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Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1996 Aug; 2(3):3-4.This article presents excerpts from a speech by Malawi’s First Vice President and Minister of Defence, the Right Honourable Justin C. Malewezi at the opening address to the policy workshop.
WHO / CDC / USAID community-based TB care project in Africa: protocol development workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 11-21 November 1996. WHO Report.
[Unpublished] 1996. Issued by World Health Organization [WHO]. 12,  p. (WHO/TB/96.219)The protocol development workshop held on November 11-21, 1996, in Entebbe, Uganda, focuses on "Community-based Tuberculosis (TB) Care Operational Research (OR)" project in Africa as part of the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). Such protocol development was initiated by country participants through presentation of international TB experts, group and plenary discussions and group work guided by mentor. Issues highlighted in the development of OR protocols include: importance of the existence of effective NTP in the chosen project sites; integration of OR development and implementation in NTP activities; significance of describing and evaluating the process of developing community contribution to TB care; comparison between outcomes in an intervention population and control population; and variation of community group involved in TB care in chosen project sites and countries. After the workshop, the participants agreed to pursue follow-up actions such as further development of OR protocols by country groups, visits of mentor to countries, development of Terms of Reference for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for health educationalist; and assessment of protocols for funding.
Sanitation in emergency situations. Proceedings of an international workshop, held in Oxford, December 1995.
Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 51 p. (Oxfam Working Paper)This report presents summaries of plenaries, workshop papers, working group discussions, and a complete list of recommendations from the December 1995 International Inter-Agency Workshop on Sanitation in Emergency Situations. The 45 participants included delegates from nongovernmental organizations, UN organizations, the Red Cross, and independent sanitation workers. The aim was to discuss organizational and technical problems and to agree on operating principles, program implementation, and recommendations. The workshop papers focused on: principles for better sanitation, excreta disposal kits, first-phase excreta disposal, latrine construction, excreta disposal on difficult sites, emergency solid waste management/disposal, vector control, personal hygiene and water collection-storage, drainage and washing-bathing facilities, sanitation in enclosed centers, environmental impact, community participation, staff training, and evaluations. The discussions addressed topics on the principles for sanitation promotion in emergencies, first-phase excreta disposal, second phase and longer excreta disposal, off-site/on-site excreta disposal, flow charts for emergency excreta disposal for many specific conditions, refuse disposal, hygiene education, personal hygiene kits, vector control, hygiene facilities, environmental impact, sanitation in enclosed centers, and staff training. Priority should be given to sanitation techniques and guidelines for improving practices; initial assessments of emergency situations; and sanitation. Improvements are needed in information exchanges, community participation, and staff training. Five other recommendations are discussed.
Training for advocacy. Report of the Inter-Regional Advocacy Training Workshop held in Nairobi in March 1996.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 16,  p.This document reports on the Inter-regional Advocacy Training Workshop held by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Nairobi, Kenya in 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to train trainers in the advocacy skills needed to advocate for the IPPF's "Vision 2000" goals. Specific objectives of the workshop included drafting an advocacy plan of action, identifying training needs and support, replicating the training project, and exchanging experiences. The report opens with background information explaining why advocacy is important to the IPPF and an introduction to the workshop. The report then covers the skills of clarifying advocacy, reaching consensus in the organization, coalition building, making the most of the mass media, and dealing with the opposition. Next, the report presents a case study of the successful work of the Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) in advocating eradication of female genital mutilation. The report continues by discussing the skills of organizing political lobbying, mobilizing resources, evaluating advocacy, and drafting strategic advocacy plans. The report ends by recommending that 1) FPAs receive specific training to embark on advocacy programs, 2) a training module be developed, 3) the IPPF's Advocacy Guide include definitions of advocacy concepts, 4) the IPPF adopt clear and uniform definitions of concepts throughout all of its documents, 5) workshops allow for close interaction with the participants' objectives, 6) advocacy materials be pretested, and 7) regular exchanges of experiences be arranged.
HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
Inter-Agency Working Group on Participation meetings hosted by UNDP, September 17-18, 1996, New York City, NY.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1996.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-00-93-00031-00)This report pertains to BASICS participation at a meeting of the Interagency Learning Group on Participation (IGP) hosted by the UN Development Program in New York City, on September 17-18, 1996. Participants included UNICEF, the World Bank, Overseas Development Assistance, Asian Development Bank, USAID, and other international organizations. This was the first time that BASICS was included in the meetings to share their community participatory experiences and to explore opportunities for collaboration. The meeting was the third of its kind. IGP is a voluntary group without a budget who represent multilateral, bilateral, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The IGP is concerned with institutional change and creating awareness of the value of participatory approaches; training and country-level capacity building; information and dissemination; and monitoring and evaluation. The UNDP administrator emphasized the need to focus on more information disclosure for donors and NGOs, the context of increasing decentralization, legal frameworks for the empowerment of women, and the importance of democratization. Most of the presentations focused on the internal institutional constraints to promoting and implementing participation in the field. The logical framework approach does not lend itself to participatory development. UNICEF ran workshops in 3 countries on how to use a more participatory manner in country programs, but after 6 months trainees still had difficulty with applications. Internal policies and procedures, lack of tools for monitoring, a need to change staff attitudes, specific country context, and institutional capacity to identify and work with the right partners were all problems. An NGO in India, cautioned against too much participation. Smaller plenary discussions focused on dealing with conflict, outcomes, redistribution of power, the public good, and village logbooks.
Highlights from the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group on FGM Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, November, 1996.
[Unpublished] 1996. 13 p.In November 1996, more than 34 representatives from 20 organizations attended the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group meeting on female genital mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt. After opening remarks by the Chairperson of the Task Force on FGM in Egypt and the Egyptian Under Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population, other discussions placed FGM in the larger context of women's human rights, reviewed the background of the Global Action Against FGM Project and the goals of the Inter-Agency Working Group, and provided an overview of the activities of RAINBO (Research, Action, and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). A report was then given of a research workshop organized by RAINBO and the Egyptian Task Force on FGM immediately prior to the Working Group meeting. It was noted that data from the recent Demographic and Health Survey revealed an FGM prevalence rate of 97% in Egypt, and areas requiring more research were highlighted. Discussion following this presentation included mention of qualitative methods used in a recent study in Sierra Leone and recent research in the Sudan that led to recommended intervention strategies. During the second day of the Working Group meeting, participants provided a preview of the work of the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM; a description of RAINBO's effort to develop training of trainers reproductive health and FGM materials; and summaries of the work of nongovernmental organizations, private foundations, UN agencies, and bilateral donors. This meeting report ends with a list of participants.
Bethesda, Maryland, Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1996. , xiv, 168 p.This manual presents a multidimensional framework that allows grassroots Muslim women from various backgrounds to examine the relationship between their basic human rights as inscribed in major international documents and their culture. The introduction contains the manual's objective and background, the major international sources of women's rights, the major premises upon which the manual is based, the theoretical framework of the communication model (involving a communicator, an audience, a medium, and a message), the general structure of the model, and a note to facilitators. The next section presents the learning exercises that can be used by facilitators and participants to discuss women's rights 1) within the family; 2) to autonomy in family planning decisions; 3) to bodily integrity; 4) to subsistence; 5) to education and learning; 6) to employment and fair compensation; 7) to privacy, religious beliefs, and free expression; 8) during times of conflict; and 9) to political participation. Section 3 contains a workshop and facilitator evaluation form. Appendices contain auxiliary material such as relevant religious passages, descriptions of the first heroines of Islam, samples of Arabic proverbs concerning women, the text of international human rights instruments, and a list of various human rights and women's organizations in selected Muslim societies. The manual ends with an annotated bibliography.
FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996; 12(2):2.This article is based on a speech presented at an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) seminar to volunteers and staff. The speech was given by the secretary general of the IPPF, Mrs. Ingar Brueggemann. She stressed that complacency was not appropriate. The concepts of sexual and reproductive health need to be implemented. IPPF must act as the conscience of the people and the voice for the underprivileged. IPPF must ensure that governments understand the concept of reproductive health and its importance. IPPF's "Vision 2000" published in 1992 emphasizes the empowerment of women, a focus on youth needs, reductions in unsafe abortion, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, greater attention to safe motherhood, and increased programs in sexual and reproductive health. All women must have the basic right to make free and informed choices regarding their sexual and reproductive health and the satisfaction of unmet need for quality family planning services and sexual and reproductive health services, particularly for the disadvantaged groups in society. Africa has the greatest needs. Estimated maternal mortality is over 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The maternal death rate in some countries may be close to 1200 per 100,000 live births. Africa also practices female genital mutilation, and the practice is widespread. Average life expectancy is around 50 years of age. The average African modern contraceptive use rate is about 10%. Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe have recently made progress in rapidly increasing the modern contraceptive use rates. Africa may also have about 66% of the world's HIV/AIDS cases. Funding will be needed to advance programs in sexual and reproductive health. However, the shift of funds from supporting one soldier would pay for the education of 100 children. The cost of one jet fighter would pay for equipping 50,000 village pharmacies.
[Unpublished] .  p.This document relays 10 lessons learned in providing communication technical assistance in programs designed to eradicate female genital mutilation (FGM). 1) The community must identify FGM as an issue they are interested in working on, and the local implementing agency must request technical assistance. 2) Agencies providing technical assistance to FGM eradication programs must avoid high visibility. 3) Technical assistance is most appropriately given by local staff living and working in the particular country. 4) International agencies should strengthen the skill base of their local counterparts so the local groups can acquire the necessary communication skills to work toward eradication. 5) The local implementing organization must conduct research to guide the intervention and the target communities must be involved in designing the interventions. 6) Interventions must be very local in nature and design. 7) Workshops provide good settings for providing technical assistance and training. 8) Local-level project staff need assistance in skills training and individual-level support to deal with their sense that they are betraying their own culture. 9) Skills training helps local staff work through individual behavior change issues in order to help communities adopt behavior changes. 10) The process of behavior change takes time and requires continuity. Donors and local implementing agencies must understand that it may take as long as a generation to eradicate FGM.
Report of the Technical consultation on Female Genital Mutilation, 27-29 March 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. 36 p.This report presents a summary of the discourse among 58 participants from 25 countries, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), UN agencies, and African organizations, who attended the Technical Consultation on Female Genital Mutilation during March 1996 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The meeting was sponsored and organized by the UNFPA. About 85-115 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and at least 2 million are at risk. Reproductive and sexual health are affected over the entire life course by FGM. Despite the seriousness of the issue, there are major gaps in knowledge about the extent of the problem and the nature of successful interventions. Expressed concern has not reached the level of legal change or programs for promoting the abandonment of the practice. Dr. Leila Mehra reviewed the main features of FGM, UN policies, and the implications for operations research. Dr. Nahid Toubia gave an assessment of approaches to FGM from a reproductive health, human rights, and historical perspective. The World Health Organization Working Group emphasized the importance of including all physical, psychological, and human rights aspects of FGM in the definition. Dr. Mehra indicated that circumcisers, government policymakers, and NGOs should be targeted. Country-specific presentations focused on Ghana, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Participants generally agreed that circumcisers need alternative sources of income and that resistance is widespread. Parents need to be educated. Communities need sex education. Men's and women's groups need to be mobilized to stop FGM. Ms. Ana Angarita proposed a model of the determinants of FGM and potential areas for intervention and summarized the initiatives taken and constraints. Dr. Hamid Rushwan proposed a framework for integrating FGM eradication into three UNFPA program areas.
SAFE MOTHERHOOD. 1996; (20):10.During a 1994 workshop sponsored by the World Health Organization and the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), participants discussed 1) women's right to family planning information, education, and services; 2) women's right to a choice of options and to voluntary decisions concerning their health; and 3) the link between women's rights and women's health. Participants noted that obstetricians and gynecologists must expand their role to become women's advocates and must insure that women's rights to informed choice and informed consent are protected. Women should participate as equals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of policies which affect them so that they can make fully informed decisions. The workshop produced the following recommendations: 1) FIGO should discourage practices that abuse women's rights to information and education on the procedures and treatments they face; 2) adolescents should receive reproductive health information, counseling, and services; 3) obstetricians and gynecologists should be trained in communication and counseling skills; and 4) national societies of obstetricians and gynecologists should encourage the provision of comprehensive reproductive health services, discourage female genital mutilation, and encourage provision of counseling for female victims of violence.
UNFPA COUNTRY SUPPORT TEAM FOR EAST AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Aug; 4(2):11-2.This news brief identifies workshops and meetings related to the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action in Thailand and some changes in Thai policy and program direction. The 8th National Economic and Social Development Plan for 1997-2001 uses a people-centered human development approach. The Plan emphasizes extending compulsory primary education to 9 years for all children initially and eventually to 12 years. The second major change is to accelerate the extension of primary health care in rural areas and to carry out a Five-Year National AIDS Prevention and Control plan. The new Plan aims to promote family planning in target groups with high fertility, to improve the quality of family planning methods and services, to promote small family size among target groups, to improve quality of life and community self-sufficiency, to promote family planning as a means of ensuring healthy children and improved quality of life, and to promote the development of agricultural industry in rural areas. The government priority will be to develop rural areas, the skills of rural residents, and small and medium sized cities, in order to slow the flow of migration from rural to large urban areas. Local administration will be upgraded and directed to solving environmental problems. The Plan aims to expand social services and to train rural people to meet the needs of the labor market. Several workshops and seminars were conducted during 1995 and 1996 that related to reproductive health and reproductive rights. In 1994, and shortly following the ICPD, Thailand government officials, members of nongovernmental groups, UN representatives, and media staff participated in seminars on the implementation of the ICPD Plan of Action in Thailand and seminars on Thailand's population and development program.
JOICFP NEWS. 1996 Feb; (260):5.The UNFPA-supported project on development and distribution of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials in support of improving women's health and status was evaluated at a workshop held in Tokyo in December 13-15, 1995. The 1992-95 cycle of the project was analyzed by experts from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Vietnam plus three experts from the UNFPA/Country Support Team. The workshop also made it possible for the experts to identify needs as well as effective utilization of existing IEC materials. It was suggested that a nongovernmental organization be established for the distribution and effective use of these materials. The workshop mostly reviewed the print and audiovisual materials. Videos were also evaluated. The materials were found useful for the targeted region. Among other subregional issues it was noted that youth needs were inadequately addressed as they related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancy, risk of maternal mortality and morbidity, low birth weight, and premature birth. Although the women of the region comprise one-third of the world's population, 70% of the global annual maternal mortality of 500,000 occurs in the subregion. IEC materials should also target adolescents and their support groups. Other needs were also outlined: the expansion of educational opportunities for women, the promotion of employment, the involvement of men, and the training of personnel. The strategies used in the cycle helped strengthen self-reliance through information and experience sharing. The focus on women should be continued with more attention paid to adolescents and young adults, including males. Women's health issues should be expanded to include menopause, reproductive tract infections, STDs, HIV/AIDS prevention, and legal rights including abortion. The production of IEC materials should be identified through research and analysis of existing materials, focus group discussions, or field visits.
In: Learning about sexuality: a practical beginning, edited by Sondra Zeidenstein and Kirsten Moore. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996. 363-79.IPPF's AIDS Prevention Unit (APU) conducted HIV prevention training workshops for key staff of family planning associations (FPAs) in West Africa. The experience of these workshops and the findings of a 1992 needs assessment among selected FPAs have articulated the nature of the gap between clients' needs and social norms and providers' values in relation to sexual behavior. This chapter of the book entitled Learning about Sexuality: A Practical Beginning examines how sexual options to minimize the risk of HIV infection (condom use, abstinence, fidelity within marriage, and nonpenetrative sex) correspond with the realities of the attitudes and sexual lives of different client groups. It also addresses how effective these options are in preventing HIV/AIDS. Another discussion revolves around the extent providers help clients determine the best HIV prevention strategy for themselves. The book also covers whether providers help clients overcome gender inequalities that place them at risk of HIV infection or reinforce gender stereotypes. Significant obstacles among the work of the APU include providers' long-standing attitudes, biases, and perception; consideration of counseling and education as if the clients can freely decide what to do about sex; providers' concern for social and moral well-being of clients; and conflict between contraceptive targets and the mandate to provide clients with the information needed to make informed choices about reproductive and sexual health. The book provides four steps to address these obstacles and to change the behavior of both FPA staff and clients in order to close the gap between their goals and perception: structured sessions on gender issues in FPA staff training and actively challenge gender discrimination and attitudes that result in sexual ill health; structured activities on religion, traditional sexual culture, and sexual health in FPA staff training; pilot projects that test the feasibility of FPAs using a participatory community development approach in sexual health; and network with groups that have resources to address some underlying determinants of sexual health.