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POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 22(3):594-600.This article discusses and reproduces two documents that outline the population goals of the UN. The first document is the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) new mission statement, which was revised in April 1996 to reflect the strategy contained in the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The mission statement defines the three areas of concern to UNFPA as 1) working toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health by the year 2015, 2) supporting capacity-building in population programming, and 3) promoting awareness of population and development issues and advocating for the mobilization of resources and political will to address these issues. The mission statement affirms the commitment of UNFPA to reproductive rights, gender equity and male responsibility, and the empowerment of women as development goals. Finally, the statement acknowledges the responsibility of UNFPA in overseeing the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and in assisting in the mobilization of resources to meet the ICPD goals. The second document is the "Common Advocacy Statement on Population and Development" adopted to establish a commonly-shared language for the entire UN system and to integrate population into all UN development strategies. This statement defines sectoral linkages between population and poverty eradication, environmental protection, food security, women's empowerment, employment, education, and health. The ICPD Programme of Action's quantitative goals in the areas of education, mortality reduction (covering infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy), and reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health) are annexed to the statement.
In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. viii-xv.The seven topics that are outlined in the book Salas Forum Papers on Population Development and Environment are discussed. The book also profiles the late Mr. Rafael Salas as the Founding Executive Director of the Rafael M. Salas Foundation, a nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines and funded by the UN Population Fund. Mr. Salas was a man profoundly committed to uplifting the Filipino people from poverty. He embraced the ethos that the first responsibility of the political leader is to secure his people's destiny from the vagaries of constant change and the dire consequences of inappropriate policy action. In present days, this ethos is understood as sustainable development and calls for a moderation of the present needs so that people do not diminish the ability of future generations to meet their needs too. He also correlated population dynamics to achieving sustainable development, which is evident in the discussions during the seven sessions of the Salas Forum compiled in this book. The topics included 1) a presentation entitled, Population, Resources and the Philippine Future ; 2) discussion of the six policy papers on population and development dialogue; 3) demographic trends in the Philippines; 4) dynamics between population management, sustainable development and organized religion; 5) the national security aspect of population planning; 6) the gender aspect of social transformation; and 7) debates on population and environment.
In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. vi-vii.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the Philippines, led by Rafael Salas, has changed from a fledgling agency into one of the most dynamic and financially stable UN agencies. The vision and principles he laid during the inception of UNFPA has been and will remain valid for years to come. These include the respect for national sovereignty and for individual human rights, organizational flexibility, innovation and expediency. Following the death of Mr. Salas, the Rafael M. Salas Foundation was established in the Philippines, supported by the UNFPA. One of its programs is the annual Salas Forum, which serves as a fruitful arena where the multi-faceted concerns of development may be examined dispassionately and intelligently. As a nongovernmental endeavor, it opens an important channel where sober debate is conducted between and among the relevant actors in the formulation of population and development policies. The papers presented to the Forum and the deliberation helps to clarify problems and possible solutions to the often ambiguous and complex process of development.
Living in Asian cities. The impending crisis -- causes, consequences and alternatives for the future. Report of the Second Asia-Pacific Urban Forum.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. x, 186 p. (ST/ESCAP/1660)This report is a reflection of the current debates on issues raised by the dramatic changes brought about by the rapid urbanization of the Asian and Pacific region citizens. The paper is comprised of four papers that set the discussions during the first Asia-Pacific Urban Forum held in Bangkok, Thailand on November 1993. The four papers are entitled "Where we have come from: historical perspective and major trends", "Raising the curtain on the urban drama: the need for a new approach to policy", "The present urban dilemma: macro imperatives versus micro needs", and "The new urban contract: institutional change". 12 specific issues were drawn from the discussion papers as subjects for focus group discussions during the Asia-Pacific Forum. This resulted in a total of 14 group discussions that are summarized in the second part of the document. Four subregional urban forums also provided a platform for examining urban issues in a subregional context. After the debate on the main issues, the international agencies with urban programs had an opportunity to present their current and future activities. The forum did not conclude with any resolution or declaration, but it took note of some of the more significant statements, particularly those made in the focus groups and subregional forums.
Networks for urban action. A guide on who's, what, and where on urban management in Asia and the Pacific.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific, 1996. , 37 p.The Urban Management Program for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) of the UN Development Programme is guided by the vision of urban management growth to improve living standards and reduce poverty in ways that are socially just, ecologically sustainable, politically participatory, economically productive, and culturally vibrant. The UMPAP seeks to respond to the urban challenge through effective, directed and unambiguous programs, carried out at all levels of urban society. This network guide presents a list of major global and regional initiatives that have an impact on activities in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the organizations and programs described in this guide are the Asia Pacific 2000, Asia Women and Shelter Network, Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation, Asian Coalition for Housing Rights, Asian Development Bank, and the Asia Pacific Forum of Environmental Journalists.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1996 Feb. , v, 59 p. (Social Development Paper No. 12)This report defines types of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and identifies strategies for identifying participatory NGOs. It also discusses capacity building, the tension between service delivery and capacity building, the potential to increase the scale of activity among NGOs, project or process development, and linkages between NGOs and government. The World Bank now aims to foster more participatory community-based development among development-oriented NGOs trying to reduce poverty. Development-oriented NGOs tend to have the strongest grassroots links and the greatest experience reaching disadvantaged groups with innovative methods. The World Bank has historically ignored participatory processes. The challenge is to locate NGOs willing to collaborate and those that have sufficient capacity to meet goals; to support the participatory character of NGOs; and to help reduce friction in styles with the operations of the World Bank and governments. Highly participatory NGOs tend to work on a very small scale. Another challenge is to build the institutional capacity of NGO partners. The usual management training is unsuitable and insufficient for NGO needs. History, politics, and ideology define the differences in links between governments and NGOs. Partners may be constrained by government attitudes and regulations. The cases confirm the importance of a clear, shared understanding of partner NGO roles; a flexible, staged process of collaboration; opportunities for strong, relatively homogenous common interest-based groups; a supportive, nonintrusive state context; and a shared view and willingness to cooperate among major donors.
WW ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND SECURITY PROJECT REPORT. 1996 Spring; (2):18-27.Despite a 30-year decline in the rate of population growth, population momentum remains responsible for the largest annual increase in population ever seen, and future population growth will be influenced by how well couples can realize their family size goals, the extent to which preferred family size exceeds replacement-level fertility, and the age women begin childbearing in combination with birth spacing practices. Many, but not all, scientists and foreign policy experts are concerned about the impact of this growth on the environment and on natural resource allocation. Additional concerns are raised about the impact on economic development and sustainable development. In 1994, national academies of science from 58 countries issued an appeal for development of an integrated policy on world population and sustainable development. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) heeded that appeal and adopted a Program of Action (POA) in which more than 180 countries agreed to take certain actions to stabilize population growth and achieve sustainable development. Challenges to implementing the ICPD POA include 1) getting people to pay attention to global and national population issues, 2) overcoming the blocking tactics of some groups who did not agree with all of the POA's elements, 3) obtaining the necessary funding, and 4) overcoming the challenges to governments and the private sector posed by the necessity to create new partnerships between the two. Fortunately, the range of choices in the POA will allow each country to select the appropriate mix to overcome these constraints.
Americas in harmony. Health and environment in sustainable human development. An opportunity for change and a call to action.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1996. vii, 42 p.This report presents summaries of the presentations, views, recommendations, and criticisms of the 1995 Pan American Conference on Health and the Environment in Sustainable Human Development. This conference was convened in response to government and societal commitments, the current global crisis, and the effects of ongoing global changes. Inequities and social injustices have assumed large proportions. The economy is an end in itself, regardless of the needs of humankind. There is a lack of permanent, balanced, genuine, open, and effective dialogue, especially between economic parties that formulate national policies and development plans and parties in the social domain. The conference aimed to foster increased and shared understanding of the links between health, environment, and sustainable development. The aims also were to formulate effective ways for integrating social needs and health and environmental concerns within national policies, plans, and development programs; and to find means of support. It is expected that the conference will bring about appropriate national and hemispheric dialogue, stronger political leadership, and opportunities for coordinating technical and financial international assistance and cooperation in support of national processes. Seven panel discussions focused on a variety of country, regional, and Charter strategies. An open forum addressed community participation in practice. Seven addresses focused on sustainable development. The report focuses its chapters on the present and future context and 10 areas for action.
London, England, James Currey, 1996. xv, 336 p.This volume focuses on population displacement in one of the most disturbed parts of Africa. For thousands of people flight across an international border occurs repeatedly and is not a uniquely traumatic event. For thousands more, displacement has occurred within their own countries. The chapters demonstrate that in situations of such long-term upheaval, notions of flight into refuge and repatriation to a homeland cease to have much meaning. These populations have received minimal assistance from international organizations and have lacked protection from oppressive governments and marauding guerrillas. Their plight has largely been ignored. A conference organized in Addis Ababa by UNRISD drew attention to this problem and discussed new ways in which relief and development work might be organized. Most of the chapters in this book are by researchers and aid workers with many years experience of assisting displaced groups. (EXCERPT)
In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 1-19.This background note, prepared for the 1995 version of the UN Development Program's "Human Development Report," 1) explores and makes specific recommendations about a methodology for developing a framework for "gender-equity-sensitive indicators" of achievements and freedoms; 2) considers the formulation and utilization of measures of gender equality and inequality; and 3) looks at the identification of efforts and contributions made by women that have gone unrecognized in standard national income and employment statistics. After an introductory section, the paper develops equations that focus on gender differentials in achievement in areas such as literacy where the "potentials" of men and women do not differ. The next section considers equations that integrate a differential scaling into the general evaluative scheme of gender-equity-sensitive indexes to take into account cases where the "potentials" do differ, such as mortality rates and life expectancy. Section 4 presents the case for differentiating the earnings of women and men, and the next section offers a "corrected" version of the Human Development Index that considers the extent of social preference for equality and results in a "gender-related development index." After applying a more intense look to the type of information offered through use of the gender-equity-sensitive indicators and pointing out that this proposed methodology does not depend upon use of the classic human development indicators, three appendices offer a more general discussion and proofs of the major results.
New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 1996. , 845 p. (United Nations Blue Book Series, Vol. 6)The first section of this book traces the history of the UN's efforts to improve the status of women. An overview is presented in the first part, and part 2 chronicles the UN's efforts to secure the legal foundations of women's rights during the period 1945-62. Part 3 traces the stage of the UN's work (1963-75) that began with recognition of the indispensable role of women in development and of the gulf between the existence of women's legal rights and women's ability to exercise these rights. Part 4 follows developments through the UN Decade for Women (1976-85), and part 5 describes actions taken from 1986-96 to respond to the failure of the Decade for Women to achieve improvements in the priority areas of employment, health, and education. Part 6 concludes this section by remarking on the strategies and issues that will dominate the UN's next 50 years of work in improving women's status and eliminating gender-based discrimination and by noting that the Platform for Action from the 1996 Fourth World Conference on Women serves as a tool in the empowerment of women but that the formal recognition of women's rights has yet to lead to a practical improvement in their status. The remainder of the book contains 1) a chronology of events, 2) a chronology of UN conferences and seminars, and 3) a selection of documents on women published by the UN that form a comprehensive record of UN involvement in the campaign to promote women's rights, including the complete texts of the major conventions, treaties, and declarations.
Washington, D.C., CEDPA, 1996. , 43 p.This handbook reviews the field of gender and development to help development professionals incorporate gender analysis to improve their projects, programs, and institutions. The first section contributes to overall understanding of gender through a consideration of 1) the definition of "gender"; 2) the gender division of labor; 3) approaches to meet practical needs and fulfill strategic interests; and 4) the impact of gender on women's lives in terms of education, health, and employment. Section 2 traces and charts the evolution of thinking about women's development and the parallel changing pattern of women's development programs, contrasts the "Women in Development" and "Gender and Development" approaches, presents top-down and bottom-up strategies to improve gender equity, and lists UN milestones in promotion of the advancement of women. The third section presents gender training and analysis as the two most important tools for implementing gender-focused development. Critical elements for integrating gender into organizations are identified, and the following models for conducting gender analysis are considered: the contextual analysis model (used before a project starts), the Harvard Framework (used during a project), the Women's Empowerment Framework (analyses a project from a women's empowerment standpoint), and the Gender Analysis Matrix (used to understand community perceptions of a project). The final section of the manual reviews the commitment to improving gender equity contained in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). Appendices provide a glossary of gender and development terms, a summary of the WCW Platform for Action, and a checklist for building gender equity into project design and implementation.
Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences.
The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1996. 23 p. (NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series 13)This document contains the text of the 1996 Hofstee Lecture organized by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. The 1996 lecture, entitled "Population and Development Linkages: New Research Priorities after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences," was delivered by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Dr. Sadik suggested that research is needed to explore 1) the interrelations between population, sustainable development, and the environment and 2) to improve design and implementation of more effective reproductive health programs and solve methodological problems. After sketching the linkages between population and development, her lecture analyzed research needs to clarify the population/development relationship in terms of macroeconomic linkages, population/environment linkages (for rural and for urban environments), microeconomic linkages (such as education, poverty, and unintended poverty), and macro-microeconomic linkages. The next part of her lecture presented sociocultural research and operations research proposals to identify the constraints on full access to reproductive health services and to improve quality of care. Dr. Sadik concluded that results of investigations in the areas of methodological development; conceptual clarification; and substantive, theoretical, and applied research should be consolidated into databases to enhance policy development and measurement of progress in meeting the goals of the world population conferences. In response to this lecture, Dr. Piet Bukman of the Netherlands discussed the problem of achieving food security and the urgent need for an effective population policy that will adopt short-term as well as longterm measures to limit global population growth.
Bangkok, Thailand, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1996. , 30 p.This document contains the report of the activities undertaken by the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1990-96. The report opens with a message from the AFPPD's chairman noting that the AFPPD has been instrumental in organizing international conferences to allow parliamentarians from other parts of the world to explore population, development, and gender issues. Messages from the Secretary-General of the AFPPD and the Deputy Executive Director of the UN Population Fund stress the importance of political commitment for population programs. The report continues with a description of the formation of the AFPPD in 1981 for the purpose of contributing to the establishment of world peace and improving the standard of living and welfare of people in Asia. The next sections of the report describe the structure of the organization and provide a profile of its membership and a brief description of its activities. A more in-depth review of country activities is then given for India, Viet Nam, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Fiji, and Australia. A summary is also provided of the international initiatives undertaken by the AFPPD, which took the form of four international conferences (one in 1994, two in 1995, and one in 1996). The report ends by identifying the AFPPD's current officers and the addresses of its full-time offices.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. x, 229 p.This 1996 UN Human Development Report identifies human development as an outcome of economic development. The report explores the relationship between economic growth and human development. Several findings give pause for thought. 1) Growth declined over the past 15 years in about 100 countries with almost 33% of global population. 2) Unbalanced development is occurring where there is sufficient growth but little human development or where there is good human development and little or no growth. Economic growth is needed, but an understanding of the structure and quality of growth helps determine whether poverty is reduced, the environment is protected, and sustainability is ensured. Economic decline over the past 15 years has reduced the income of 1.6 billion people. 70 countries in 1996 had less income than in 1980, and 43 countries had less income than in 1970. The declines in depth and duration far exceeded the declines of the Great Depression of the 1930s in industrialized countries. The world was more polarized. $18 trillion out of a $23 trillion gross domestic product occurred in industrialized countries. The poorest 20% of world population had their share of global income decline, from 2.3% to 1.4% in the past 30 years. The share of the richest rose from 70% to 85%. Declines and recovery occurred during various periods by region. Eastern European countries and many Arab countries suffered sharp declines during the 1980s, but African declines began in the 1970s. A turnaround in policy and political will is needed to prevent growth that is "jobless, ruthless, voiceless, rootless, and futureless." Chapter topics focus on trends, growth as a way to achieve human development, links between growth and development, and creation of employment opportunities. Special articles focus on intergenerational equity, humanizing growth, and the South African example. The report presents the 1996 statistical indicators and the balance sheets.
In: Making her rights a reality. Women's human rights and development, edited by Gillian Moon. Fitzroy, Australia, Community Aid Abroad, 1996. 74-83.It is more effective to conduct advocacy based on an understanding that the poor are people whose rights have been denied than simply to provide services or welfare. The UN has provided the human rights framework upon which such advocacy efforts can be based and has, through its international meetings, set the standards for the rights of women. While the development rhetoric of UN agencies acknowledges gender issues, practical implementation of gender-sensitive projects at the local level is hard to achieve. In this regard, the UN Development Program's gender development index and gender empowerment measure are useful, and the UN places important peer pressure on nations. However, the UN lacks political will and its administration is a bureaucratic disaster. Thus, preventable tragedies continue to happen because of unclear and weak mandates, and most of the post-Cold War peace-keeping interventions have failed because of the actions of important member countries. The UN has also failed to address massive structural equity gaps among nations and has allowed the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to implement devastating structural adjustment programs. The policies of the WB, IMF, and World Trade Organization (WTO) must be changed so that these agencies cease undermining efforts to improve human rights at the policy level, and the UN must be reformed. The WB responds to public pressure, and similar pressure must be applied to the IMF and WTO. The UN needs a multinational, rapid deployment, highly-trained peacekeeping force, and we need an international judicial process to deter war crimes. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) face the challenge of presenting arguments for policy change in an authoritative manner. NGOs must also develop a constituency that will push within developed countries for such changes.
Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1996 Dec. 33 p. (APDA Resource Series 2)This paper presents an overview of the distinguishing features of the 20th century by focusing on the decades between the first and third World Population Conferences (1974-94). The essay opens with a prologue which describes the increasing concern about population growth which served as the background to the development of the progressive World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in 1974 and presents current population projections and annual growth rate data. The next topic is the adoption of the WPPA, with its last minute attention to family planning programs, at the Bucharest Conference. This is followed by consideration of the "Bucharest effect" which included reversals by China and India which led to their adoption of new policies to control growth. Discussion of the "quiet gathering" at Mexico City which adopted recommendations to further implement the WPPA in 1984 is augmented with a look at the ripple caused by the denial of the US delegation of the possibility of achieving demographic goals before achieving economic development. The three global upheavals experienced in the 20th century after the watershed of World War II are then identified as the world population explosion, the destruction of the global environment, and the conflicts which followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. The ensuing discussion then considers the three most important aspects of the world population crisis: the population growth rate, the size of the annual increases, and total global population. Finally, the paper looks at the Fourth International Conference on Population and Development during which the WPPA became a Programme of Action which embraced a revolutionary strategy calling for the empowerment of women to achieve population stability and development, emphasizing reproductive health care, and establishing targets to reduce death rates. The essay concludes by calling for a revolution in thinking to derive ways to cope with the upcoming 30 years of rapid population growth.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Dec; 22(4):683-702, 814, 816.One emphasis of the new population paradigm that emerged at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo concerns gender inequality in education and the need to promote girls' schooling at the secondary level, both as a goal of human development and as a means to encourage lower fertility in developing countries. A critical weakness of this approach...is that it fails to address the socioeconomic inequality that deprives both boys and girls of adequate schooling. Such unbalanced attention to one dimension of inequality detracts from the attention accorded to other dimensions. Moreover, while female disadvantage remains an important feature of educational access in some regions, there are numerous countries, even within the developing world, where the gender gap in education is absent or modest, and in almost all countries it has been diminishing substantially over the last few decades. By contrast, the authors contend, inequality in education based on socioeconomic background is nearly universal and, in most cases, more pronounced than gender inequality. Data from various developing countries, especially Thailand and Vietnam, document this situation. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
One year after Cairo. Keeping the promises of the UN International Conference on Population and Development: a country-by-country progress report. 2nd ed.
New York, New York, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1996. viii, 157,  p. (1996 Earth Summit Watch Report)In March 1995, Earth Summit Watch initiated a widespread and intensive effort to obtain data for reports on activities undertaken as a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). This report contains information on activities in 65 countries (36% of attending nations) and documents the fact that significant progress has been made in implementing the goals of the ICPD in responding countries. National leaders in Peru and Haiti have taken strong positions promoting family planning (FP) and reproductive health; efforts to increase public participation in population policy-making have begun in Ireland, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe; increased resources have been earmarked for primary health care, basic education, and FP services in many countries (although the US is planning a dramatic reduction in population and development spending); and a few nations have begun efforts to reduce waste and pollution. The goals of this report are to demonstrate the importance of monitoring national implementation and to highlight the role that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can play at all levels of implementing follow-up to the ICPD. The first chapter of the report contains an introduction, an overview of the country reports, and a discussion of the UN structure for national reporting on ICPD follow-up. Chapter 2 presents the country reports which include information on reporting to the nation about the ICPD, the structure for ICPD follow-up, specific new initiatives and resources, the involvement of women/NGOs, satisfying the demand for services, and assessment of overall impact.
Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
EARTH TIMES. 1996 Oct 16-31; 9(18):14.Heads of state at the 1995 World Summit for Social Development agreed to Commitment 8, a resolution to make sure that structural adjustment programs include social development goals such as the eradication of poverty, the promotion of full and productive employment, and the enhancement of social integration. The cooperation of international financial institutions in adhering to the commitment can be requested by interested countries. As a result of this agreement, official World Bank/International Monetary Fund policy now views structural adjustment as a tool in service to social development. This development would suggest that fiscal stability is ultimately inseparable from social sustainability. However, the author notes that despite high-level awareness of the commitment, financial planners and investors largely conduct business as usual. It remains to be determined who or what will be the watchdog of social development when pressing and difficult fiscal decisions must be made. The author also notes the absence of women in high-level international financial policy making. Commitment 8 nonetheless represents positive progress in safeguarding the survival and quality of life of populations during periods of structural adjustment.
UNFPA COUNTRY SUPPORT TEAM FOR EAST AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Aug; 4(2):11-2.This news brief identifies workshops and meetings related to the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action in Thailand and some changes in Thai policy and program direction. The 8th National Economic and Social Development Plan for 1997-2001 uses a people-centered human development approach. The Plan emphasizes extending compulsory primary education to 9 years for all children initially and eventually to 12 years. The second major change is to accelerate the extension of primary health care in rural areas and to carry out a Five-Year National AIDS Prevention and Control plan. The new Plan aims to promote family planning in target groups with high fertility, to improve the quality of family planning methods and services, to promote small family size among target groups, to improve quality of life and community self-sufficiency, to promote family planning as a means of ensuring healthy children and improved quality of life, and to promote the development of agricultural industry in rural areas. The government priority will be to develop rural areas, the skills of rural residents, and small and medium sized cities, in order to slow the flow of migration from rural to large urban areas. Local administration will be upgraded and directed to solving environmental problems. The Plan aims to expand social services and to train rural people to meet the needs of the labor market. Several workshops and seminars were conducted during 1995 and 1996 that related to reproductive health and reproductive rights. In 1994, and shortly following the ICPD, Thailand government officials, members of nongovernmental groups, UN representatives, and media staff participated in seminars on the implementation of the ICPD Plan of Action in Thailand and seminars on Thailand's population and development program.