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In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 89-104.The introduction of this background paper for the UN's 1995 Human Development Report, which examines the analytical and political visibility of the work of social reproduction, notes that social reproduction currently occupies a blank space in current economic analyses that lack a macro-framework capable of revealing the role of social reproduction of people as well as the gender and class conflicts that exist in the capitalist relationship between profit production and social reproduction. The first section of the paper discusses the difficulty of integrating domestic work into economic analysis in a way that acknowledges the differences between the production of commodities and the reproduction of the species. Section 2 places the sector and process of reproduction in the more systematic analytical location through use of the perspective of livelihood economies. The third section offers a classical surplus approach as a means of visualizing the conflicts inherent in the capitalist production-reproduction relationship, and this approach is used in the fourth section to locate domestic work in a macro economic analysis. Section 5 presents the present structuring of the global labor markets as the context in which reproduction and paid/unpaid labor must be analyzed, and section 6 assesses the gender policies of the World Bank to determine their capacity for challenging mainstream theories. The final section argues for a strategic policy of reversing the direction of the production-reproduction relationship by making production and markets responsible and accountable institutions that contribute to human welfare.