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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004 May.  p. (Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Discussion Paper; World Bank Report No. 69106)This paper argues for more nuance in the interpretation of progress towards the Nutrition Millennium Development Goal indicator (halving the prevalence of underweight children, under 5 years old, by 2015). Interpretation of a country's performance based on trends alone is ambiguous, and can lead to erroneous prioritization of countries in need of donor assistance. For instance, a country may halve the prevalence by 2015, but will still have unacceptable high malnutrition rates. This paper analyses which countries are showing satisfactory and unsatisfactory progress using the Annual Rate of Change (ARC), and then introduces the World Health Organization-classification of severity of malnutrition in the analysis to provide more nuance. It highlights that a little less than half of the Bank's client population is likely to halve underweight by 2015. Although the paper uses national data only, it flags the risks and recommends that countries take regional disparities into their needs-analysis. The paper also argues for more attention to the other important nutrition indicators, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, which remain enormous problems, and briefly discusses solutions to reducing underweight malnutrition.
A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug.  p.This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004.  p.This report’s central message is that well-designed evaluations, conducted at the right time and developed in close consultation with intended users, can be a highly cost-effective way to improve the performance of development interventions. It includes eight case studies of evaluations that were utilized for improving programs and increasing effectiveness.
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2004 Nov.  p. (On Track)El Salvador has already reached several important milestones in its efforts to achieve contraceptive security-the guarantee that all people who wish to use contraceptives can choose, obtain, and use them at all times. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Salvadoran Ministry of Health (MOH) has recently worked to expand people's access to contraceptives, particularly through community-based distribution. It has also helped to improve product management in health facilities by training service providers and by implementing a contraceptive logistics management information system. El Salvador's next challenge on the pathway to contraceptive security is to become financially self-sufficient in procuring reproductive health commodities. USAID is progressively phasing out its contraceptive donations to the country, and is providing technical assistance to guarantee that the MOH will be able to accurately forecast contraceptive demand and manage its own budget for meeting that demand. (author's)
Is gender justice a priority for the UN and what more is needed for a coordinated institutional approach?
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 7 p.The challenge for us in the United Nations system is how to work with our international and local partners to undertake national reconstruction using a human rights based approach, to enable a transition to rule of rights, not a continuation of rule of abuse. We must develop a common approach to ensure that war-torn societies are rebuilt in such a way that nondiscrimination, and a total respect for rights, particularly those of girls and women, can be used to develop constitutions, legal frameworks, justice and security systems underpinned by the primacy of equal enjoyment of rights. UNICEF is currently covering a range of activities from the overall umbrella of child protection, including issues of child soldiers and DDR, mine action, juvenile justice, and international accountability for crimes against children to broader humanitarian survival issues such as health, nutrition and education. With its rights-based approach to policy development and programme implementation, UNICEF is strategicallyplaced to uphold the pre-eminence of the rights of women and girls and to work with partners to address gender justice issues at field level. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.Why Women and Peace? The theme imposed itself. The last year of the 20th century represented an invitation and challenge to recapitulate and remember as well as to compare scores and balance sheets of the turbulent epoch we were leaving behind. No doubt, the 20th century was the century of wars. As never before in human history civilians paid the highest price of conflicts and conflagrations. In the two world wars and innumerable local wars, interventions, internal ethnic clashes, revolutions and coups, more than 100 million people were killed - the vast majority of them being civilians. Sometimes they were directly targeted; at other times they were "collateral damage" - to use an ugly euphemism coined by NATO during its 1999 intervention against Yugoslavia. From Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Vietnam to Pol Pot's Cambodia to Iran-Iraq to Afghanistan to Liberia to Sierra Leone to Rwanda to Burundi to Colombia to Iraq again... it is the civilians who suffered the most and among them, women and childrenas the most vulnerable ones. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 4 p.Unfortunately, this is extremely well documented in countries in conflict. Many of the reports submitted to the Security Council include mention of the use of rape as a weapon of war. Recently, a report of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) on the situation of human rights in Ituri provided information on this problem which is as specific as it is frightening. But, paradoxically, in countries which are not in conflict, the issue of violence against women is often neglected, where it is not concealed. But the private sphere cannot be an area where rights do not apply. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 253-263. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)Twenty years after the identification of AIDS, some 60 million people have been infected by HIV, a number corresponding to the entire population of France, the United Kingdom or Thailand. Those who have died equal the population of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark combined. Those currently infected - more than 40 million - number more than the entire population of Canada. The number of children thought to be orphaned by HIV/AIDS - some 14 million - is already more than the total population of Ecuador. Over the coming decade their numbers may rise to a staggering 50 million worldwide. In other words, the extent of this pandemic is unprecedented in human history. And the worst is yet to come, for many millions more will be infected, many millions more will die, many millions more will be orphaned. On September 11 2001, more than 3,000 people died in the New York bombings. Every day, around the world, HIV infects at least five times that number. But it is not only individuals who are at risk. The social fabric of whole communities, societies and cultures is threatened. The disease is certain to be a scourge throughout our lifetime. (excerpt)
[Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2004 Jun 1. 16 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2004/MC/3)With the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families having entered into force on July 1, 2003, the UNESCO Central and East European Network on Migration Research (CEENOM) has got both a new focus on migrant workers and a new instrument for policy recommendations to national governments. The aim of the present research and analysis is therefore to identify, which obstacles impede the accession of Eastern European and Central Asian countries to the convention and how these could be overcome. Additionally, debate on the provisions of the convention highlights the need for protection of migrant workers and stimulates the search for feasible solutions to labour migration related problems. Finally, it strengthens the link between Central and Eastern European research institutes and policy-makers involved by concentrating on the role and consequences of this distinct legal instrument. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2004. 21 p.The Policy Workshop was organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and hosted by the Government of Namibia, National Planning Commission Secretariat. It was held at Windhoek, Namibia. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives of governments and non-governmental organizations as well as academic experts and practitioners from various countries in southern Africa to discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on families in the region, to consider how families and communities are coping with the disease, and to contribute to the development of a strategic policy framework to assist Governments to strengthen the capacity of families and family networks to cope. In order to compare experience across regions, a participant from Eastern Europe was also invited to the workshop. (excerpt)
Consultation on Indicators for the Right to Health, Chateau de Penthes, Geneva, 1-2 April 2004. Meeting report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law, 2004 Dec. 18 p.This document provides an overview of the presentations and discussions on the issue of right to health indicators from a workshop held 1-2 April 2004. Part A (Background and rationale) explains the origins and aims of the concept of right to health indicators, as well as the ultimate objective of this series of consultations. Part B (Proposed frameworks and related concepts/initiatives) describes the framework proposed by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health (Paul Hunt) on right to health indicators. Part C (Related conceptual frameworks to human rights) provides an overview of two presentations on (1) the Commission on Human Security's work on human security and the social minimum and (2) WHO's work on Millennium Development Goals and equity. Part D (Work in progress and mapping exercises) contains summaries of a number of presentations relating to ongoing work relevant to right to health indicators. Part E (Conclusions) list ways forward and activities to be completed before the next meeting (tentatively planned for June 2005). (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Gender and Development Group, 2004 Nov.  p.This Operational Guide provides specific guidance to national HIV/AIDS program management teams, public-sector ministries, private sector entities, and non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) implementing World Bank-financed HIV/AIDS programs and projects, as well as the World Bank's operational staff who design these programs and projects. It provides concrete examples of the integration of gender concerns into all stages of project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The immediate objective is to provide the tools needed to identify and analyze gender-specific issues and concerns in HIV/AIDS programs and make appropriate provisions in HIV/AIDS operations to address these concerns. The ultimate goal of this Operational Guide is to enhance the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions by ensuring that the gender inequalities that underlie the epidemic are addressed. (excerpt)
The gender dimensions of HIV / AIDS: challenges for South Africa. Extracts from a regional scan and South Asian Regional Consultation.
New Delhi, India, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], South Asia Inter-Country Team, 2004 Aug. 39 p. (UNAIDS/04.47E)The regional consultation brought together key Government representatives from seven countries of the region, across the HIV/AIDS sector, women's machinery, representative of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Secretariat, and UN agencies working at regional levels, bilateral agencies and UNIFEM's partner organizations working on a range of development issues - such as mental health, violence against women, anti-trafficking, home-based work and economic rights, gender and sexuality, media advocacy - and networks of women living with HIV/AIDS. It provided a platform for learning and cross-regional sharing and identification of gaps and opportunities, and enabled the development of a regional strategy to work cohesively towards tackling the gender dimensions of HIV/AIDS. The consultation also provided strategic direction for UNIFEM to advance its work in the region. (excerpt)
Facing the future together: Report of the Secretary General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV / AIDS in Southern Africa. Advocacy version.
Johannesburg, South Africa, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004 Jul. 26 p. (UNAIDS/04.33E)Southern Africa is the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. After growing steadily for two decades, the prevalence rates appear at last to have stabilised - but at shockingly high levels of prevalence. By 2002, more than 20 percent of pregnant women tested were HIV-positive, with several countries in the sub-region reporting a rate of infection in antenatal care clinics of more than 25 percent. Sub-Saharan Africa is also the only region in the world in which HIV infection rates are higher among women than men. For every ten men with the HIV virus, thirteen women are infected. The impact on young women and girls aged 15-24 - those who have only recently become sexually active - is even more dramatic. They are two and a half times more likely to be infected than males in the same age group. The gap is larger still in Southern Africa, where in Zambia and Zimbabwe girls and young women make up close to a staggering eighty percent of all young people aged 15-24 who are living with HIV/AIDS. What are the reasons for this enormous disparity? Why are women and young girls bearing the brunt of the pandemic in Southern Africa? The answers lie in poverty, violence and gender inequality. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2004 Nov.  p.The Global Coalition on Women and Aids brings together a wide range of partners - civil society groups, networks of women living with HIV and AIDS, governments, and UN agencies - who work together to lessen the devastating impact of AIDS on women and girls worldwide. Almost half of the adults living with HIV and AIDS today are women. Over the past two years, the number of women and girls infected with HIV has increased in every region of the world, with rates rising particularly rapidly in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In sub-Saharan Africa, women and girls already make up almost 60% of adults living with HIV. Launched in early 2004, the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS works at global and national levels to highlight the effects of AIDS on women and girls and to stimulate concrete and effective action to prevent the spread of HIV. Coalition partners seek to address some of the fundamental gender inequalities that fuel the epidemic. Efforts are focused on preventing new HIV infections, promoting equal access to care and treatment, ensuring universal access to education, addressing legal inequities, reducing violence against women, and valuing women's care work within communities. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Mission to El Salvador (2-8 February 2004).
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Dec 20. 29 p. (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.2)This report contains my findings as the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, following my visit to El Salvador on official mission, from 2 to 8 February 2004. It addresses the diverse forms of violence against women in the country and identifies key measures and initiatives needed to ensure the protection and promotion of the rights of women and the elimination of violence against women. Although women's rights were not central to the civil war that ravaged El Salvador between 1980 and 1992 or to the peace negotiations thereafter, women's high level of participation in the opposition forces gave them experience and political consciousness that enabled them to challenge discriminatory practices in the society. As a result, in the post-conflict era notable progress related to gender equality, particularly at the legislative level, was achieved. Other encouraging developments include the establishment of the Salvadoran Institute for the Advancement of Women (ISDEMU), a human rights programme within the National Civil Police (PNC) and other institutional initiatives designed to protect women against violence. Despite the achievements, the failure of authorities to investigate, prosecute and punish those responsible for gender-based violence has contributed to an environment of impunity that has resulted in little confidence in the justice system. Impunity for crimes, the socio-economic disparities and the machista culture foster a generalized state of violence, subjecting women to a continuum of multiple violent acts, including murder, rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment and commercial sexual exploitation. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Violence against women, its causes and consequences. Report of the Special Rapporteur, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Visit to the Darfur region of the Sudan.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Dec 23. 6 p. (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.5)From 25 to 26 September I participated in the first Africa Regional Consultation on violence against women with the Special Rapporteur of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights on women's rights in Africa, Angela Melo. The consultation was held in Khartoum and organized by the Geneva Institute for Human Rights, the African Women's Development and Communications Network (FEMNET) and the Babiker Badri Scientific Association for Women's Studies (BBSAWS). I took the opportunity whilst in the Sudan to undertake a short visit to the Darfur region, following allegations that women were being targeted for rape as part of the conflict, to assess the situation. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Communications to and from governments.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Mar 3. 51 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66/Add.1)The Special Rapporteur wishes to inform the Commission that during the period under review she transmitted communications to the Governments of: Angola, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Uruguay. In addition the Governments of Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, China, Egypt, Greece, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Uruguay provided the Special Rapporteur with replies on cases and reports submitted during the year under review, whereas the Governments of Australia, China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka did so with respect to cases submitted in previous years. This report contains, on a country-by-country basis, summaries of general and individual allegations, as well as urgent appeals transmitted to Governments, and their replies thereto. Observations by the Special Rapporteur have also been included where applicable. The names of some of the victims whose cases are presented in this report have been replaced by initials, in order to respect their privacy and to prevent further revictimization. The full names of all victims have been provided to the Government concerned. (excerpt)
Review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: the 2004 report.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/235)This report is divided into an introduction and seven sections. The first two sections provide an overview of population levels and trends, and population growth, structure and distribution in the world and its major regions. These are followed by four sections focusing on clusters of issues: reproductive rights and reproductive health, health and mortality, international migration, and population programmes. The final section summarizes the major conclusions of the report. Reflected in the discussions in all the sections, both explicitly and implicitly, are three interrelated factors that affect implementation of all the recommendations of the Programme of Action, namely, availability of financial and human resources, institutional capacities, and partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and the civil society. The full implementation of the Programme of Action requires concerted action on these three fronts. (excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, University Research Company, Quality Assurance Project, 2004 Dec. 47 p. (QAP / WHO Field Report)The traditional approach to malaria diagnosis has been examination by microscope of a thick blood smear from the individual suspected of being infected. In an attempt to provide a more rapid alternative, companies worldwide have developed malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Although RDTs can be effectively used in clinical settings by trained personnel, their greatest potential use is in rural areas with limited access to health and laboratory facilities. Using RDTs for diagnosis at the community level will shorten the delay between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of appropriate treatment. It will also slow development of resistance and lead to significant cost savings by avoiding unnecessary use of antimalarials. However, achieving a high level of sensitivity and specificity with RDTs in this context will require a product designed, labelled, and explained so that community health workers (CHWs) can use it accurately with minimal formal training and supervision. In partnership with theWHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the Quality Assurance Project (QAP) carried out quality-design research in the Philippines and the Lao People's Democratic Republic to develop and test a generic RDT job aid, mainly pictorial, that could be adapted with little modification for use with different RDT products and in different cultural settings by health workers with low literacy skills and with little or no prior training in product use. (author's)
Woking, England, Plan, 2004 Oct. 52 p. (Working Paper Series)Safe water and environmental sanitation services (by which we mean solid and liquid waste facilities, vector and pest control as well as food hygiene) are vital for people's dignity and health, and are especially important in ensuring the healthy development of children. The lack of such facilities is responsible for over two million child deaths each year. This working paper aims to support Plan staff by looking at the whole issue of water and environmental sanitation and enable the organisation as a whole to direct resources in an integrated and cost-effective way. By doing so, we will be able to play a crucial role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and in the 'International Decade for Action, Water for Life (2005-15)'. There is a clear link between poverty, poor water quality and a lack of environmental sanitation facilities. This working paper aims to position Plan's approach to water and environmental sanitation within the context of the broader international development goals andwithin Plan's own commitment to child centred community development. From this standpoint, it then looks in more detail at the main challenges linked to water and environmental sanitation and in each case details how Plan staff can put our approach into practice and the main issues to bear in mind while doing so. Further important issues to consider are also included. (excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, .  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00)The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria aims to attract, manage, and disburse resources that will make a significant and sustainable impact on the three focal diseases. The Global Fund has also stated its commitment to support programs that address the three diseases "in ways that contribute to the strengthening of health systems." The Global Fund is likely to have a variety of direct and indirect effects upon health care systems that could be positive or negative in nature. To be effective and sustainable in the long run, interventions will depend upon well-functioning health systems. This is true not only for the Global Fund, but also for other initiatives, such as the World Bank Multisectoral AIDS Program (MAP), the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and others that aim to substantially increase the scale of response to specific diseases, particularly HIV/ AIDS. (excerpt)