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  1. 1

    Too soon for twilight, too late for dawn: the story of children caught in conflict - includes related articles on the UN General Assembly's stand on child-related issues, participation of children as soldiers, and recommendations for the protection of children during armed conflict - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Winter; 33(4):[12] p..

    In the last decade more than 2 million children have been killed, more than 4 million have survived physical mutilation and more than 1 million have been orphaned or separated from their families. All as a result of war. Joy unblemished as they play outside school, tumbling through the grass with friends, running under a gushing stream of water on a hot evening or down hills stung by snow. Laughter and love. These are the memories of the more innocent times evoked in the minds of many of us as we reminisce about our own childhoods. Where we had time to grow up and only slowly learn the darker ways of the world. But such memories are unimaginably distant from the reality that millions of children, caught up in the deadly games of adults, must confront. Instead, for the increasing numbers of children living in war-torn nations, childhood has become a living nightmare. A just-released United Nations study on the impact of armed conflict on children paints a truly devastating picture of untold suffering and cruelty, of a world increasingly "being sucked into a desolate moral vacuum. This is a space devoid of the most basic human values; a space in which children are slaughtered, raped and maimed; a space in which children are exploited as soldiers; a space in which children are starved and exposed to extreme brutality." The report was the outcome of a two-year investigation that included field visits to battle-scarred areas, dramatic case studies, input from eminent personalities and experts, and consultations with Governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), armed opposition movements and children themselves. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The role of the International Labor Organization.

    Boonpala P

    In: Forced labor: the prostitution of children, edited by Maureen Jaffee and Sonia Rosen. Washington, D.C., Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 1996. 53-62.

    Millions of children are being forced to work as prostitutes. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has made a commitment that child prostitution cannot be tolerated, and all efforts must be made to end the practice. That commitment is reflected in ILO Convention 29 on forced labor, adopted in 1930. The convention aims to suppress the use of all forms of forced labor, and states that the illegal exaction of forced or compulsory labor will be punishable as a penal offence. The ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations first specifically addressed the issue of child prostitution in the context of forced labor in its 1985 report. Furthermore, in its 1992 report to the International Labor Conference, the Committee of Experts identified the use of children as one of the worst forms of forced labor, whether in prostitution or pornography. Convention 29 is linked to a number of other international standards. The International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) experience with child prostitution in Thailand, Philippines, and Nepal is described.
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