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  1. 1

    HIV vaccines advocacy: the role of UNAIDS. Research and accessibility.

    Piot P

    TB AND HIV QUARTERLY. 1996 Jun-Aug; (11):7-9.

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) on the role of UNAIDS in the advocacy of HIV vaccines. Piot stressed that an efficient HIV vaccine, truly protective against HIV infection, could make all the difference in the campaign against AIDS. To this effect, the role of the UNAIDS is to carry out advocacy in favor of research as well as to collaborate with the diverse private initiatives that already exist. Commenting on the issue of guaranteed accessibility of HIV vaccine for developing countries, Piot states that it is possible to sell the product through seeking the support of donor organizations. When vaccine trials in a country are supported, it will also be made sure that the basic guarantees exist for making that product accessible to the population. Moreover, considering the impact of the pandemic on the business and economic community, Piot emphasized that alliance between the public and private sector is necessary in the struggle against AIDS. In general, the role of UNAIDS in the evaluation of a preventive vaccine for HIV is centered around communication, impact on community, and impact on prevention programs.
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  2. 2

    Establishment of WHO-sponsored field sites for HIV vaccine evaluation in developing countries.

    Heyward WL; Osmanov S; Esparza J


    Probably 90% of the estimated 14-15 million people living with HIV infection worldwide reside in developing countries. With the global HIV pandemic disproportionately affecting people in the developing world, developing countries need to be involved in all stages of vaccine development, from initial research to the approval and licensing of a product to the public. During 1991, World Health Organization (WHO) teams visited 14 developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to assess their capacity and interest in conducting HIV vaccine trials. The assessments considered the epidemiological aspects of the epidemic in the country, the clinical and laboratory infrastructures available, the logistical and operational aspects of conducting vaccine-related research, and the community and political support for HIV vaccine trials. In 1992, the WHO Steering Committee on Vaccine Development announced that it would work with the national authorities and scientists of Brazil, Rwanda, Thailand, and Uganda to develop and implement comprehensive plans for HIV vaccine research, development, and evaluation. The activities in Rwanda, however, were suspended due to recent genocide and related civil unrest. National plans have been developed with WHO assistance in the other three countries. HIV isolation and characterization and epidemiologic, clinical, and social and behavioral studies are discussed as essential for the preparation of the field sites for vaccine trials.
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  3. 3

    Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.

    International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD] (1994: Cairo)

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.

    This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
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  4. 4

    On the pill: a social history of oral contraceptives in America, 1950-1970.

    Watkins ER

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, UMI Dissertation Services, 1996. [3], viii, 336 p. (UMI No. 9631613)

    This dissertation presents a social history of oral contraceptives (OCs) in the US during the period 1950-70. Chapter 1 examines the factors which combined to give birth to the OC. These include the state of scientific knowledge, sexual mores, women's role and status, interest in population control, and the influence of Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick, the role of the pharmaceutical industry, clinical trials, and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Chapter 2 covers the introduction of the OC and its reception by physicians, Planned Parenthood, patients, and the media (by examining coverage on health effects, moral effects, the Roman Catholic debate, and population control). The third chapter relates ways the popular press cloaked the OC in social and moral terms during the mid-1960s by reviewing sociological research on premarital sex, demographic research on contraceptive unsafe, the role of the media, and the effect of the OC on population control efforts. Chapter 4 discusses medical controversy and public concern surrounding side effects and complications associated with OC use. Specific topics include early reports on blood clotting and on cancer, reports of the World Health Organization, FDA, and American Medical Association, and responses of physicians and patients to these reports. The final chapter follows the OC into the political arena by reporting on hearings held on "competitive problems in the drug industry" and on the OC. The response of the media, Planned Parenthood, patients, physicians, and feminists is presented, and debates over informed consent and the package insert are noted. The dissertation concludes that the unresolved medical controversies did not compel women to abandon the OC but caused women to worry about their health while taking it. Thus, informed consent procedures were given serious consideration, and the percentage of married women taking the OC dropped from 36 in 1973 to 20 in 1982. The OC's legacy to women is the belief in their right to simple, safe, and reliable contraception.
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  5. 5

    Profiles of UN organizations working in population.

    Green CP

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1996. 48 p.

    This report provides an overview of the UN and then identifies and describes UN organizations in the field of population and reproductive health. UN organizations are grouped by function: policy making and research organizations, organizations with major involvement in population and reproductive health, and organizations with complementary programs. Expenditure data are given by organization for 1992, for the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) for the period 1971-95, and by executive agency of the UNFPA for 1994. Each organization responded to a survey request for basic information on its goals, structure, and population-related activities. This compilation is based on interviews, surveys, and other documents. The authors made an effort to provide accurate and up-to-date information. Policy-making groups appear within the Economic and Social Council, the UN Secretariat, the Commission on Population and Development, the Task Force on ICPD Implementation, and the Regional Economic Commissions. The UN Population Division and the UN Statistical Division are under the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the UN Secretariat. Organizations with major population and reproductive health involvement include the UN Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS, and the UN Children's Fund. Complementary programs include the UN Development Program, the International Labor Organization, the Food and Agricultural Organization, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the UN Development Fund for Women, the UN Industrial Development Organization, the UN Center for Human Settlements, the World Food Program, and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
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  6. 6

    The United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and research on population and the environment.

    Pierce CS

    In: Human population, biodiversity and protected areas: science and policy issues. Report of a workshop, April 20-21, 1995, Washington, DC, edited by Victoria Dompka. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], International Directorate, 1996. 91-5.

    This UN Population Fund author reports on the need for rapid assessment in the field and research methods that include contextual factors, such as political systems, partners of governance, and culture and tradition. Sustainable development policies need to be evaluated in terms of the impact at the local level. Rapid assessment of an intervention opens up the opportunity to adjust actions to local conditions. Dialogue between natural and social scientists conducting research in developing and developed countries needs to be nurtured. The 1994 Cairo conference on population and development served to emphasize the need for continued research on the links between population, the environment, and development. The conference climate was conducive to the encouragement of new partnerships between government and nongovernmental or private organizations and to the greater involvement of the private sector in planning, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive population and development programs. The UN General Assembly Resolution 49/128 emphasizes the importance of improved cooperation in implementing the Cairo Plan of Action. The UN Population Fund plans to continue to assist in building national institutional capacity to implement the Plan of Action and to mobilize resources. A 1995 Executive Board report proposes a concentrated approach to programming in reproductive health and family planning, population and development strategies, and advocacy. The new paradigm of population and development that was part of the Plan of Action includes population issues within sustainable development and sustained economic growth. Programs that slow population growth, reduce poverty, achieve economic progress, improve environmental protection, and reduce unsustainable consumption and production patterns are interrelated. Cairo aimed to build bridges between the scientific and policymaking communities.
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  7. 7

    Technology to save millions, extends vaccine outreach programs. Vaccine management.

    VACCINE WEEKLY. 1996 Apr 22; 16.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), Seattle, Washington, has collaborated in developing a technology that improves the delivery of vaccines in the developing world. HEATmarker is a vaccine vial label which changes color with exposure to heat over time. This allows health workers to verify--at time of use--that each vial of vaccine is in usable condition and has not lost its potency due to heat exposure. Vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) have recently been mandated on all oral polio vaccine purchased and distributed by UNICEF throughout the world. "Vaccine vial monitors will revolutionize the way vaccines are delivered, enabling them to be administered in remote areas, outside the reach of the traditional 'cold chain' that extends from manufacturer to consumer. As a result, millions more children in remote parts of the world will have access to oral polio and other vaccines," states Peter Evans of the World Health Organization (WHO), Global Programme for Vaccine and Immunization. Evans adds, "WHO expects that $10 million a year will be saved for oral polio vaccine alone." VVMs will enable health workers to use vaccine that would otherwise have been discarded. Until now, health workers disposed of any polio vaccine that may not have been properly refrigerated in transport or that had been opened but not used because they were unable to tell if it was potent. In the future, WHO intends to require VVMs on vaccines for measles, hepatitis B, and other childhood diseases, which will result in millions more lives and dollars being saved. (full text)
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