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  1. 1

    Advancement of women: report of the Third Committee. Traffic in women and girls. Adopted Resolution II (51/66).

    Sandru V

    [Unpublished] 1996 Nov 27. Fifty-first session, Agenda item 103. [6] p. (A/51/612)

    This paper presents the report of the 3rd Committee during the 51st session of the UN General Assembly concerning the issue of trafficking in women and girls. In recognizing the increasing number of women and girls who are victims of trafficking, the General Assembly is convinced of the need to eliminate all forms of violence and sexual trafficking, including prostitution and other forms of commercial sex. The Assembly realizes the urgent need for the adoption of effective measures to protect women and girls from this nefarious traffic. Governments and countries of origin, transit and destination, and regional and international organizations are called to implement the Platform for Action of the 4th World Conference on Women. In addition, governments are invited to accord standard minimum humanitarian treatment to trafficked persons, consistent with human rights standards, and to support the UN in formulating manuals for training of personnel who take charge of victims of gender-based violence, including trafficking. Relevant UN organizations are likewise encouraged to support this effort. It also calls upon all governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls and to condemn and penalize all offenders. Governments concerned are further urged to take steps to assist women and children victims of transnational trafficking to return home and be reintegrated in their home societies. In addition, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights is invited to address the obstacles to the realization of human rights of women.
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  2. 2

    The effects of armed conflict on girls. A discussion paper for the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children.

    Almquist K; Muhumuza R; Westwood D

    Monrovia, California, World Vision International, 1996 Jul. 35 p. (World Vision Staff Working Paper No. 23)

    This preliminary discussion paper on The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls undertaken within the context of the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, aimed to determine whether girls suffer more, less, or at least differently from boys. In conducting the study it was attempted to pull together the experiences of various World Vision programs working with girls in the following areas: 1) their active participation in armed conflicts; 2) the particular vulnerabilities they face due to displacement; 3) their health and nutrition; 4) their traditional roles; and 5) the targeting of girls for violence and abuse. The evidence that was collected indicated that while there was commonality in the experiences of boys and girls, girls were affected in different ways to boys by armed conflict. The most significant differences were the targeting of girls for sexual abuse and rape, with the psychological and physical needs this induces, and the lack of reproductive health services to meet even the most basic needs of girls and women. The paper helps to raise awareness of some of the particular vulnerabilities of girls in armed conflicts, and highlights some possible research hypotheses for more comprehensive study.
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  3. 3

    Draft statement on human settlements.

    International Peace Research Association

    [Unpublished] 1996 Feb. [5] p.

    As a consequence of over three decades of peace research dealing with among other relevant topics, militarization and development, human rights and the sustainability of communities, the International Peace Research Association suggested the following purposes and recommendations be incorporated into the Plan of Action by Habitat II. In the process of reduction and elimination of armed violence, general and complete disarmament must become the goal and guidelines must be set for all arms negotiations; conflict resolution and peacekeeping should be the basis for policies and international legal precedents and agreements. Moreover, the conversion of the global war economy is essential to sustainable human settlements. Hence, economic decision making should be democratized; structural adjustment policies should be reviewed and amended; military expenditures should be reduced; and there should be conversion from military to civil sector economies. In addition, demilitarization of society can aid in the pursuit of sustainable development and the achievement of peaceful human settlements. Principal steps in this process include human rights education and conflict resolution training. Finally, the reconceptualization of security is necessary in setting in motion the three foregoing processes toward the achievement of truly sustainable, just and peaceful human settlements.
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  4. 4

    WHO fact sheet. Violence against women.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Press Office

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996 Aug. 3 p. (Fact Sheet No. 128)

    The WHO Global Commission on Women's Health, a high level advocacy body which promotes women health issues nationally and internationally, focused on the issue of violence against women at its meeting in 1996. Violence against women has become widely recognized as a major issue of women's human rights; however, there has also been growing awareness of the impact of violence on women's mental and physical health. Studies have shown that the most pervasive form of gender violence is violence against women by their intimate male partners or ex-partners, including the physical, mental and sexual abuse of women and children and adolescents. Approximately 40 population-based quantitative studies conducted in 24 countries revealed a range of 20-50% of women being victims of physical abuse by their partners; 50-60% of them were raped as well. Victims of violence are likely to develop behaviors that are self-injurious, such as substance abuse and smoking.
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  5. 5

    Advancement of women: Argentina, Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guinea-Bissau, Marshall Islands, Philippines and Portugal: draft resolution. Violence against women migrant workers.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1996 Nov 5. 4 p. (A/C.3/51/L.17)

    This UN resolution opens by recalling previous resolutions about violence against women migrant workers, the conclusions of world conferences, and the report of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights that all emphasize the importance of protecting the human rights of vulnerable groups. The resolution also notes that large numbers of women cross international borders seeking work and that both sending and receiving states benefit from this activity. The resolution expresses concern about continued acts of violence taken by employers against women migrant workers and notes that some receiving states have taken measures to alleviate the plight of these women. The resolution acknowledges the report of the Secretary-General on violence against women migrant workers and a 1996 expert meeting held in the Philippines. In accord with the UN's determination to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls, the resolution encourages Member States to enact protective legislation; periodically review the implementation of this legislation to ensure its effectiveness; consider adopting legislative sanctions against intermediaries who exploit women migrant workers; conduct regular consultations to identify problems; and sign, ratify, or accede to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the 1926 Slavery Convention. The resolution also recommends ways the UN community can address this problem.
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  6. 6

    Action Programme 1997-1999. Resolutions and recommendations adopted at the IAW XXX Congress, Calcutta, India, December 1996. Declaration of principle. Programme d'Action 1997-1999 base sur les resolutions et les recommandations adoptees au 30eme Congres Triennal de l'AIF de Calcutta, en Indes, en Decembre 1996. Declaration de principe.

    International Alliance of Women

    [Unpublished] 1996. [4] p.

    This document, which presents the priority action program for 1997-99 of the International Alliance of Women (IAW), opens by affirming the principle that women's rights are human rights and that human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. The document also calls on all affiliate and associate organizations to monitor fulfillment of the commitment of 189 UN-member states to implementation of the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific priority actions are then described in five areas. First, governments and IAW member organizations are urged to promote the maximum participation of women in political life by supporting women's civil and political rights. Second, governments and the mass media are asked to eradicate illiteracy among women (and promote legal literacy) and overcome the prejudice that bars girls' access to schools. Third, the document notes that poverty disproportionately affects women and requests governments, communities, and member organizations to take specific steps to help women overcome poverty. Next, the document calls for establishment of an International Convention on the Elimination of Violence against Women and Children and identifies steps that should be taken to eradicate trafficking in women and children, domestic violence, and violence in general. Finally, the document calls on governments to protect women's health by taking specific actions, such as implementing reproductive rights, promoting healthy nutrition, and eradicating substance abuse.
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  7. 7

    Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice to hold fifth session in Vienna, 21-31 May. Press release.

    United Nations. Information Service

    [New York, New York], United Nations Information Service, 1996 May 21. [8] p. (Press Release SOC/CP/180)

    The UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice held its fifth session in Vienna in May 1996. This press release about the session begins by reviewing the history of the UN crime prevention and criminal justice program since its inception in 1985. Then the document describes the Commission's response to the problems posed by organized transnational crime, the corruption of public officials, money laundering, links of terrorists to organized crime, the role of criminal law in protecting the environment, urban policy and crime prevention, violence against women, and firearms regulation. The release also describes efforts to strengthen the international response to crime, reform criminal justice systems; and improve crime prevention cooperation and coordination. Finally, the release notes that the Commission will consider a number of proposals that will be addressed by the Tenth UN Crime Congress in the year 2000.
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  8. 8

    U.N. special rapporteur on violence against women.

    WOMEN'S WORLD. 1996 Dec; (30):24.

    This article briefly describes the responsibilities, activities, and reports of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women. This post was created as an investigative unit of gender-specific violence and as a means of integrating women's human rights into mainstream human rights discussions. The post was created in 1994 due to the pressure from women's nongovernmental organizations and the revelation by the 1993 Vienna Human Rights Conference that violence against women is a barrier to women's full human rights. The mandate of the Rapporteur is determined and approved by member states. The mandate is renewed every three years. The Rapporteur is required to prepare a report every year for the UN Commission on Human Rights. The themes of reports are not determined by member states but must be approved by them. The Rapporteur cannot conduct field research in a country without an invitation to do so by a national government. If the Rapporteur singles out a government for questionable human rights records, the government has an opportunity to defend itself before the UN Commission on Human Rights. The Rapporteur may appeal to governments in violation of international laws on the protection of women against violence. During Coomaraswamy's tenure as Special Rapporteur during 1994-97, the following reports were released: a Survey of Violence Against Women Issues in 1994-95; Domestic Violence Against Women in the Family and an addendum report on Sexual Slavery in 1995-96; and Violence Against Women in the Community and an addendum report on Sex Trafficking in 1996-97. If Coomaraswamy's post is renewed for another three years, there will be a report in 1997-98 entitled Violence Against Women in Armed Conflict. Due to tight budget constraints, the Rapporteur could use the help of regional networks for gathering information and documenting violence against women cases and for teaching about how to effect change within the UN system.
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  9. 9

    Experts discuss plight of migrant women workers.

    WOMEN ENVISION. 1996 Jun-Jul; (34-5):1-2.

    In response to a resolution passed by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on the need to address reports of violence against women migrant workers, the UN Division for the Advancement of Women organized an Expert Group Meeting on Violence Against Women held in Manila, Philippines, in May 1996. Delegates agreed that the creation of procedures and institutions to protect migrant workers has not ensured the protection of female migrant workers and urged that this problem be conceptualized in the wider context of gender-based violence. Of particular salience are the unequal political and economic relations between sending and receiving countries. Participants urged governments to take action to provide de facto migrants with social benefits and support services, collaborate with nongovernmental organizations to provide legal and educational assistance to women migrant workers, provide migrant workers with extensive pre-departure information about the laws and culture of receiving countries, apply national labor standards to women migrant workers, encourage workers' organizations to include the protection of migrant women workers in their activities, train law enforcement officers to aid victims of violence and encourage the reporting of such violations, provide gender-sensitivity training for embassy and consulate personnel, support reintegration programs for victimized migrant women returning to their home countries, and bring legal action against persons or organizations involved in trafficking. Conference participants also developed indicators of violence and vulnerability as well as methods of data collection.
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