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  1. 1

    Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use developed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 1996; (37):6-7.

    Since the 1960s, thousands of studies have been published on the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods. Over this period, new contraceptive methods have been introduced and methods that were being used in the 1960s have been improved. However, many of the advances that have been made in contraception have not been accompanied by updating of family planning policies and prescribing practices to reflect the progress. This has prevented the full range of methods from being available to many potential users. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Iodized oil during pregnancy. Safe use of iodized oil to prevent iodine deficiency in pregnant women. A statement by the World Health Organization.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [14] p. (WHO/NUT/96.5)

    The risks and expected benefits from iodized oil, given orally or by injection, to pregnant women in areas of severe iodine deficiency where iodized salt is not available were evaluated. The conclusions, which were approved by the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), showed that for preventing and controlling moderate and severe iodine deficiency, the giving of iodized oil is safe at any time during pregnancy. Maximum protection against endemic cretinism and neonatal hypothyroidism will be achieved when iodized oil is given before conception. The potential benefits greatly outweigh the potential risks in areas of moderate and severe iodine deficiency disorders, where iodized salt is not available and is unlikely to be made available in the short term (1-2 years). (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment.

    Motarjemi Y; Nout MJ


    An estimated 70% of diarrheal disease episodes are caused by contaminated food and water. One major cause of foodborne disease worldwide is time-temperature abuse during food preparation, leading to the survival and/or growth of contaminating pathogens or the production of toxin to disease-causing levels. Although fermentation has long been used in the preparation and preservation of food, lactic acid fermentation has only recently been recognized as an alternative technology when hot or cold storage is not feasible. Fermented cereal products have traditionally been used as weaning foods in some African countries. Participants at a joint UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) workshop held in Pretoria in December 1995 examined the food safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level. The present state of knowledge on the antimicrobial effects of lactic acid in fermented foods and the nutritional benefits of fermentation and germinated cereals were reviewed. An inventory was then made of gaps in current knowledge and priorities for further research. The following were highlighted as priority areas for research: the effect of lactic acid fermentation on viruses, parasites, certain bacteria, and mycotoxins; the physiological and nutritional effects of the consumption of fermented foods; the characterization and optimization of fermentation processes and the development of appropriate fermentation starters; and risk reduction using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, educating food handlers on health, and changing consumer perception of fermented foods.
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