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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    The Food and Agriculture Organization food-composition initiative.

    Lupien JR

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; 65 Suppl:1194S-1197S.

    The 1992 International Conference on Nutrition, new legislation in developing countries, and international trade agreements have renewed interest in food-composition data. Because of the costs involved in gathering such information and the need for it to be uniform, collaborative efforts are required. The production of new food-composition data must be viewed with respect to value gained for money spent, the need for more precise information, and the opportunity to use new analytic methods while not depending too heavily on high-technology systems. The Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations University have agreed to collaborate in stimulating the development of new food-composition programs. Their efforts will be directed toward promoting national, regional, and international activities in the food-composition field and will include strengthening existing laboratory facilities and programs, publishing technical manuals and documents, assisting countries to disseminate data, training workers, and sponsoring regional workshops. The Food and Agriculture Organization is well positioned to fulfill this coordinating role because of its past work in food composition, international mandates regarding its activities, its established communication system with national governments, and its ability to provide open forums for discussion of food-composition issues. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    INFOODS: the international network of food data systems.

    Scrimshaw NS

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; 65 Suppl:1190S-1193S.

    A 1983 conference organized by United Nations University proposed an international network of food data systems (INFOODS) to address the need for and limitations of food composition databases. Concerns of INFOODS include the acquisition and interchange of quality data on the nutrient composition of foods; the development of standards and guidelines for the collection, compilation, and reporting of food-component information; and support of a worldwide network of regional data centers for the generation, compilation, and dissemination of information on food composition. One goal of these centers is to assist in the development of appropriate national databases, especially in developing countries. Much has been accomplished by INFOODS, despite limited resources. Several important documents on food composition have been published, an international journal of food composition has been established, a directory of existing food composition databases has been compiled, specific recommendations for the construction and use of food-composition databases have been developed, and a system of food nomenclature and coding has been created. Regional food-composition databases have been established throughout the world, with the goal of creating computerized systems that permit easy availability and interchange of food-composition data between regions and countries. In 1993 the Food and Agriculture Organization renewed its interest in the food-analysis capability of developing countries by becoming involved in INFOODS efforts. (author's)
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  3. 3

    HIV testing methods: UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Nov. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    Since 1985, HIV testing has been essential in securing the safety of blood supplies, monitoring the progress of the epidemic and diagnosing individuals infected with the virus. Various assays are now available, allowing testing strategies to be tailored to the epidemiological conditions and budgets of national health systems. New techniques -- including simple tests giving instant results -- hold great promise, but also raise some serious issues for governments and for individuals. HIV infection is most frequently diagnosed by detecting antibodies which the body produces as it tries to resist the virus. These antibodies usually begin to be produced within 3 to 8 weeks after the time of infection. The period following infection but before the antibodies become detectable is known as the .window period.. Antibodies are much easier to detect than the virus itself. It is sometimes possible to detect HIV antigen during the window period if, by coincidence, an individual is tested during the short peak of high levels of circulating virus particles. After this peak, the level of p24 antigen steeply declines to the point where it is no longer detectable. It fluctuates or rises steeply again, usually years later, when the clinical situation of the patient starts to deteriorate with the onset of AIDS. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Tuberculosis and AIDS: UNAIDS point of view.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)

    The TB germ, a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is highly prevalent in much of the developing world and in poor urban "pockets" of industrialized countries. In these communities, people typically become infected in childhood. But a healthy immune system usually keeps the infection in check. People can remain infected for life with dormant, uninfectious TB. Such people are called TB carriers. In the past, most TB- infected people remained healthy carriers. Only 5-10% ever developed active tuberculosis. Those few kept the TB epidemic alive by transmitting the TB germ to their close contacts. TB germs can be spread through the air from patients with active pulmonary (lung) tuberculosis. Today, as TB carriers increasingly become infected with HIV, many more are developing active tuberculosis because the virus is destroying their immune system. For these dually infected people, the risk of developing active tuberculosis is 30-50-fold higher than for people infected with TB alone. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Learning and teaching about AIDS at school. UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    Young people are especially vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are also vulnerable as regards drug use (and not just injected drugs). Even if they are not engaging in risk behaviours today, they may soon be exposed to situations that put them at risk. Very often they cannot talk easily or at all about AIDS, or about the risk behaviours that can lead to HIV infection, at home or in their community. However, most of them do attend at some point, and school is an entry point where these topics - often difficult to discuss elsewhere - can be addressed. (author's)
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  6. 6

    [Molecular epidemiology of HIV infection]

    Yin TM

    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi / Chinese Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Oct; 18(5):309-311.

    Global HIV infection and AIDS: according to WHO estimates, by mid 1996 there were 7 million cumulative AIDS cases. Today the number of people infected with HIV is even more alarming: roughly 21.8 million, of those 42% are women. By the year 2000 there will be between 40 and 50 million cases. Each day about 8,500 additional people are infected with AIDS; one can say the situation is grim. Currently, the AIDS and HIV epidemic regions are shifting, they have gradually moved from the original sites of North America and West Europe toward the mass populations of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In the Asian region which contains about 60% of the world's population, beginning in 1988, with Thailand and India at the center, an exploding epidemic has taken shape. Recent materials indicate, those infected with HIV in Thailand exceed 700,000, over 2 million in India, and the HIV epidemic has already spread to the near neighbors Burma, southern China, Cambodia, Malaysia and Vietnam. With the accumulation of molecular epidemiology research materials, the complete picture of the causes and characteristics of this massive epidemic happening in the Asian region is gradually becoming clear. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    The female condom and AIDS: UNAIDS point of view.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Apr. 7 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)

    A woman's equivalent of the traditional condom seems a simple idea, yet the "female condom" (worn within the vagina rather than on the penis) has been around for less than a decade. Available in an increasing number of countries around the world, it offers great promise for reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS. Cheap and reliable, the traditional condom (or male condom) is used by millions all over the world to avoid pregnancies. Until recently, it has also been the only barrier method for preventing the passing of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, between two sex partners. Used correctly every time people have sex, it is over 95% effective against the transmission of HIV. The fact that the condom prevents transmission of other STDs such as syphilis or gonorrhoea is of additional importance to the fight against HIV and AIDS because people who have another STD are more vulnerable to being infected by HIV. The traditional condom is not the perfect method for everyone, however. For example, many couples dislike having to interrupt sex in order for a man to put one on. Up to 8% of people are allergic to latex, the main ingredient in most condoms. And many feel that it dulls sexual pleasure. In family planning programmes, it has been proven that a wider choice of contraceptive methods results in fewer pregnancies. The same has been found in testing of the female condom: adding this new option for protected sex results in fewer cases of unprotected sex. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Community mobilization and AIDS: UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Apr. [8] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    UNAIDS understands a "mobilized community" to have most or all of the following characteristics: members are aware -- in a detailed and realistic way -- of their individual and collective vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; members are motivated to do something about this vulnerability; members have practical knowledge of the different options they can take to reduce their vulnerability; members take action within their capability, applying their own strengths and investing their own resources -- including money, labour, materials or whatever else they have to contribute; members participate in decision-making on what actions to take, evaluate the results, and take responsibility for both success and failure; the community seeks outside assistance and cooperation when needed. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Blood safety and AIDS: UNAIDS point of view.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct. 7 p. (UNAIDS Point of View; UNAIDS Best Practice Collection)

    Eighty percent of the world's population live in developing countries, but developing countries use only 20% of the world's blood supply for transfusions. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes AIDS is easily transmitted through blood transfusions. In fact, the chances that someone who has received a transfusion with HIV-infected blood will himself or herself become infected are estimated at over 90%. While millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusions, in countries where a safe blood supply is not guaranteed, recipients of blood run an increased risk of infection with HIV. Other diseases -- such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, Chagas disease and malaria -- can also easily be transmitted through blood transfusions. Worldwide, up to 4 million blood donations a year are not tested for either HIV or hepatitis B. Very few donations are tested for hepatitis C. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    From silent spring to vocal vanguard - women's role in the global environmental movement - includes related articles.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3):[9] p..

    Since 1962, when American author Rachel Carson alerted the world to the dangers of pesticide poisoning in her ground-breaking book "Silent Spring", women have played a vital role in the global environmental movement. In 1988, the World Commission on Environment and Development, headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, published its report, "Our Common Future", linking the environmental crisis to unsustainable development and financial practices that were worsening the North-South gap, with women making up a majority of the world's poor and illiterate. The United Nations Development Programme has defined sustainable development as development that not only generates economic growth, but distributes its benefits equitably, that regenerates the environment rather than destroying it, and that empowers people rather than marginalizing them. It is development that gives priority to the poor, enlarging their choices and opportunities and providing for their participation in decisions that affect their lives. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Population 2050: 9.4 billion.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Fall; 34(3):[2] p..

    In the middle of 1996, world population stood at 5.77 trillion persons. Between 1990 and 1995, it grew at the rate of 1.48 per cent per annum, with an average of 81 million persons added each year. This is below the 1.72 per cent per annum at which population had keen growing between 1975 and 1990, and much below the 87 million added each year between 1985 and 1990, which now stands as the peak period in the history of world population growth. These figures are from the recently released 1996 Revision of the official United Nations population estimates and projections, prepared by the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. The report indicates that currently 4.59 billion persons--80 per cent of the world's population--live in the less developed regions and 1.18 billion live in the more developed regions. The average annual growth rate is about 1.8 per cent in the less developed and 0.4 per cent in other regions. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    A process of negotiation - creation of a Preparatory Committee for the UN Conference on Environment and Development.

    Koh TT

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2):[4] p..

    In this companion piece to his "Essay", Professor Koh looks back to the debates, deliberations and discussions that culminated in the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. In order to prepare for the Earth Summit, the United Nations decided to set up a Preparatory Committee (PrepCom). Its organizational session was held in New York from 5 to 16 March 1990. It had five objectives: to elect its chairman; to decide on the size of the Bureau and the distribution of the number agreed upon among the five regional groups; to decide how many working groups to establish and which regional groups would provide candidates for their chairmenship; to adopt a provisional agenda for the Earth Summit; and to adopt its rules of procedure. Any reasonable person would think that you would need only one or two days, not two weeks, to agree on five such seemingly simple tasks. This was not the case, the two weeks were barely enough to complete our tasks. Of the five, the only simple one was electing me. All the other candidates wisely withdrew when they realized the pain and suffering which the chairman would have to endure for the next two years and three months! The first thing I did on assuming the chair was to propose that we should refrain from polluting the air in our meeting rooms by prohibiting smoking at all our meetings. Before the nicotine addicts could rally their forces, I asked if there was any objection. Seeing none, I banged the gavel and pronounced that there was a consensus in favour of my proposal. The then UN Secretary-General, Javier Perez de Cuellar, watched in surprise because no UN chairman had succeeded in defeating the tobacco lobby at the United Nations before. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    'Gender perspectives' emphasized - human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2):[2] p..

    Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    The sinister strangeness of silence - UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF, US Agency for International Development and World Food Program ask that they be allowed to provide humanitarian aid to affected people in the Zarian war zone.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Spring; 34(1):[3] p..

    As representatives of the Zairian Government and the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (ADFL) prepared to meet in South Africa, a Joint Statement on the crisis in eastern Zaire was released by: Emma Bonino, European Union Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid; Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); Carol Bellamy, Executive Director, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); A. Namanga Ngongi, Deputy Director, World Food Programme (WFP); and Brian Atwood, Administrator, USAID. The following is excerpted from that statement: "We appeal to the participants in the talks to fully consider the urgent humanitarian needs of hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced Zairians stranded in the war zone." We call on the parties to respect humanitarian principles and the Geneva Conventions, to allow aid agencies free access to refugees and displaced persons among whom are thousands of children, and to enable aid workers to reach and assist them. Aid agencies should be able to work without any restrictions to save many thousands of refugees who are exhausted after months of roaming desperately through the jungle and whose lives are currently hanging by a thread. These peoples' needs must not be overlooked as the Zairian parties prepare for political negotiations over their country's future. They need help and they need it now. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    A note on co-ordinating the AIDS crisis: issues for policy management and research.

    Anand P

    International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 1997; 12:149-157.

    This note seeks to sharpen our understanding of co-ordination and its significance in healthcare management by offering a picture of an activity where information, incentives and the mixing of various (professional and other) cultures are key. The research design was policy driven, and concentrated on incentives, decision-making and information gathering/ dissemination activities particularly between individuals working across different types of organizations. Data are drawn from 40 primary interviews with mostly senior staff from organizations in two countries, USA and Thailand, internal and external corporate documents, over 1000 items from a Reuters database of news items, newspaper articles and press releases, as well as secondary academic articles. The interviews, which lasted from between 20 min to more than 3 h over two visits, constitute the main source of evidence for the issues discussed below. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Rationalizing health care in a changing world: the need to know.

    Warren KS

    Health Transition Review. 1997 Apr; 7(1):61-71.

    The World Development Report 1993 announced that global life expectancy was then 65. Experience in the developed world suggests that the World Health Organization’s dictum, ‘health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, is simply not attainable for the foreseeable future. As physical health has improved, mental problems have become more prominent and a sense of well-being has declined. Furthermore, as the population ages and medical technology improves, the cost of health care grows almost exponentially. Since the population of the developed world is continuing to age and aging is spreading rapidly throughout the developing world, knowledge is the principal way of dealing with this seemingly intractable problem: we must know, quantitatively, the age-specific causes of ill health, and we must know which means of prevention and treatment are effective. Finally, we must apply that knowledge rationally. (author's)
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  17. 17

    [90 percent cases of HIV transmission are due to perinatal contagion or breastfeeding. One million children were HIV positive in 1977] El 90 por ciento de casos por contagio perinatal o lactancia. Un millon de niños/as portan VIH en 1977.

    RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):22-24.

    A million children under 15 years of age will have contracted HIV worldwide by 1997, while in 1996, of the one and a half million people who died of this disease, 350,000 were under 15, according to UNAID numbers released on the occasion of the world AIDS campaign (December 1), whose theme this year is "Children in a World with AIDS." Approximately 90 percent of children with HIV were infected by their mothers, during pregnancy or childbirth or through mother's milk, according to the UN organization. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    [Fundamental international legal principles. Reproductive rights of women] Bases legales internacionales. Derechos reproductivos de las mujeres.

    RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):14-15.

    Women's reproductive rights under international human rights legislation are a composite of various independent human rights. While a human rights perspective is not limited to legal principles, demands for reproductive self-determination may also be based on international law. Women's reproductive rights were a key topic at two recent international conferences, the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the 1995 United Nations Fourth International Conference on Women (Fourth World Conference on Women (CCMM, Spanish acronym). (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    [Launch of a radio campaign for the participation of rural women in landholding] Lanzamiento de Campaña Radial. Por la participación de las mujeres rurales en la tenencia de la tierra.

    RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):2-3.

    Given the need for peasant and indigenous women to know about the articles of the Agrarian Reform Institute Law (INRA, Spanish acronym), principally the articles favorable to them, the National Network of Information and Communication Workers, RED-ADA, sponsored by UNIFEM, UNICEF, and SECRAD [Service of Radio and Television Training for Development], has launched the National Campaign "for women's right to land." The first phase of the radio campaign, broadcast by different stations throughout Bolivia, ran for three months, from December 1997 to February 1998, and consisted of six radio spots in four languages: Quechua, Aymará, Guaraní, and Spanish. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    [Latin America and the Caribbean. Human rights for the twenty-first century] Latinoamericana y El Caribe. Derechos humanos para el siglo XXI.

    RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):15-17.

    In December 1998, the United Nations will commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cognizant of the importance of this event, women the world over are preparing now so that their different voices will not go unheard during this great celebration. In this respect, campaigns are being organized for universal ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, for the approval of an optional protocol on this Convention during that celebration, as well as campaigns for the full recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, the rights of indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, and so forth. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    [There are no human rights without women's rights] Sin derechos de las mujeres no hay derechos humanos.

    RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):14-15.

    For the upcoming celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (December 10, 1998), the Global Leadership Center for Women is promoting the Worldwide Campaign, "There are No Human Rights without Women's Rights," to be kicked off on November 25 of this year, under the framework of the "16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence," an annual event being held for the seventh consecutive time by women around the globe. The purpose of this campaign is to highlight "the gap that still exists between talk about the Universal Declaration and other international agreements and the systematic violation of human rights that women experience as a daily reality." Another goal is to revitalize discussion about the issue and create the momentum for urging women everywhere "to imagine a world in which we all fully enjoy our human rights," according to the official announcement. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    [Human rights in the platform] Los derechos humanos en la plataforma.

    RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):20.

    All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. So says the Platform for Action approved by the UN Fourth World Conference on Women. Their full enjoyment, on an equal footing, by women and girls should be a priority for the governments and the United Nations, and is necessary for women's progress. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    [The shadow of the epidemic. It changed their world] La sombra de la epidemia. Cambio el mundo para ellos.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    VIDAS. 1997 Oct; 1(3):9-10.

    Throughout the 1997 worldwide campaign against AIDS, UNAIDS and its associates will call the international community's attention to the many facets of the epidemic's effect on children's lives. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    [Children. HIV / AIDS. It's everyone's responsibility] Niños. VIH / SIDA. La responsabilidad es de todos.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    VIDAS. 1997 Nov; 1(4):12-13.

    The most recent perspective of UNAIDS and its associates involves a world in which HIV transmission has been greatly reduced, where the treatment, care, and assistance provided are adequate, and where the vulnerability of children, their families, and their communities to the effects of HIV/AIDS has decreased appreciably. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    [Risk of HIV infection. Sexually transmitted diseases] Riesgo de infección por VIH. Enfermedades de transmisión sexual.

    Vera Cabral E

    VIDAS. 1997 Dec; 1(5):8-9.

    According to the World Health Organization, some 685,000 men and women contract sexually-transmitted infections every day, and, worldwide, approximately 250 million new sexually-transmitted infections occur every year. (excerpt)
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