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  1. 1
    296474

    Enhancing support of African development - includes a definition of the African Initiative - Special Initiative on Africa - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Summer; 33(2):[7] p..

    The Special Initiative on Africa, launched globally on 15 March by the Secretary-General along with the executive heads of all UN agencies and organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), aims to give practical expression to the policy commitments made in the past, such as the UN New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s. Unprecedented in scope, the Initiative reflects the priority accorded to Africa's development by the international community, the mandates emanating from the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and major UN conferences, as well as the undertakings made individually and collectively by African Governments to accelerate the development of their countries. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    286570

    Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use developed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 1996; (37):6-7.

    Since the 1960s, thousands of studies have been published on the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods. Over this period, new contraceptive methods have been introduced and methods that were being used in the 1960s have been improved. However, many of the advances that have been made in contraception have not been accompanied by updating of family planning policies and prescribing practices to reflect the progress. This has prevented the full range of methods from being available to many potential users. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    281236

    Antenatal care: report of a Technical Working Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on Antenatal Care (1994: Geneva)

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [30] p. (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.8)

    A Technical Working Group on Antenatal Care was convened in Geneva, 31 October - 4 November 1994, by the World Health Organization. The original objectives of the Technical Working Group were: 1. To review current antenatal care practices and make recommendations for the identification of high-risk pregnancies and their management, taking into account the timing of the pregnancy, resources available, and skills of the health worker; 2. To draw up recommendations on antenatal care and specifically outline the tasks and procedures health workers are expected to perform at different levels of the health care system; 3. To review the basic equipment, procedures, and supplies used in antenatal care from the point of view of cost, maintenance, scientific validity, and skills required to employ them appropriately; 4. To examine how to optimize antenatal care in terms of clinical tasks and procedures in relationship to the timing of the visits, distance to referral centres, and frequency of attendance. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    274800

    Hepatitis B and breastfeeding.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Child Health and Development; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support)

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Child Health and Development, 1996 Nov. [4] p. (Update No. 22)

    The question of whether breastfeeding plays a significant role in the transmission of hepatitis B has been asked for many years. It is important given the critical role of breastfeeding and the fact that about 5% of mothers worldwide are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Examination of relevant studies indicates that there is no evidence that breastfeeding poses any additional risk to infants of HBV carrier mothers. The use of hepatitis B vaccine in infant immunization programmes, recommended by WHO and now implemented in 80 countries, is a further development that will eventually eliminate risk of transmission. This document discusses the issues relevant to breastfeeding and HBV transmission, and provides guidance from a WHO perspective. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    180776

    Malawi: regional policy workshop on AIDS prevention in a civil-military environment.

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1996 Aug; 2(3):3-4.

    This article presents excerpts from a speech by Malawi’s First Vice President and Minister of Defence, the Right Honourable Justin C. Malewezi at the opening address to the policy workshop.
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  6. 6
    125736

    Report and recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting.

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being (1992: Bangalore)

    In: Family planning, health and family well-being. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being, Bangalore, India, 26-30 October 1992, [compiled by] United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. 1-24. (ST/ESA/SER.R/131)

    The proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being was held in Bangalore, India, during October 26-30, 1992, as a backdrop for the upcoming UN Conference on Population and Development in 1994. 18 experts, representatives of five regional commissions, representatives of UN offices, and those of nongovernmental agencies participated. Opening statements were given by the Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare of the government of India; the secretary-general of the International Conference on Population and Development; and the deputy secretary-general of the Conference. The report of the Expert Group Meeting focused on: society and family planning; review of existing family planning programs and lessons learned; issues related to implementation of family planning programs (quality of services and human resource development, unreached population groups, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative technologies, community-based distribution systems and social marketing of contraceptives, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); family planning and health (safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS); family planning, family well-being (family size, structure and child development, fertility decline and family support systems); people's involvement in family planning programs (community participation in family planning, cost of contraceptive supplies and services and cost-sharing, contraceptive research and development and re-examination of the roles of governments, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in family planning). In formulating 35 recommendations the Expert Group focused on identifying practical measures that could broaden the scope of family planning programs and make them more effective and efficient to satisfy the unmet reproductive needs of women. The Expert Group considered the international declarations and agreements concerning the roles of family planning in improving the status of women, health of mothers and children, and the environment.
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  7. 7
    119949

    Antenatal care. Report of a Technical Working Group, Geneva, 31 October - 4 November 1994.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Family and Reproductive Health. Maternal and Newborn Health / Safe Motherhood

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Family and Reproductive Health, 1996. [3], 29 p. (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.8)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) convened the Technical Working Group on Antenatal Care in Geneva for October 31-November 4, 1994. The group focused on developing recommendations on antenatal care (i.e., outlining the tasks and procedures for health workers to follow and skills of the health worker) and on examining how to optimize antenatal care in terms of clinical tasks and procedures in relationship to the timing of the visits, distance to referral centers, and frequency of attendance. Group members agreed that antenatal care significantly contributes to maternal and perinatal health and is a critical component of care for mothers and infants, together with family planning, clean and safe delivery, and essential obstetric care. Group presentations included organization of antenatal care in India, US Expert Panel on the content of antenatal care, the background and rationale for the WHO randomized clinical trial of antenatal care, development and implementation of the antenatal care protocol for the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the potential impact of antenatal care on maternal and perinatal mortality in Malawi from the perspective of midwifery, the current draft of the Mother-Baby Package, and maternal health care. Participants divided into three subgroups to formulate recommendations: normal pregnancy, risk factors for poor maternal or fetal outcome; and medical conditions and complications of pregnancy. They considered the constraints of many countries when they identified the minimum level of care needed in terms of the number (4), length (20 minutes), and content (assessment [history, physical examination, and laboratory tests], health promotion, and care provision) of antenatal visits. They agreed that women with high-risk pregnancies or pregnancy complications will need more antenatal care visits. Participants wanted to emphasize the key role of counseling skills in the delivery of effective care. Additional recommendations were made.
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  8. 8
    116572
    Peer Reviewed

    Cervical cancer control in developing countries: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    World Health Organization [WHO] Consultation on the Control of Cervical Cancer in Developing Countries (1994: New Delhi)

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1996; 74(4):345-51.

    This memorandum summarizes the report of a World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on the Control of Cervical Cancer in Developing Countries held in November 1994 in New Delhi, India. The WHO international study group analyzes and evaluates the feasibility and validity of various low-cost strategies for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings compared with cytology (i.e., Pap smear). It focuses on the effect of health education and empowerment of women and the effect of the clinical downstaging approach (i.e., simple visual inspection of the cervix of asymptomatic women). The group agreed on a model protocol for a controlled randomized study designed to evaluate the applicability and cost-effectiveness of different approaches to the early detection of cervical cancer in developing countries. The protocol consists of four study arms: control group, health education only group, health education and visual inspection, and health education and Pap smears. The participants analyzed experiences from the UK, South Africa (Cape Town and Orange Free State), India (Delhi and Bangalore), and Nordic countries (Sweden and Finland). They also examined prospective studies on cervical cancer screening in Zimbabwe, the UK, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Brazil, and Malaysia. Clinicians and public health officials need to recognize cervical cancer as a major but soluble health problem among women in most developing countries. Health education about cervical cancer, its signs and symptoms, and its curability as well as health education about their own reproductive health could empower women and therefore have a major impact. Availability of standard therapy and appropriate management and effective early detection and referral policies are needed to minimize morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. Researchers need to conduct controlled studies to examine ways that are most effective in empowering women. Visual inspection and quality controlled cytology screening should be evaluated. Early detection and other clinical aspects should be done simultaneously.
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  9. 9
    114872

    Integration of health care delivery. Report of a WHO study group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Integration of Health Care Delivery

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1996; (861):i-v, 1-68.

    This volume presents the report of a World Health Organization (WHO) study group on the integration of health care delivery that met in October 1994. The objectives of the study group were 1) to review, analyze, and compare successful and innovative experiences in the development of integrated health systems (IHS) (particularly at the district level); 2) to identify the major issues requiring attention; and 3) to propose a model of a functional IHS, a strategy for countries to adopt, and recommendations about ways the WHO can support these efforts. Accordingly, this volume opens with an introduction that provides background information. The second chapter sets out the above objectives. Chapter 3 provides a framework for analysis of IHS that includes a definition of IHS, presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of integration, and examples of integration. The fourth chapter discusses the evolution toward integration in terms of the development of primary health care (PHC) as an IHS, current trends and issues, and changes in health policies affecting integration. Chapter 5 reviews country experiences of IHS and looks at outcomes and expected gains in efficiency, productivity, health status, user satisfaction, user convenience, and equity. The sixth chapter provides a model of a district-level IHS based on PHC that includes its components and implementation issues such as planning, decentralization, community involvement, objectives, goals, priority-setting, indicators, human resources, and multisectoral integration. Chapter 7 considers issues affecting integration including problems (caused by changing public health slogans, the definition of PHC, the top-down approach to health planning, and piecemeal solutions to complex problems), challenges (such as the relationship between health care institutions, capacity-building, incentives, developing unity of purpose, community action for integration, and health systems research), and obstacles to change. The final chapter contains a plan of action that proposes guidelines for international action to promote IHS and for national and district-level strategies and plans of action.
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  10. 10
    145358

    Draft statement on human settlements.

    International Peace Research Association

    [Unpublished] 1996 Feb. [5] p.

    As a consequence of over three decades of peace research dealing with among other relevant topics, militarization and development, human rights and the sustainability of communities, the International Peace Research Association suggested the following purposes and recommendations be incorporated into the Plan of Action by Habitat II. In the process of reduction and elimination of armed violence, general and complete disarmament must become the goal and guidelines must be set for all arms negotiations; conflict resolution and peacekeeping should be the basis for policies and international legal precedents and agreements. Moreover, the conversion of the global war economy is essential to sustainable human settlements. Hence, economic decision making should be democratized; structural adjustment policies should be reviewed and amended; military expenditures should be reduced; and there should be conversion from military to civil sector economies. In addition, demilitarization of society can aid in the pursuit of sustainable development and the achievement of peaceful human settlements. Principal steps in this process include human rights education and conflict resolution training. Finally, the reconceptualization of security is necessary in setting in motion the three foregoing processes toward the achievement of truly sustainable, just and peaceful human settlements.
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  11. 11
    144987

    UNFPA and Habitat II.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [New York, New York], UNFPA, 1996 Jun 3. 76 p.

    This document reports the interest of the United Nation's Population Fund (UNFPA) in the Habitat II conference and, in particular, in the plan of action that will be decided upon in Istanbul. The Fund's primary objective is to increase awareness that the demographic future is not inevitable, that previous UN conferences have set out guideposts for reaching a more favorable outcome by addressing the basic social needs of individuals and families. In order to bring population-settlement linkages to the fore, UNFPA has actively involved itself in preparatory activities for Habitat II. The list of UNFPA activities includes participation in the Habitat Preparatory Committee and the intersessional Informal Drafting Group. UNFPA has rendered support to the general work of the conference secretariat by financing one senior post on a temporary basis. To move these linkages, UNFPA also sponsored various preparatory meetings, both globally and regionally. The Symposium on International Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries concerned: Implications for Habitat II held by UNFPA to proposed recommendations addressing issues on urban population growth and policies; vulnerable groups; sustainable land use; poverty reduction and employment creation; environmentally sustainable and healthy human settlement; improving urban economies; and balanced development in rural settlements. Aside from that, UNFPA also co-sponsored, along with the UN Center for Human Settlements (Habitat), another symposium entitled From Cairo to Istanbul: International Symposium on Human Settlements to draft recommendations on the linkages with the environment and implications of aging population.
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  12. 12
    140207

    Advancement of women: Argentina, Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guinea-Bissau, Marshall Islands, Philippines and Portugal: draft resolution. Violence against women migrant workers.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1996 Nov 5. 4 p. (A/C.3/51/L.17)

    This UN resolution opens by recalling previous resolutions about violence against women migrant workers, the conclusions of world conferences, and the report of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights that all emphasize the importance of protecting the human rights of vulnerable groups. The resolution also notes that large numbers of women cross international borders seeking work and that both sending and receiving states benefit from this activity. The resolution expresses concern about continued acts of violence taken by employers against women migrant workers and notes that some receiving states have taken measures to alleviate the plight of these women. The resolution acknowledges the report of the Secretary-General on violence against women migrant workers and a 1996 expert meeting held in the Philippines. In accord with the UN's determination to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls, the resolution encourages Member States to enact protective legislation; periodically review the implementation of this legislation to ensure its effectiveness; consider adopting legislative sanctions against intermediaries who exploit women migrant workers; conduct regular consultations to identify problems; and sign, ratify, or accede to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the 1926 Slavery Convention. The resolution also recommends ways the UN community can address this problem.
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  13. 13
    140210

    Action Programme 1997-1999. Resolutions and recommendations adopted at the IAW XXX Congress, Calcutta, India, December 1996. Declaration of principle. Programme d'Action 1997-1999 base sur les resolutions et les recommandations adoptees au 30eme Congres Triennal de l'AIF de Calcutta, en Indes, en Decembre 1996. Declaration de principe.

    International Alliance of Women

    [Unpublished] 1996. [4] p.

    This document, which presents the priority action program for 1997-99 of the International Alliance of Women (IAW), opens by affirming the principle that women's rights are human rights and that human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. The document also calls on all affiliate and associate organizations to monitor fulfillment of the commitment of 189 UN-member states to implementation of the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific priority actions are then described in five areas. First, governments and IAW member organizations are urged to promote the maximum participation of women in political life by supporting women's civil and political rights. Second, governments and the mass media are asked to eradicate illiteracy among women (and promote legal literacy) and overcome the prejudice that bars girls' access to schools. Third, the document notes that poverty disproportionately affects women and requests governments, communities, and member organizations to take specific steps to help women overcome poverty. Next, the document calls for establishment of an International Convention on the Elimination of Violence against Women and Children and identifies steps that should be taken to eradicate trafficking in women and children, domestic violence, and violence in general. Finally, the document calls on governments to protect women's health by taking specific actions, such as implementing reproductive rights, promoting healthy nutrition, and eradicating substance abuse.
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  14. 14
    138255

    An action plan for population, development and the environment.

    Gelbard AH

    WW ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND SECURITY PROJECT REPORT. 1996 Spring; (2):18-27.

    Despite a 30-year decline in the rate of population growth, population momentum remains responsible for the largest annual increase in population ever seen, and future population growth will be influenced by how well couples can realize their family size goals, the extent to which preferred family size exceeds replacement-level fertility, and the age women begin childbearing in combination with birth spacing practices. Many, but not all, scientists and foreign policy experts are concerned about the impact of this growth on the environment and on natural resource allocation. Additional concerns are raised about the impact on economic development and sustainable development. In 1994, national academies of science from 58 countries issued an appeal for development of an integrated policy on world population and sustainable development. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) heeded that appeal and adopted a Program of Action (POA) in which more than 180 countries agreed to take certain actions to stabilize population growth and achieve sustainable development. Challenges to implementing the ICPD POA include 1) getting people to pay attention to global and national population issues, 2) overcoming the blocking tactics of some groups who did not agree with all of the POA's elements, 3) obtaining the necessary funding, and 4) overcoming the challenges to governments and the private sector posed by the necessity to create new partnerships between the two. Fortunately, the range of choices in the POA will allow each country to select the appropriate mix to overcome these constraints.
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  15. 15
    137847

    Four TDR diseases can be "eliminated".

    TDR NEWS. 1996 Mar; (49):1-2.

    A UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) expert meeting has concluded that the means already exist with which to eliminate 4 of the 8 diseases which TDR originally identified as public health problems. Elimination in this case refers to reducing the number of cases of disease to a small and routinely manageable number. The diseases capable of being eliminated with existing tools are leprosy, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and Chagas disease. Leprosy can be eliminated through the use of multidrug therapy, onchocerciasis through the administration of ivermectin, lymphatic filariasis through the use of DEC and ivermectin, and Chagas disease through the rational use of insecticides and the control of blood banks. Malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis, however, must await better tools before their elimination can be attempted. TDR's role in identifying how to eliminate each of these diseases is described. Meeting attendees identified additional avenues of operational research upon which TDR should embark.
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  16. 16
    137840

    Meeting on insecticide-impregnated materials.

    TDR NEWS. 1996 Jun; (50):3.

    Malaria causes considerable morbidity and mortality in Africa, killing 1.5-2.7 million people on the continent annually. A meeting on insecticide-impregnated materials was held at the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) during March 18-20, 1996, to promote the use of insecticide-impregnated materials by communities in Africa, review and discuss the results of recently conducted studies in the Africa Region on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in malaria control, examine the best ways of implementing the wide-scale use of insecticide-impregnated materials under differing epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions, discuss major operational research priorities, and make recommendations for the promotion and wide use of insecticide-impregnated materials by malaria control programs and communities. The meeting was jointly organized by the WHO Division of Control of Tropical Diseases (CTD), the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), and AFRO, and attended by experts, malaria control program managers, private sector representatives, nongovernmental organizations, and technical and scientific institutions. Conclusions and recommendations include the need to assess whether pregnant women could benefit from the use of ITNs. Elements of the successful implementation of sustained malaria control activities involving the use of ITNs are listed. Problems encountered in the large-scale implementation of ITNs in Africa should be addressed collaboratively at the regional and global levels, and coordinated by WHO.
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  17. 17
    132638

    All India Women's Conference Seminar on Habitat II and Human Settlement.

    ROSHNI. 1996 Jan-Jun; 1-3.

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the All India Women's Conference and the UN Information Center's Regional Seminar on Human Settlement which was held in 1996. The conference was attended by about 100 persons and 20 speakers. The main topics were megacities and infrastructure deficits; governance, poverty, and employment; and the role of women and nongovernmental organizations in human settlements. The article identifies 24 recommendations on community participation by women: the availability of drinking water and sanitation, access to schools and health care, provision of sanitary facilities, training programs for women in basic health care and hygiene, toilet facilities in slums and rural areas, housing provision for the poor, income generation programs for women, shelter to the homeless, available housing, equity in political representation and elections, sustainable development, rural development, resettlement of slum dwellers, improvements in quality of life, female ownership of housing, networking, and integrated approaches to the concept of habitat, among others. This regional conference followed up the Global Habitat II Conference. Provision of housing and shelters to millions worldwide will require creative programs, adequate financial support, and dedication to the ideals of Habitat II.
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  18. 18
    136422

    Sanitation in emergency situations. Proceedings of an international workshop, held in Oxford, December 1995.

    Adams J

    Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 51 p. (Oxfam Working Paper)

    This report presents summaries of plenaries, workshop papers, working group discussions, and a complete list of recommendations from the December 1995 International Inter-Agency Workshop on Sanitation in Emergency Situations. The 45 participants included delegates from nongovernmental organizations, UN organizations, the Red Cross, and independent sanitation workers. The aim was to discuss organizational and technical problems and to agree on operating principles, program implementation, and recommendations. The workshop papers focused on: principles for better sanitation, excreta disposal kits, first-phase excreta disposal, latrine construction, excreta disposal on difficult sites, emergency solid waste management/disposal, vector control, personal hygiene and water collection-storage, drainage and washing-bathing facilities, sanitation in enclosed centers, environmental impact, community participation, staff training, and evaluations. The discussions addressed topics on the principles for sanitation promotion in emergencies, first-phase excreta disposal, second phase and longer excreta disposal, off-site/on-site excreta disposal, flow charts for emergency excreta disposal for many specific conditions, refuse disposal, hygiene education, personal hygiene kits, vector control, hygiene facilities, environmental impact, sanitation in enclosed centers, and staff training. Priority should be given to sanitation techniques and guidelines for improving practices; initial assessments of emergency situations; and sanitation. Improvements are needed in information exchanges, community participation, and staff training. Five other recommendations are discussed.
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  19. 19
    136418

    New challenges for public health. Report of an interregional meeting, Geneva, 27-30 November 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [2], 90 p. (WHO/HRH/96.4)

    This booklet contains the report of a 1995 Interregional Meeting on New Public Health convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to 1) consider the new challenges to public health rising from globalization, new diseases and epidemics, entrenched public health concerns, changing societal values, and the lack of new social sector resources and 2) formulate possible responses to these challenges. After an introduction, the report opens by reprinting a paper on the new public health and WHO's ninth general program of work, which was prepared to stimulate discussion at the meeting. The next section summarizes discussions during the meeting. Consideration of the context of public health looked at 1) the new public health and key determinants of health; 2) poverty, equity, and intersectoral partnerships; and 3) the role of WHO. Consideration of the content of public health included 1) a semantic debate on the "new" public health; 2) the content of the new public health; and 3) new public health challenges and responses. A discussion of education and research focused on training venues, the core content of training, and diversity of the public health work force. For each of these topics, the report includes specific statements adopted by the meeting. Finally, the report offers four recommendations to schools of public health, four to the WHO, and five to national governments.
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  20. 20
    135865

    Training for advocacy. Report of the Inter-Regional Advocacy Training Workshop held in Nairobi in March 1996.

    Hawkins C

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 16, [2] p.

    This document reports on the Inter-regional Advocacy Training Workshop held by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Nairobi, Kenya in 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to train trainers in the advocacy skills needed to advocate for the IPPF's "Vision 2000" goals. Specific objectives of the workshop included drafting an advocacy plan of action, identifying training needs and support, replicating the training project, and exchanging experiences. The report opens with background information explaining why advocacy is important to the IPPF and an introduction to the workshop. The report then covers the skills of clarifying advocacy, reaching consensus in the organization, coalition building, making the most of the mass media, and dealing with the opposition. Next, the report presents a case study of the successful work of the Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) in advocating eradication of female genital mutilation. The report continues by discussing the skills of organizing political lobbying, mobilizing resources, evaluating advocacy, and drafting strategic advocacy plans. The report ends by recommending that 1) FPAs receive specific training to embark on advocacy programs, 2) a training module be developed, 3) the IPPF's Advocacy Guide include definitions of advocacy concepts, 4) the IPPF adopt clear and uniform definitions of concepts throughout all of its documents, 5) workshops allow for close interaction with the participants' objectives, 6) advocacy materials be pretested, and 7) regular exchanges of experiences be arranged.
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  21. 21
    133552

    Gender inequality in human development: theories and measurement.

    Anand S; Sen A

    In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 1-19.

    This background note, prepared for the 1995 version of the UN Development Program's "Human Development Report," 1) explores and makes specific recommendations about a methodology for developing a framework for "gender-equity-sensitive indicators" of achievements and freedoms; 2) considers the formulation and utilization of measures of gender equality and inequality; and 3) looks at the identification of efforts and contributions made by women that have gone unrecognized in standard national income and employment statistics. After an introductory section, the paper develops equations that focus on gender differentials in achievement in areas such as literacy where the "potentials" of men and women do not differ. The next section considers equations that integrate a differential scaling into the general evaluative scheme of gender-equity-sensitive indexes to take into account cases where the "potentials" do differ, such as mortality rates and life expectancy. Section 4 presents the case for differentiating the earnings of women and men, and the next section offers a "corrected" version of the Human Development Index that considers the extent of social preference for equality and results in a "gender-related development index." After applying a more intense look to the type of information offered through use of the gender-equity-sensitive indicators and pointing out that this proposed methodology does not depend upon use of the classic human development indicators, three appendices offer a more general discussion and proofs of the major results.
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  22. 22
    133912

    Toward environmentally sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa: a World Bank agenda.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1996. xvi, 140 p. (Development in Practice)

    This World Bank publication considers why and how the downward spiral of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa must be reversed to reduce poverty through the maintenance and sustainable use of the capital of natural resources and through sound environmental management. The first part of the book explores the key environmental issues and long-term perspective through an examination of 1) obstacles on the path to sustainable development in the region, 2) subregional diversity and environmental hot spots, and 3) a 30-year projection of future challenges. Part 2 presents the World Bank's experience in integrating the environment in development with a look at 1) country and World Bank experiences in achieving environmentally sustainable development, 2) integrating environmental issues in World Bank projects and programs, and 3) the World Bank's environmental capacity and lessons learned. The third part presents the World Bank's proposed agenda to promote environmentally sustainable development in sections that cover 1) objectives and strategy, 2) implementation issues, 3) mainstreaming environmental concerns into the World Bank's work, and 4) the plan of action. An appendix describes current World Bank environmental projects in the region.
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  23. 23
    133499

    Inter-Agency Working Group on Participation meetings hosted by UNDP, September 17-18, 1996, New York City, NY.

    Bhattacharyya K

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1996. [8] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to BASICS participation at a meeting of the Interagency Learning Group on Participation (IGP) hosted by the UN Development Program in New York City, on September 17-18, 1996. Participants included UNICEF, the World Bank, Overseas Development Assistance, Asian Development Bank, USAID, and other international organizations. This was the first time that BASICS was included in the meetings to share their community participatory experiences and to explore opportunities for collaboration. The meeting was the third of its kind. IGP is a voluntary group without a budget who represent multilateral, bilateral, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The IGP is concerned with institutional change and creating awareness of the value of participatory approaches; training and country-level capacity building; information and dissemination; and monitoring and evaluation. The UNDP administrator emphasized the need to focus on more information disclosure for donors and NGOs, the context of increasing decentralization, legal frameworks for the empowerment of women, and the importance of democratization. Most of the presentations focused on the internal institutional constraints to promoting and implementing participation in the field. The logical framework approach does not lend itself to participatory development. UNICEF ran workshops in 3 countries on how to use a more participatory manner in country programs, but after 6 months trainees still had difficulty with applications. Internal policies and procedures, lack of tools for monitoring, a need to change staff attitudes, specific country context, and institutional capacity to identify and work with the right partners were all problems. An NGO in India, cautioned against too much participation. Smaller plenary discussions focused on dealing with conflict, outcomes, redistribution of power, the public good, and village logbooks.
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  24. 24
    128380

    The recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development: the possibility of the empowerment of women in Egypt.

    Jewett J

    CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL. 1996; 29(1):191-223.

    This paper opens by pointing out that Muslim support of the recommendations contained in the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was gained only because ICPD participants agreed that individual country compliance would be limited by national constitutional statutes and religious doctrine. If Egypt interprets the ICPD's "full respect for ... religious and ethical values and cultural backgrounds" to mean "limited by" these factors, Egyptian women will remain unable to control their fertility. After this introduction, the first section of the paper summarizes the ICPD recommendations. Part 2 describes Islamic notions of women's role in society, and the third part shows how these ideas are mirrored in Egyptian society through an analysis of the importance of family and motherhood, Egyptian sexual standards, the veiling of women, and female genital mutilation. Part 4 considers the Islamic influence on Egyptian law, and the fifth part outlines past Egyptian efforts to achieve equality between the sexes. The paper ends by presenting the reforms that Egypt will have to institute to implement the ICPD recommendations. These include eliminating laws that perpetuate traditional gender roles and sexual standards. Egypt will also have to promote education as a key to empowering women and implementing the ICPD recommendations. It is also noted that women's organizations must play a key role in the reform process and that the process must take Islamic law into account.
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  25. 25
    121568

    Strengthening commitment towards ICPD and Beijing conference.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1996 Sep-Oct; 16(5):1-2.

    120 people, including 45 parliamentarians and some senior officials of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Population and Environment, and the Ministry of Women and Social Welfare participated in the Family Planning Association of Nepal seminar/workshop held on October 5-6, 1996, to strengthen commitment toward other commitments made in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the recent international conference on women held in Beijing. The seminar was organized to highlight the commitments made in the two conferences and their relationship to development and the social well-being of the Nepalese, to evaluate the achievements and progress made in the context, and to further commit toward implementing and formulating policies and programs relevant to the program and platform of action. Nepal's Prime Minister explained that Nepal is fully committed to implementing the recommendations of the two conferences. Development will not occur unless women become involved at the planning and implementation levels. Some of the major recommendations made in the workshop are presented.
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