized similarly, but no population policy indicators are given. The inventory ends with a list of addresses and an index.
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  17. 42

    India: country statement. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994.

    India. Department of Family Welfare

    New Delhi, India, Department of Family Welfare, 1994. [5], 61 p.

    The country report prepared by India for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens by noting that India's population has increased from 361.1 million in 1951 to 846.3 million in 1991. In describing the demographic context of this, the largest democracy in the world, information is given on the growth rate, the sex ratio, the age structure, marital status, demographic transition, internal migration, urbanization, the economically active population and the industrial structure, literacy and education, data collection and analysis, and the outlook for the future. The second section of the report discusses India's population policy, planning, and programmatic framework. Topics covered include the national perception of population issues, the evolution of the population policy, the national family welfare program (infrastructure and services; maternal and child health; information, education, and communication; and achievements), the relationship of women to population and development, the relationship of population issues and sectoral activities, the environment, adolescents and youth, and AIDS. The third section presents operational aspects of family welfare program implementation and covers political and national support, the implementation strategy, the new action plan, program achievements and constraints, monitoring and evaluation, and financial aspects. The national action plan for the future is the topic of the fourth chapter and is discussed in terms of emerging and priority concerns, the role and relevance of the World Population Plan of Action and other international instruments, international migration, science and technology, and economic stabilization, structural reforms, and international financial support. After a 24-point summary, demographic information is appended in 17 tables and charts.
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  18. 43

    The Philippines: country report on population. International Conference on Population and Development, 5-13 September 1994, Cairo, Egypt.

    Philippines. Commission on Population

    [Manila], Philippines, Commission on Population, 1994. [4], 40 p.

    The country report on population prepared by the Philippines for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a discussion of the 3 interdependent strategies which will be used to achieve development: total human resource development, international competitiveness, and sustainable development. Since the Philippines envisions development proceeding primarily from the initiatives of individuals, families, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), cooperatives, etc., empowerment of the people is a major objective of the government. To this end, the family is seen as the focal point for analysis of needs and resource use and for mobilization. The problems which beset the Philippines today and which are exacerbated by rapid population growth are pervasive poverty, a heavy debt burden, high unemployment and underemployment, a decrease in productive land, environmental degradation, and a poor economic performance. The country report considers the relationship between population, economic growth, and sustainable development in terms of the demographic situation and the economic situation. The report provides a history of the development of population policy and population programs in the country. The concerns of the population program are the environment and development, transitional population growth, the population structure, urbanization, migration, the status of women, maternal and child health and family planning (FP), and data collection and analysis. Various components of the implementation of the population program are described including political and national support, the national implementation strategy, the integration of population and development and assessment of integration efforts, responsible parenthood/FP, and the assessment of FP service delivery. Mechanisms for program monitoring and evaluation are presented along with an assessment of program efficiency, and the financial aspects of the program are discussed. After touching on the relevance of the World Population Plan of Action, the report puts forth the national 9-point action plan for the future which has the following goals: 1) to integrate population and development planning; 2) to strengthen the responsible parenthood/FP program; 3) to strengthen population education and the adolescent fertility program; 4) to increase the participation of women; 5) to build capabilities and develop institutions; 6) to decentralize administration; 7) to develop a sustainable financial plan; 8) to increase NGO and people's organization participation; and 9) to develop a reliable data base. The appendices present the demographic, health, and economic indicators for 1960-90 in tabular form and provide an outline of population policies, legislation, and incentives.
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  19. 44

    [International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994. The voice of women] Conferencia Internacional sobre Poblacion y Desarrollo, El Cairo 1994. La voz de las mujeres.

    Guevara S; Ramos M; Guerra-Garcia A

    [Lima], Peru, Centro Flora Tristan, 1994. 47 p.

    This document provides basic information on Peru's population from the perspective of women in preparation for the 1994 World Population Conference in Cairo. Peru has changed from a primarily rural, Andean, agricultural country with a population of 6 million in 1940 to a primarily coastal and urban country with a rapidly growing population of 22 million in 1993. In 1940, 65% of the population was rural; by 1993, 70% was urban. 29% of the total population lived in Lima, where economic activity, services, and government functions are concentrated. In 1992, 90% of urban houses had electricity, 80% had potable water, and 64% had toilets. In rural areas only 20% of houses had electricity, 22% had potable water, and 3% had toilets. In 1991, 58% of urban and 7% of rural households were considered to be adequately well off, 29% of urban and 29% of rural households were considered poor, and 13% of urban and 64% of rural households were considered destitute. 38.1% of Peru's total population in 1992 was under 15 years old. Peru's total fertility rate in 1992 was 3.5 for the country as a whole, 2.1 in metropolitan Lima, 3.2 in other cities, and 6.2 in rural areas. The ideal family size was 2.4 to 2.5 in urban areas and just 2.7 in rural areas. 11% of adolescents aged 15 to 19 already had children or were pregnant. Illiterate women had 7 children on average compared to 3 for women with secondary educations. 72.4% of women interviewed in the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey stated they wanted no more children, but only 32.8% used a modern contraceptive method. The maternal mortality rate was estimated at 30/10,000 in 1991. It was estimated that 12 abortions occur for every 100 live births, but the actual rate may be higher. Illiteracy rates among persons over age 15 in 1991 were estimated at 2.2% for urban men, 6.3% for urban women, 10.4% for rural men, and 45.6% for rural women. Working women are concentrated in low paid, low status jobs, domestic work, and the informal sector. Preparations for the 1994 World Population Conference have included five regional conferences and six meetings of experts on population-related topics. The Andean Declaration on Population and Development of December 1993 identified sixteen priority actions that should be taken in the areas of population and development. Conferences and meetings in Peru and elsewhere have been a vehicle for inclusion of topics and viewpoints of particular importance to women.
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  20. 45

    Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.


    As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
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  21. 46

    Introduction. Review of the six expert group meetings.


    On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
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  22. 47

    Educating girls and women: investing in development.

    King EM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. [2], 17 p.

    This brochure summarizes selected chapters from a forthcoming publication of a World Bank study on women's education in developing countries. The poorest benefit, and for girls and women, the benefits are many. Failure to raise the education levels of women has hugh consequences for increasing productivity and income and improving quality of life. Development has been affected both by the level of schooling of women and the gender gap. New approaches are being explored; policymakers must find and appropriate combination of actions to change families' opinions of and the economics of female education. Adult literacy is low in many developing countries; of the 14 out of 40 countries with data, only 1 in 5 adult females can read. Gross enrollment has increased from 45% in 1965 to 70% in 1985; only 41% of total primary school enrollment was girls in 1985. There are great regional differences. The gender gap is dramatic in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, e.g., in Bhutan girls school enrollment was 19% compared with 34% for boys in 1985, and in Pakistan 38% of girls vs 73% of boys. Differences were not as marked in Latin America and all East Asian countries. Dropout rates for girls are also higher than boys. Middle-income countries have experienced the greatest progress. The benefits of educating women are discussed in terms of the link with social and economic development. Families investment in girls education is low because the private returns are not large enough to balance the costs. Sons receive preference in many countries. Approaches to attracting more girls to schools are discussed: building schools is not enough; demand for girls education must occur. New ways of engaging rural students are being tried. Culturally appropriate facilities also boost enrollment. The best method is training and placing teachers close to home. Financial incentives and lower opportunity costs attract more girls to school. National media campaigns to raise awareness are effective. Limited resources and rapid population growth demand a realignment of priorities.
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  23. 48

    Population and the World Bank: implications from eight case studies.

    Ridker R; Freedman R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 1992. xii, 159 p. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    The World Bank's first assessment of operations concentrates on development over the past 25 years and the Bank's role in Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Brazil, Kenya, and Senegal. The major issues for the World Bank are discussed, including the neglect of population issues in the nonpopulation sector, policy promotion, project issues, donor coordination and involvement of nongovernmental agencies (NGOs), country organization of population and family planning (FP) activities, the need for a longterm program approach, the extent and allocation of bank resources, and implications for evaluating and staffing Bank population activities. The implications are that too much attention has been paid to inputs rather than outputs for accountability purposes. Attention must also be paid to nonpopulation activities. Appropriateness of the content is more important than the extent of the resources transfer. Errors of commission are pointed out, but there is need to identify errors of omission. The implications for staffing in the field in both nonproject and project work. A small core of dedicated people has been effective thus far, but in the long run greater technical resources are needed, particularly in countries with little assistance or indigenous capacity. The statistical appendix includes tables on demographic indicators for selected countries and years; donor expenditures, 1982-89; summary data for 1990 for case study countries; appraisal project costs and bank financing by category of expenditure for population projects in case study countries; bank lending by sector, for decades between 1970 and 1990; appraisal estimates of civil works, furniture, and equipment in bank population projects; and commitments for international population assistance by the World Bank and other donors, 1952-89. Annexes 1 and 2 pertain to Bangladesh's population program (executive summary, demographic situation, environmental and social and economic context, the national FP program, population projects and the Bank's institutional style), and conclusions and a similar discussion for Indonesia.
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  24. 49

    Population movements in the 1990s: North South Roundtable (NSRT). Executive summary.

    Development. 1993; (1):6-7.

    The Executive Summary of the meeting of UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), held in 1991, highlights development priorities, population movements, sovereignty, special groups such as women and children, and long term solutions for a balanced pattern of development. The North South Roundtable was organized as part of the commemoration of the 40th anniversary of UNHCR. The theme was movements of people and challenges for policy makers. The roundtable group was comprised of 35 people from a variety of international, national, educational, and special interest organizations. There was a review of 1) mass movements (problems and prospects), 2) emergencies and displacements (solutions), and 3) global opportunities and international migration and the achievement of a more balanced world economy. The development priorities in the 20th century are coping with the growing inequality between living standards of the northern industrialized countries and the southern developing countries. This disequilibrium creates a pressure for migration, which is made worse by the displacements resulting from war and civil unrest. The 1990s, as a decade of displacement, will reflect increasingly greater mass movements of people. The possibility for peace-keeping and peace-making efforts is greater as a result of the end of the Cold War. New international policies should promote voluntary repatriation and integration, encourage prevention and preparedness for emergencies, deal with less visible human emergencies, reach all displaced people, and encourage a more coherent approach to migration. National governments must "acquiesce" to international organizations which are involved in humanitarian efforts. Effective expenditure can help dependents repatriate. Women and children, as special groups which comprise 75-80% of refugees and displaced persons, should be given special attention. A consensus was reached on human development as a primary focus. The World Summit for Children and the International Development Strategy for the Fourth Development Decade agreed on specific goals. Foreign aid should be directed to removing the gaps that exist in welfare and living standards. Migration needs to be discussed globally. The role of UNHCR in stimulating dialogue was identified. Better coordination of international action is needed. Nongovernmental organizations must be engaged in cooperative effort.
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  25. 50

    China. Long-term issues and options in the health transition.

    Bumgarner JR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xxvii, 133 p. (World Bank Country Study)

    In the early 1990s, the World Bank sent a team of specialists in demography, medicine, hospital administration, health policy, personnel, medical technology, and finance to China to examine the present health status of the population and to protect its future status. Before making any projections, however, they had to learn what demographic and epidemiologic factors would basically determine future health status. The main factors driving China's health transition included aging of the population; increased risk of developing chronic disease caused by changes in life style, dietary, environmental, and occupational risk factors; and changing morbidity and mortality patterns (i.e., shift from infectious to disabling and chronic diseases). The team mapped out specific strategies, which can indeed be achieved, to avert a health care crisis. The strategies revolved around a sustained effort of primary prevention of chronic diseases, especially circulatory diseases, which caused considerable premature mortality. The team illustrated how different formulas of total health expenditures would affect epidemiologic outcomes. The team learned that health care costs would probably increase due to unavoidable demographic trends (especially demographic aging), epidemiologic forces, and utilization and unit cost changes. Suggested primary prevention strategies alone would not be enough to control health expenditures to a level where feasible equity can be maintained. China must also greatly improve efficiency of hospital services, personnel, and technologies. The evaluation team concluded that the government needs to reassess policies for financing primary and preventive health services, the basis and conditions of insurance, and the role of prices and incentives in directing use and provision of services.
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