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FAO yearbook, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO annuaire, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO anuario 1995. Vol 49. Produccion.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1996. xxxvii, 235 p. (FAO Statistics Series No. 133)This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Yearbook is a compilation of statistical data on basic agricultural products and related information in all countries and territories of the world. Presented in tabular form, information included in the Yearbook consists of data series on area, yield and production of numerous crops; on livestock numbers and products; and on population, land use, irrigation and farm machinery. Moreover, the Yearbook provides index numbers that highlight trends in food and agricultural production across all countries and continents. The statistical information presented is based primarily on data provided to the Statistics Division of FAO by countries through questionnaires or official statistical publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. x, 1131 p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/25)The Demographic Yearbook for 1994 presents comprehensive statistical tables of demography encompassing: population, vital statistics, infant mortality, maternal mortality, mortality, natality, nuptiality, divorce, and economic characteristics for 233 countries throughout the world. The special topic in this 1994 issue focuses on economic characteristics. Data available during 1986-95 include population by sex, population by age and sex, live births by sex, live births by age of the mother and sex of the child, deaths by sex, deaths by age and sex, expectation of life at exact ages by sex, infant deaths by sex, marriages, and divorces. Marriage by age of the groom and the bride is provided for the latest available year. Economic characteristics during 1985-94 include the participation rates of the economically active population by sex, age, and urban/rural residence; inactivity by functional group and sex, age, and urban/rural residence; industry, age, sex, and urban/rural residence for economically active persons; occupation as per industry table; employment or unemployment status by age, sex, and urban/rural residence; employment status and industry, sex, and urban/rural residence; and employment status and occupation, sex, and urban/rural residence. This issue presents special tables on the female economically active population by marital status, age, and urban/rural residence; and the economically active foreign born by occupation, age, and sex.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. x, 229 p.This 1996 UN Human Development Report identifies human development as an outcome of economic development. The report explores the relationship between economic growth and human development. Several findings give pause for thought. 1) Growth declined over the past 15 years in about 100 countries with almost 33% of global population. 2) Unbalanced development is occurring where there is sufficient growth but little human development or where there is good human development and little or no growth. Economic growth is needed, but an understanding of the structure and quality of growth helps determine whether poverty is reduced, the environment is protected, and sustainability is ensured. Economic decline over the past 15 years has reduced the income of 1.6 billion people. 70 countries in 1996 had less income than in 1980, and 43 countries had less income than in 1970. The declines in depth and duration far exceeded the declines of the Great Depression of the 1930s in industrialized countries. The world was more polarized. $18 trillion out of a $23 trillion gross domestic product occurred in industrialized countries. The poorest 20% of world population had their share of global income decline, from 2.3% to 1.4% in the past 30 years. The share of the richest rose from 70% to 85%. Declines and recovery occurred during various periods by region. Eastern European countries and many Arab countries suffered sharp declines during the 1980s, but African declines began in the 1970s. A turnaround in policy and political will is needed to prevent growth that is "jobless, ruthless, voiceless, rootless, and futureless." Chapter topics focus on trends, growth as a way to achieve human development, links between growth and development, and creation of employment opportunities. Special articles focus on intergenerational equity, humanizing growth, and the South African example. The report presents the 1996 statistical indicators and the balance sheets.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. , 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. 48, No. 3; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/198)This issue of the UN Population and Vital Statistics Report presents country-specific birth, death, and population statistics for 233 countries of the world for 1995 and 1996. Data were estimated based on the most current information available from censuses, surveys, and other records. The data are identified by the nature of the base data, the recency of the base data, the method of time adjustment, and the quality of adjustment by type of data. Population figures are given for total, male, and female population and mid-1995 base estimates. Births, infant deaths, and deaths are given for estimated rate, actual rate, and actual number. The world estimates of population were 5.716 billion in 1995 and 5.804 billion in 1996. 1995 regional population estimates include 728 million in Africa, 455 million in North America, 320 million in South America, 3.458 billion in Asia, 727 million in Europe, and 29 million in Oceania. 1996 regional population estimates include an increase to 748 million in Africa, an increase to 462 million in North America, an increase to 325 million in South America, an increase to 3.513 billion in Asia, and a stabilization at 728 million in Europe and 29 million in Oceania.
[Unpublished] 1996 Apr. iv, 16 p. (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.11; UNICEF/PLN/96.1)This paper gives revised estimates of maternal mortality in 1990 by country and region, WHO regions, and UNICEF regions. The new estimates use available data, adjust for underreporting and misclassification of maternal deaths, and develop a simple model for predicting values for countries without reliable national data. Reliability is expected to be better than that in previously published reports. These estimates are considered baseline estimates that will be compared with estimates in the year 2000. Findings indicate that in 1990 there were 585,000 female deaths due to pregnancy-related causes. This new estimate is 80,000 women higher than previously estimated. Maternal mortality was particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa at 870 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. Maternal mortality was 190/100,000 in Latin America, 560/100,000 in South Central Asia, 440/100,000 in Southeastern Asia, 320/100,000 in Western Asia, and 95/100,000 in Eastern Asia. The maternal mortality ratio was 480/100,000 compared with a previous estimate of 420/100,000 in developing countries and 27/100,000 vs. 26/100,000 in developed countries. The method of estimation relies on the use of general fertility rates and the proportion of births that are assisted.
AIDS WEEKLY PLUS. 1996 Jun 24 - Jul 1; 14.Cambodia's National AIDS Program (NAP) appealed for help to fight the spread of HIV. The appeal followed figures issued by the NAP that an estimated 120,000 Cambodians have been infected with HIV, according to Hor Bun Leng, NAP. In August 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised the estimate of Cambodian HIV cases to 30,000 from the previous figure of 5000. The figure was revised upwards again in November 1995 to between 50,000 and 90,000. "The estimated figure for HIV-infected persons in 1996 is 120,000 cases and for people suffering from [advanced] AIDS ... we [have] estimate[d] a least 1000 cases," Hor Bun Leng said. "It's a very, very serious problem. We know how to handle it, how to get the information out to the people, and how to get success, but we need more money--we need funding from any donor agency which could help," he said. The NAP believes that 40,000 people or more could be AIDS patients by the turn of the century. "The WHO says we should spend at least $1 per person for the anti-AIDS campaign. In Thailand the government spent $80 million for a population of about 65 million people. But I have 10 million people and only between $200,000 and $300,000," Hor Bun Leng said. "[In 1995] we only heard about AIDS cases in Phnom Penh, but now we get reports from the provincial level throughout the country," he said. He said most provincial hospitals report new AIDS cases every month. "We don't know how to curb the HIV/AIDS problem. We need money for educational material, but we don't have enough financial resources." (full text)
INDIAN MEDICAL TRIBUNE. 1996 Jun 15; 4(11):1, 4.Estimating maternal mortality is difficult because information is usually incomplete and unreliable. Previously, the World Health Organization (WHO) used a simple model based on female life expectancy to make regional and global estimates. This news article reports that WHO and UNICEF have developed a more effective method of generating estimates for individual countries and regional and global totals. The new data are a recalculation for an earlier time period and are not indicative of time trends. The new method has been used to re-estimate maternal mortality for 1990. The results indicate that there were 585,000 maternal deaths in 1990, almost 80,000 more than earlier estimates. The new estimates for Africa are much higher, whereas those for Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are broadly comparable to previous estimates. Asia, which has 61% of the world's births, has the greatest number of maternal deaths (55%). But Africa, which has 20% of the world's births, has 40% of all maternal deaths. Developed countries, which have 11% of all births, have less than 1% of maternal deaths. In developing countries, risk of death during pregnancy or childbirth (maternal mortality ratio) ranges from 200/100,000 live births in Latin America and the Caribbean to 870/100,000 live births in Africa, with very high ratios of 1000/100,000 live births in Eastern and Western Africa. Using the new method, there are only five subregions of the world--Northern and Southern Africa, Eastern Asia, and Central and South America--where the maternal mortality ratios are lower than earlier estimates. An important predictor of maternal mortality was the percentage of women who have a trained attendant--someone with midwifery skills--assisting the delivery.
AIDS CARE. 1996 Feb; 8(1):127-8.Worldwide, 1,169,811 AIDS cases had been reported to the World Health Organization as of July 7, 1995: 141,275 in Europe, 580,129 in the Americas, 418,051 in Africa, 23,912 in Asia, and 6444 in Oceania. At 441,528 cases, the US has the largest number of reported AIDS cases of any country in the world. It is estimated that there have been more than 4,500,000 cumulative AIDS cases worldwide in adults and children as of July 7, 1995: 4% of which are in Europe, more than 9% in the Americas excluding the US, 9% in the US, more than 70% in Africa, less than 6% in Asia, and less than 1% in Oceania. The actual reported proportion of cases per region are as follows: 12% in Europe, 12% in the Americas excluding the US, 38% in the US, 35.5% in Africa, 2% in Asia, and 0.5% in Oceania. The estimated distribution of cumulative adult HIV infections as of mid-1995 is as follows: 1.1 million in North America, 2 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 600,000 in Western Europe, 150,000 in North Africa and the Middle East, more than 11 million in sub-Saharan Africa, more than 50,000 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, more than 50,000 in East Asia and the Pacific, 3.5 million in South and Southeast Asia, and more than 25,000 in Australasia. The estimated distribution of HIV prevalence in adults as of mid-1995 is as follows: more than 750,000 in North America, more than 1.5 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 450,000 in Western Europe, more than 100,000 in North Africa and the Middle East, 8.5 million in sub-Saharan Africa, more than 50,000 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, more than 50,000 in East Asia and the Pacific, more than 3 million in South and Southeast Asia, and more than 20,000 in Australasia.