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Your search found 439 Results

  1. 1
    372964

    India’s undernourished children: a call for reform and action.

    Gragnolati M; Bredenkamp C; Shekar M; Gupta MD; Lee YK

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. [144] p. (Health, Nutrition, and Population Series)

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, India’s main early child development intervention, in addressing it. Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the 1990s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well designed and well placed to address the multidimensional causes of undernutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential. The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation.
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  2. 2
    332933

    Proposed areas of investigation for the KN: an initial scoping of the literature. Draft.

    Doherty J; Gilson L

    [Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2006 Feb. [29] p. (Health Systems Knowledge Network (KN) Discussion Document No. 1)

    During July and August 2005 the Health Systems Knowledge Network Hub produced a wide-ranging literature review for discussion at a meeting in India between Hubs and the rest of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (Doherty, Gilson and EQUINET 2005). The review was based on literature sourced from within the consortium managing the hub as well as from institutions networked with the consortium members. Some key references from existing materials were also followed up. Given the wide scope of work on health systems, it was not feasible to conduct a general electronic search. Nor was it possible to access substantial quantities of grey literature, given the difficulties associated with identifying and locating copies of this type of literature. Because of time constraints, the review focused on reviews of international experience and articles documenting new lines of investigation. Articles that were, at the time, in press were specifically sought out to ensure as up-todate an evidence base as possible. The review began by presenting data showing that health services tend to be used proportionately more by richer than poorer social groups. It analysed the social factors affecting access to, and uptake of, health services and showed how these interact with inequitable features of the health care system. Overall, the review argued that the interaction between household health-seeking behaviour and experience of the health system generates differential health and economic consequences across social groups. The long-term costs of seeking care often impoverish poorer households, reinforcing preexisting social stratification. The review then examined in some detail the features of the health care system that contribute to inequity (such as certain approaches to priority-setting, resource allocation, financing, organisation, human resources, and management and regulation). (Excerpt)
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  3. 3
    331817

    Coordination, management and utilization of foreign assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention in Vietnam. Assessment report.

    Center for Community Health Research and Development [CCRD]

    Ha Noi, Vietnam, CCRD, 2006 Oct. 82 p. (CCRD Assesssment Report)

    International assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam has significantly contributed to combating this epidemic. However, while current resources have not yet fully met the needs, the management and utilization of resources still had many limitations which affect the effectiveness of foreign assistance and investments. The independent assessment was prepared for the Conference on “the Coordination of Foreign Assistance for HIV / AIDS Prevention and Control”. Analytical assessment and comments on the management and coordination of foreign aid were made on the basis of Government’s official procedures and regulations on those issues. This research was carried out in October, 2006.
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  4. 4
    331852

    Access to reproductive health in a neoliberal policy climate.

    Sandusky E

    [Wellington, New Zealand], Family Planning International, 2006 Dec. 27 p.

    This report focuses on the relationship between policies implemented by the World Trade Organisation, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, and access to health, particularly sexual and reproductive health. .
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  5. 5
    331739

    Monophasic regimens should Be first choice for new pill users.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, [2006]. [2] p. (Research Briefs on Hormonal Contraception)

    A new Cochrane review conducted by Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands and Family Health International suggests that monophasic regimens should be the first choice over triphasic regimens for new oral contraceptive users.
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  6. 6
    331738

    Less is more in helping women understand what to do when they miss contraceptive pills.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, [2006]. [2] p. (Research Briefs on Hormonal Contraception)

    Unintended pregnancies resulting from women missing their oral contraceptive pills could be reduced if women better understood what to do when they forget to take their daily pill. Research from Family Health International demonstrates that instructions explaining the steps to take when pills are missed are more readily comprehended when in graphic format, featuring simplified information.
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  7. 7
    326797

    Gender equality as smart economics: a World Bank Group gender action plan (fiscal years 2007-10).

    World Bank

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2006 Sep. [29] p.

    This Action Plan seeks to advance women's economic empowerment in the World Bank Group's client countries in order to promote shared growth and accelerate the implementation of Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3 - promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). The Plan would commit the World Bank Group to intensify and scale up gender mainstreaming in the economic sectors over four years, in partnership with client countries, donors, and other development agencies. The Bank Group and its partners would increase resources devoted to gender issues in operations and technical assistance, in Results-Based Initiatives (RBIs), and in policy-relevant research and statistics. An assessment at the end of the four-year period would determine whether to extend the Action Plan's timeframe. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    325639

    Addressing violence against women in HIV testing and counselling. A meeting report, Geneva, 16-18 January 2006.

    Maman S; King E; Amin A; Garcia-Moreno C; Higgins D

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. [50] p.

    This report summarizes the discussions and final recommendations from the meeting participants. Section 1 reviews the evidence of the association between HIV testing and serostatus disclosure and women's experiences of violence, describes current strategies to expand access to HIV testing and counselling, and discusses the implications of these various strategies for women. Section 2 describes specific programme approaches to address violence through HIV testing and counselling programmes, including strategies to achieve the following: engage male partners in the HIV testing and counselling process through couple counselling; train and build the capacity of HIV counsellors and other appropriate health care providers to recognize and counsel women at potential risk of violence; integrate HIV testing services into other health-related services, such as those provided to women who have experienced sexual assault; create peer support programmes to support women through the HIV testing and counselling process; and integrate HIV testing and counselling programmes within services for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Finally, section 3 reflects conclusions and identifies specific recommendations made by the meeting participants to address violence against women: as a barrier to women accessing HIV testing and counselling services; in the counselling that is provided to women on how to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners or other members of their social networks; and in the risk reduction counselling provided to women; as part of the post-test support needs of women. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    325638

    The world's women 2005: Progress in statistics.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2006. [175] p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/17)

    The World's Women 2005: Progress in Statistics focuses on the state of statistics for addressing gender concerns. It reviews the current availability of national data and assesses progress in data reporting from 1975 to 2003, based on the information that national statistical authorities report to the international statistical system. The statistics reviewed include those related to population, health, education and work. Also reviewed in the report is the current state of statistics in some of the relatively newer areas, namely violence against women; poverty; power and decision-making; and human rights. The focus on official national statistics, as differentiated from internationally prepared estimates, reveals the extent to which Governments are able to produce statistics to address various gender concerns. By so doing, the report provides Governments with the means to assess progress, identify gaps and design strategies to improve the national collection and dissemination of gender statistics needed for policy formulation and programme planning and evaluation. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    325466

    Sex politics: reports from the Front Lines.

    Parker E; Petchesky R; Sembler R

    [Rio de Janeiro], Brazil, Sexuality Policy Watch, [2006]. 412 p.

    Sex Politics: Reports from the Front Lines is a comparative study of the politics of sexuality, sexual health and sexual rights in eight countries and two global institutions. Over the past few decades, sexuality has become the focal point for political controversy and a key domain for social change. Issues such as protecting sexual freedoms and enhancing access to resources that promote sexual health are among the SPW's central concerns. The documents that are included in Sex Politics are based on research that has been carried out between 2004 and 2007 on sexuality and politics in Brazil, Egypt, India, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Vietnam, the United Nations and the World Bank. These case studies are framed, at the outset, by an introductory chapter on sexual rights policies across countries and cultures that seeks to describe some of the conceptual architecture as well as the collaborative process that was used in developing these studies, and at the end, by a crosscutting analysis of the local and global politics of sex and reproduction that seeks to offer a preliminary analysis of at least some of the issues that emerge from a comparative reading of the diverse case studies included in this work. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    325444
    Peer Reviewed

    Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    Rheingans R; Dreibelbis R; Freeman MC

    Global Public Health. 2006 Feb; 1(1):31-48.

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities. (author's)
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  12. 12
    307971

    [World Health Organization updates guidance on how to use contraceptives] OMS reactualizeaza recomandarile de practica pentru utilizarea contraceptivelor.

    Salem RM

    Targu-Mures, Romania, Institutul Est European de Sanatate a Reproducerii, 2006. 7 p. (Actualitati in planificarea familiala No. 2)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) issued new guidance in 2004 on how to use certain contraceptives safely and effectively, including the following: A woman who misses combined oral contraceptive pills should take a hormonal pill as soon as possible and then continue taking one pill each day. This basic guidance applies no matter how many hormonal pills a woman misses. Only if a woman misses three or more hormonal pills in a row will she need to take additional steps (see p.3). The new guidance simplifies the missed-pill rules issued by WHO in 2002. Men should wait three months after a vasectomy procedure before relying on it. Previous guidelines advised men to wait either three months after the procedure or until they had had at least 20 ejaculations, whichever occurred first. Recent studies have shown, however, that the 20-ejaculation criterion is not a reliable gauge of vasectomy effectiveness. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    307970

    [WHO updates medical eligibility criteria for contraceptives] OMS reactualizeaza criteriile medicale de eligibilitate pentru utilizarea contraceptivelor.

    Rinehart W

    Targu-Mures, Romania, Institutul Est European de Sanatate a Reproducerii, 2006. 15 p. (Actualitati in planificarea familiala No. 1)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued new family planning guidance, including the following: Most women with HIV infection generally can use IUDs. Women generally can take hormonal contraceptives while on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV infection, although there are interactions between contraceptive hormones and certain ARV drugs. Women with clinical depression usually can take hormonal contraceptives. More than 35 experts met at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2003 and developed this and other new guidance. The new guidance updates the 2000 Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    324547

    Rwanda: Assessing the logistics management system for contraceptives. Executive summary.

    Ouedraogo Y; Utshudi A; Pehe N; Ndahinyuka J; Roche G

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Mar. 15 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In 2002, Rwanda's Ministry of Health carried out a survey on the performance of the logistics system for contraceptives, with technical support from DELIVER. In 2003 and 2004, routine surveys were undertaken as a follow-up to the program to ensure the availability of contraceptives and to strengthen the contraceptive logistics management system. This 2006 assessment report identifies areas where improvements have since been achieved and suggests remedial recommendations as well as actions to improve the logistics system. Information on the performance of the logistics system, the availability of products, and the availability and quality of logistics data is also presented. The report notes that Rwanda's logistics management system for contraceptives is in place, and that it correctly fulfills expected tasks. Products are available and the system runs smoothly. Critical logistics data are sent to the central level on a regular basis, and the reporting rate has reached 100 percent. Stockouts are marginal. This report illustrates the conditions that contributed to the satisfactory results achieved by the existing contraceptive management system. (author's)
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  15. 15
    324544

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Paraguay.

    Quesada N; Dayaratna V; Abramson W; Gribble J; Siman Betancourt V

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds for family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean, Paraguay will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Paraguay will need to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of different procurement options to identify efficient, economical, high quality and timely distribution of contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  16. 16
    324543

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Nicaragua.

    Agudelo J; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D; Abramson W

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Nicaragua will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Nicaragua needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  17. 17
    324542

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Dominican Republic.

    Agudelo J; Dayaratna V; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [26] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The government of the Dominican Republic needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  18. 18
    324540

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Bolivia.

    Quesada N; Abramson W; Siman Betancourt V; Dayaratna V; Gribble J

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [30] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Bolivia will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Bolivia needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  19. 19
    324424
    Peer Reviewed

    Supporting and sustaining national responses to children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS: Experience from the RAAAP exercise in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Webb D; Gulaid L; Ngalazu-Phiri S; Rejbrand M

    Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2006 Aug; 1(2):170-179.

    The growing number of children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa presents an enormous socioeconomic and public policy challenge. Despite international commitments to increase resource allocation and scale up services and support for AIDS-affected children, families and communities, the national- and sub-national-level state responses have been inadequate. The rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) process for orphans and vulnerable children, conceived in late 2003, was intended as a multicountry incentive to identify and resource immediate actions that can be taken to scale in 16 heavily affected countries. This review of experiences to date with the RAAAP process highlights some key areas of learning, including: (a) fund mobilization has been slow and has reached approximately only one-third of what is required; (b) ownership and integration into development planning of the issue of orphans and vulnerable children at country level has been undermined by the perception that the response is an 'emergency' and externally (donor) driven exercise; (c) centralized planning has failed to appreciate the complexity of context and responses at the meso- and micro-levels within countries, entailing the need to support a comprehensive decentralization process of planning and implementation; (d) comprehensive multisectoral and interagency collaboration, involving civil society, is an important but overlooked element of the planning process; and (e) definitional variation between countries has led to large variations in budgets and coverage targets. While the RAAAP process has undoubtedly raised awareness at state level of the nature and extent of the 'orphan crisis' and raised vital resources, only full integration of the new planning process for orphans and vulnerable children within the range of macro and national development tools will allow the response to be sustainable in the longer term. (author's)
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  20. 20
    324063

    Evidence for interventions included in the Minimum Package of Maternal and Newborn Interventions.

    Mridha MK

    MotherNewBorNews. 2006 Aug-Dec; 2(1):[15] p.

    In 2006, USAID and several of its partners agreed to the implementation of a minimum set of evidence-based interventions in maternal and newborn programs. These included a number of community-based and facility-based interventions that could be phased in to improve the survival and well being of mothers and newborns. These interventions have been tested in various operations research studies and have also been provided as an integrated package of services as described in subsequent sections of this newsletter. Below is a summary of evidence for each of the interventions. In the interest of brevity and simplicity, we have limited the evidence to just a few key studies. To keep the document consistent with the MAMAN framework described in the previous article, the evidence for MAMAN interventions has been described under three broad categories: I) Minimum maternal and newborn care, II) Other essential interventions, and III) Context specific interventions. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    323685

    Supporting civil society organisations to reach key populations in the Latin American and Caribbean region. A look at HIV / AIDS projects financed by the World Bank.

    Roseberry W

    [Brighton, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2006. 52 p.

    The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which World Bank financed projects are supporting civil society organisations (CSOs) to reach four key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SW), intravenous drug users (IDUs) and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The study refers to the first three key populations (KPs) as 'at-risk KPs' when discussing KPs who may or may not be HIV infected. The study has two main outputs: an initial mapping of World Bank financed AIDS prevention and control projects in LAC and the role of CSOs and KPs in those projects; identification of factors that impede or facilitate CSO access to World Bank resources that target KPs. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance has commissioned this study to improve understanding of the dynamics at the country level with World Bank financed projects concerning CSOs and KPs. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    323477

    Sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV / AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. [80] p.

    The sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV/AIDS is fundamental to their well-being and that of their partners and children. This publication addresses the specific sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV/AIDS and contains recommendations for counselling, antiretroviral therapy, care and other interventions. Improving women's sexual and reproductive health, treating HIV infections and preventing new ones are important factors in reducing poverty and promoting the social and economic development of communities and countries. Sexual and reproductive health services are uniquely positioned to address each of these factors. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    323277

    International guidelines on HIV / AIDS and human rights. 2006 consolidated version. Second International Consultation on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, Geneva, 23-25 September 1996. Third International Consultation on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, Geneva, 25-26 July 2002. Organized jointly by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS.

    Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2006. 115 p. (HR/PUB/06/9)

    The International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights arose because of various calls for their development in light of the need for guidance for Governments and others on how to best promote, protect and fulfill human rights in the context of the HIV epidemic. During the first International Consultation on AIDS and Human Rights, organized by the United Nations Centre for Human Rights, in cooperation with the World Health Organization, in Geneva, from 26 to 28 July 1989, participants discussed the possible elaboration of guidelines to assist policymakers and others in complying with international human rights standards regarding law, administrative practice and policy. Several years later, in his report to the Commission at its fifty-first session (E/CN.4/1995/45, para.135), the United Nations Secretary-General stated that "the development of such guidelines or principles could provide an international framework for discussion of human rights considerations at the national, regional and international levels in order to arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of the complex relationship between the public health rationale and the human rights rationale of HIV/AIDS. In particular, Governments could benefit from guidelines that outline clearly how human rights standards apply in the area of HIV/AIDS and indicate concrete and specific measures, both in terms of legislation and practice, that should be undertaken". (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    323254

    Newborn survival.

    Lawn JE; Zupan J; Begkoyian G; Knippenberg R

    In: Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd ed., edited by Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson et al. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. 531-549.

    This chapter provides an overview of neonatal deaths, presenting the epidemiology as a basis for program priorities and summarizing the evidence for interventions within a health systems framework, providing cost and impact estimates for packages that are feasible for universal scale-up. The focus of the chapter is restricted to interventions during the neonatal period. The priority interventions identified here are largely well known, yet global coverage is extremely low. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implementation in country programs with examples of scaling up, highlighting gaps in knowledge. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    323253

    Maternal and perinatal conditions.

    Graham WJ; Cairns J; Bhattacharya S; Bullough CH; Quayyum Z

    In: Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd ed., edited by Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson et al. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. 499-529.

    The Millennium Declaration includes two goals directly relevant to maternal and perinatal conditions: reducing child mortality and improving maternal health. The fact that two out of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are exclusively targeted at mothers and children is testament to the significant proportion of the global burden of disease they suffer and to the huge inequities within and between countries in the magnitude of their burden. Achieving these goals is inextricably linked at the biological, intervention, and service delivery levels. Maternal and child health services have long been seen as inseparable partners, although over the past 20 years the relative emphasis within each, particularly at a policy level, has varied. The launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in the late 1980s, for example, brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, whereas the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) broadened the focus to reproductive health and, more recently, to reproductive rights. Those shifts can be linked with international programmatic responses and terminology-with the preventive emphasis of, for instance, prenatal care being lowered as a priority relative to the treatment focus of emergency obstetric care. For the child, integrated management of childhood illnesses has brought renewed emphasis to maintaining a balance between preventive and curative care. The particular needs of the newborn, however, have only started to receive significant attention in the past three or four years. (excerpt)
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