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[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2008 Jan. 4 p. (en breve No. 114)In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18% and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58% in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living below the poverty line and impacting –in a disproportionate manner- the most vulnerable and poverty stricken families. The crisis also had a tremendous impact on Argentina’s middle-class. Increased unemployment and the freezing of wages and bank deposits forced many families to face poverty for the first time, and to seek new survival strategies. The crisis caused the rupture of traditional roles within the household, forcing many women into the workforce, many young people to leave school in search of a job, and many tradtional breadwinners to remain at home. In many cases, these changes challenged not just the economic viability of households but the role of families. Recognizing the potential impact of the situation, the Government of Argentina approached the World Bank for a small loan ($5 million), aimed at promoting gender equity and the development of families through the Family Strengthening and Social Capital Promotion Project (PROFAM). (excerpt)
Johannesburg, South Africa, Sonke Gender Justice Network, . 26 p.UNHCR has recognized the essential role that both male staff and male persons of concern play in ending gender-based violence in its operations and that protecting women from SGBV is part of the organization’s core protection mandate. This workshop was organized to raise awareness of the need to engage men and boys, to look at successful models for such engagement, and to develop country-level strategies for strengthening the engagement of men and boys to end sexual and gender-based violence. The workshop addressed knowledge, attitudes and action and brought together UNHCR and implementing partner staff as well as refugees from ten African countries including gender practitioners and organizations already engaged in working with men and boys. A four day regional workshop was facilitated by Sonke Gender Justice Network (Sonke) and the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. (Women’s Commission), in cooperation with UNHCR, to increase and encourage the involvement of men and boys in the work against sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). The participants consisted of multifunctional teams from nine different countries in the Great Lakes region, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa (Uganda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Rwanda), a professor from St Cloud’s University and the founder of MAGE in Sierra Leone. The workshop had three main objectives; a) Awareness raising for UNHCR staff, people of concern and NGO partners on addressing masculinities. b) Skills building for UNHCR staff, people of concern and NGO partners on how to integrate masculinities into programs to address SGBV and promote gender equality. c) Development of a critical mass of trainers to undertake training on masculinities throughout the region. (excerpt)
[Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy in Northeastern Brazil] Implementacao da estrategia Atencao Integrada as Doencas Prevalentes na Infancia no Nordeste, Brasil.
Revista De Saude Publica. 2008 Aug; 42(4):598-606.OBJECTIVE: The majority of child deaths are avoidable. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy, developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, aims to reduce child mortality by means of actions to improve performance of health professionals, the health system organization, and family and community practices. The article aimed to describe factors associated with the implementation of this strategy in three states of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study conducted in 443 municipalities in the states of Northeastern Brazil Ceara, Paraiba and Pernambuco, in 2006. The distribution of economic, geographic, environmental, nutritional, health service organization, and child mortality independent variables were compared between municipalities with and without the strategy. These factors were assessed by means of a hierarchical model, where Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios, after adjustment of confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 54% of the municipalities studied had the strategy: in the state of Ceara, 65 had it and 43 did not have it; in the state of Paraiba, 27 had it and 21 did not have it; and in the state of Pernambuco, 147 had it and 140 did not have it. After controlling for confounding factors, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with the absence of the strategy: lower human development index, smaller population, and greater distance from the capital. CONCLUSIONS: There was inequality in the development of the strategy, as municipalities with a higher risk to child health showed lower rates of implementation of actions. Health policies are necessary to help this strategy to be consolidated in the municipalities that are at a higher risk of child mortality.
Making reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health a reality for all. Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health framework.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2008 May.  p.The Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) framework has been developed to provide overall guidance and a cohesive- Fund-wide response for implementing the Reproductive Health and Rights elements of the UNFPA Strategic plan 2008-2011. The framework builds on the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 1994; the Millennium Summit, 2000, with its adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); the 2005 World Summit; and the addition, in 2007, of the goal of universal access to reproductive health to MDG 5, for improving maternal health. This includes two parts: the first provides a snapshot of the progress achieved since ICPD, identifies major remaining gaps and priorities and outlines principles and approaches for programme planning and implementation. The second part identifies key priorities and specific strategies for each of the SRH-related strategic plan outcomes. (Excerpt)
Integrating poverty and gender into health programmes: a sourcebook for health professionals. Module on HIV / AIDS.
[Manila, Philippines], World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2008.  p.This module is designed to improve the awareness, knowledge and skills of health professionals on poverty and gender concerns in the field of HIV / AIDS. Experience increasingly shows that the socioeconomic factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV in the Region include low education, limited access to health care services and increased mobility within and between countries -- factors that are largely determined by poverty and gender inequality. The growing commitment to curbing the HIV / AIDS epidemic requires that health professionals at community, provincial, national and international levels have the knowledge, skills and tools to more effectively respond to the health needs of poor and marginalized people and address the gender inequalities fuelling the epidemic. However, many health professionals in the Region are not adequately prepared to address these issues. This module is designed to help fill this gap.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Urban Sector Board, 2008.  p.This paper provides an overview on what has been learned about urban poverty over the past decade with a focus on what is new and what the implications are for the World Bank going forward in an increasingly urbanized world. Coverage includes current information on the scope of urban poverty, identification of the key issues for the urban poor, a summary of regional characteristics of urban poverty, what has been learned from programs and policies aimed at the urban poor, and finally, the paper identifies priorities for urban poverty reduction within the context of an overall urban strategy.
Guidelines for integrating sexual and reproductive health into the HIV / AIDS component of country coordinated proposals to be submitted to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Round 8 and beyond. Updated 18 February 2008.
[London, England], Interact Worldwide, 2008 Feb 18. 36 p.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a unique multilateral partnership that has proven itself to be a successful mechanism for fighting these diseases, is an important funding vehicle for innovative responses to the three diseases, including SRH-HIV / AIDS integration. In preparation for upcoming and future Global Fund funding rounds, Guidelines for Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health into the HIV / AIDS Component of Country Coordinated Proposals to be submitted to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is designed to support Country Coordinated Mechanisms (CCMs) to develop Country Coordinated Proposals for the Global Fund that integrate sexual and reproductive health into the HIV / AIDS component. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, 2008 Jan.  p. (Evaluation Working Papers Issue No. 12)This collection of articles by UNICEF brings together the vision and lessons learned from different stakeholders on the strategic role of monitoring and evaluation in evidence-based policymaking. These stakeholders are policymakers (as users of evidence) and researchers and evaluators (as suppliers of evidence). The use of strong evidence can achieve recognition of a policy issue, inform the design and choice of policy, forecast the future, monitor policy implementation, and evaluate policy impact.
Report to Congress by the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator on the involvement of faith-based organizations in activities of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.
[Washington, D.C.], Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2008 May. 40 p.The Administration provides this Report pursuant to Section 625(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), which requires the U.S. Secretary of State to submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations "on the involvement of faith-based organizations in Global Fund Programs. The report shall include (1) on a country-by-country basis -(A) a description of the amount of grants and subgrants provided to faith-based organizations; and (B) a detailed description of the involvement of faith-based organizations in the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) process of the Global Fund; and (2) a description of actions the Global Fund is taking to enhance the involvement of faith-based organizations in the CCM process, particularly in countries in which the involvement of faith-based organizations has been underrepresented.
Last chance for the world to live up to its promises? Why decisive action is needed now on child health and the MDGs. A World Vision policy briefing.
Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, World Vision International Policy and Advocacy, 2008 Sep. 15 p. (World Vision Policy Briefing)Now is the window of opportunity to ensure that 2015 will be remembered as the year the world lived up to its promise to the world's poorest and most vulnerable people. This short briefing paper considers child health in the context of the three health-focused MDGs, identifies concrete steps needed in the coming months to put the MDGs back on track, and summarises World Vision's own efforts to contribute to their achievement. (Excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations, General Assembly, 2008 Aug 6. 20 p. (A/63/222)The present report was prepared in response to General Assembly resolution 62/138. Obstetric fistula is a devastating childbirth injury that leaves women incontinent and often isolated from their communities. It is a stark example of continued poor maternal and reproductive health services and an indication of high levels of maternal death and disability. The report outlines efforts to end obstetric fistula at international, regional and national levels, including by the United Nations system. It concludes with recommendations to intensify efforts to end obstetric fistula as part of support to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, including strengthening health systems and increasing levels and predictability of funding.
[New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2008. 35 p.Obstetric fistula, almost unknown in the industrialized world, is most common in poor communities of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where emergency obstetric care is rarely accessible. It occurs when a woman undergoes a difficult and prolonged labour without prompt medical intervention. Left incontinent, women with fistula are often abandoned by husbands and loved ones and blamed for their condition. Their babies are usually born dead. Like maternal death, obstetric fistula is preventable. Averting it will also contribute to safer childbearing for women throughout the developing world.This publication covers topics such as: 1. Advancing Maternal Health and Rights; 2. Preventing Harm; 3. Healing Wounds; 4. Renewing Hope; 5. Harnessing Momentum.
[New York, New York], UNFPA, 2008. 30 p.Since 1990, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been tracking donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention. The Fund publishes an annual report based on this donor database to enhance the coordination among partners at all levels to continue progress toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health, as set forth in the ICPD Programme of Action and, subsequently, the Millennium Development Goals. This report represents the 2008 installment of the series and has three main sections. The first section summarizes patterns and trends—by method, by donor and by region—in donor support from 2000-2008. The second section takes a closer look at donor support for male and female condoms over time and by region. The third and final section compares aggregate donor support to global contraceptive need for 2000-2008 and provides projections of contraceptive needs through 2015. (Excerpt)
[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, .  p. (Research Brief on Hormonal Contraception)The World Health Organization has changed its recommendation on the timing of re-injection for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). The new guidelines encourage health care providers to allow a longer grace period for a woman to return for her next injection of this popular hormonal contraceptive.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2008 Aug. 81 p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-06-00007-00)In August 2008, Todd Dickens (PATH), with assistance from the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT, Task Order 1, conducted a review of the IDA-funded procurement of health care commodities under the Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector Program in Bangladesh. The study’s overall objective was to identify bottlenecks and problems that have lead to recent stockouts of contraceptives, and recommend possible actions that the Government of Bangladesh, USAID and development partners can take to address these problems that will improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement process and support contraceptive security in Bangladesh.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2008. 4 p.The United Nations Population Fund estimates that 25-50 percent of maternal deaths in refugee settings are attributable to unsafe abortions. Making pregnancy safer includes timely and appropriate management of unsafe and spontaneous abortion for all women, and the provision of or referral for safe abortion services to the full extent allowed by law. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) has been used worldwide for more than three decades, enabling millions of women in developed and developing countries to undergo safe and effective uterine evacuation for treatment of incomplete abortion and first-trimester abortion, as well as endometrial biopsy. This brochure highlights how MVA is an important part of safe, effective abortion and postabortion care in conflict settings.
Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):300-304.Background.-Ninety-nine percent of the 4 million neonatal deaths per year occur in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course sets the minimum accepted standard for training midwives on aspects of infant care (neonatal resuscitation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, small baby care, and thermoregulation), many of which are provided by the mother. Objective.-The aim of this study was to determine the association of ENC with all-cause 7-day (early) neonatal mortality among infants of less educated mothers compared with those of mothers with more education. Methods.-Protocol- and ENC-certified research nurses trained all 123 college-educated midwives from 18 low-risk, first-level urban community health centers (Zambia) in data collection (1 week) and ENC (1 week) as part of a controlled study to test the clinical impact of ENC implementation. The mothers were categorized into 2 groups, those who had completed 7 years of school education (primary education) and those with 8 or more years of education. Results.-ENC training is associated with decreases in early neonatal mortality; rates decreased from 11.2 per 1000 live births pre- ENC to 6.2 per 1000 following ENC implementation (P <.001). Prenatal care, birth weight, race, and gender did not differ between the groups. Mortality for infants of mothers with 7 years of education decreased from 12.4 to 6.0 per 1000 (P < .0001) but did not change significantly for those with 8 or more years of education (8.7 to 6.3 per 1000, P ¼.14). Conclusions.-ENC training decreases early neonatal mortality, and the impact is larger in infants of mothers without secondary education. The impact of ENC may be optimized by training health care workers who treat women with less formal education.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2008.  p.In order to help nonmenstruating clients safely initiate their method of choice, Family Health International (FHI) developed a simple checklist for use by family planning providers. Although originally the Pregnancy Checklist was developed for use by family planning providers, it can also be used by other health care providers who need to determine whether a client is not pregnant. For example, pharmacists may use this checklist when prescribing certain medications that should be avoided during pregnancy (e.g., certain antibiotics or anti-seizure drugs). The checklist is endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is based on criteria established by WHO for determining with reasonable certainty that a woman is not pregnant. Evaluation of the checklist in family planning clinics has demonstrated that the tool is very effective in correctly identifying women who are not pregnant. Furthermore, recent studies in Guatemala, Mali, and Senegal have shown that use of the checklist by family planning providers significantly reduced the proportion of clients being turned away due to menstrual status and improved women's access to contraceptive services.
Mera. 2008 Sep; iii-vi.When a woman chooses a contraceptive method, effectiveness is often the most important characteristic she considers. Knowing the risks and benefits of each method, including its effectiveness, is necessary for a woman to make a truly informed decision. Yet, many women do not understand how well various methods protect against pregnancy. Health professionals usually explain effectiveness by informing women of the expected pregnancy rates for each method during perfect use (when the method is used consistently and correctly) and during more typical use (such as when a woman forgets to take all of her pills). However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently endorsed a simple evidence-based chart that healthcare providers can use to help women understand the relative effectiveness of different methods -- a concept that is much easier for most people to grasp. Key points of this article are: 1) Clinicians play an important role in ensuring that women understand the concept of effectiveness -- a key element of informed choice; 2) Women are able to understand the relative effectiveness of contraceptive methods more easily than the absolute effectiveness of a particular method; and 3) A new chart that places the methods on a continuum from least to most effective can help health professionals better communicate about contraceptive effectiveness.
Washington, D.C., Constella Futures, Health Policy Initiative, 2008 Nov.  p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-05-00040-00)This report describes how the Government of Peru was successful in diversifying its procurement options and mechanisms for contraceptive commodities. It shows the progress made between 1999, when Peru began purchasing contraceptive supplies with public funds, and mid-2007, when important changes were made in procurement channels. Today, the Peruvian government procures contraceptives from multiple national and international suppliers and is able to negotiate for favorable prices and other terms. (Author's abstract)
Key resources on monitoring and evaluation indicators related to gender and HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and violence against women.
In: Making aid more effective: Promoting better monitoring and tracking of gender equality in HIV and AIDS responses, edited by Robert Carr. New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2008. 75-78.The purpose of the document is to provide guidance on existing indicators on gender and HIV; HIV and violence against women; and gender, HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights. These key resources include publications and databases from United Nations agencies, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. The list is not comprehensive, but only contains resources with the most relevant indicators. (Excerpt)
Summary report of the Expert Group Consultation on Tracking and Monitoring Gender Equality and HIV / AIDS in Aid Effectiveness.
In: Making aid more effective: Promoting better monitoring and tracking of gender equality in HIV and AIDS responses, edited by Robert Carr. New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2008. 23-32.This chapter presents document highlights from an Expert Group Consultation convened by UNIFEM in collaboration with the European Commission to identify approaches to ensure that the aid effectiveness agenda promotes greater action on, and investment in, reducing HIV and AIDS among women. The consultation provided an opportunity to discuss how to make aid more effective in addressing the gender dimensions of the epidemic through the tracking of financing for gender equality in the response to HIV and identifying, reviewing and refining key programme indicators. Experts examined how and where gender equality and HIV are being woven into the aid effectiveness agenda, drawing on country examples and existing efforts. They also made recommendations for advocacy to ensure that aid is 'effective' for women. More importantly, this convening of experts provided an opportunity to examine strategies and tools to support nationally driven processes of tracking and monitoring progress to reduce HIV infections among women by improving their access to sexual and reproductive health and rights and by reducing violence they face. (Excerpt)
Making aid more effective: Promoting better monitoring and tracking of gender equality in HIV and AIDS responses.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2008. 81 p.In May 2008, UNIFEM and the EC organized an expert consultation on 'Tracking and Monitoring Gender Equality and HIV / AIDS in Aid Effectiveness,' to identify and promote approaches to ensure that the aid effectiveness agenda promotes greater investment and action on reducing HIV / AIDS among women and girls. Participants developed recommendations for integrating the gender equality dimensions of HIV / AIDS into national development planning, implementation and budgeting; for strengthening current indicators for monitoring and tracking progress to eliminate violence against women and improve women's access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in the context of HIV / AIDS; and for inspiring new areas of advocacy and new entry points for improving knowledge and awareness on gender equality and HIV and AIDS in the context of aid effectiveness. This publication presents the key findings of the consultation; it highlights the gaps in tracking budgets and expenditures on gender equality, and the need to transform the structural conditions that heighten the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV. It underlines the need for comprehensive gender equality indicators for use in monitoring progress in meeting key targets and goals outlined within the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. (Excerpt)
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2008 Nov; 11(6):608-12.BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to determine the health-related quality of life in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus or suffering from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), referred to Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center in west of Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method on 139 patients living with HIV or suffering from AIDS at the first half of the year 2006. The method of data collection was summarized questionnaire of World Health Organization (WHO-QOL-Brief). The main measured outcome in this study was quality of life and some related demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were males (88.5%) with secondary education (45.3%) and married (27.3%); the majority of them were unemployed (65.4%). The mean+/-SD age of the patients was 35.4+/-6.4 years. Gender, marital status, level of education, CD4+ count, and clinical stage of the disease, had a significant effect on the quality of life of the patients. In multivariate analysis, the most important predictor of the quality of life was clinical stage of the disease. CONCLUSION: The most important factors, association with decreased quality of life of the patients in this study, were being female, separated or divorced, having less CD4+ count, and being at severe stage of the disease.
Asia and the Pacific Regional Forum on Strengthening Partnerships with Faith-Based Organisations in Addressing ICPD, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 5-6 May, 2008. A report on the conference proceedings.
[New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2008. 60 p.Building on a legacy spanning three decades, UNFPA Country Offices in the Asia-Pacific region and their faith-based partners came together for a two-day consultation to assess the nature and impact of these partnerships in the areas of maternal health, gender equality, migration and youth welfare. This report documents the experiences and lessons learned from the varied initiatives of faith-based organizations, as well as the best practices emanating from these strategic alliances around the region. The discussions, recommendations for action and the many voices of critical faith-based actors, are all documented in this report.