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  1. 1

    Meeting on training in reproductive health for CCEE / NIS. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 26-28 June 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. [5], 15 p. (EUR/ICP/FMLY 94 03/MT04; EUR/HFA Target 16)

    Responding to the needs for training in reproductive health, European public health training programmes have been increasingly offering training to participants from countries of central and eastern Europe/newly independent states of the former Soviet Union (CCEE/NIS). The WHO Regional Office for Europe convened a meeting to identify ways to better coordinate and cooperate in efforts made by the various schools, institutions and organizations with courses in reproductive health. After an overview of the current situation in reproductive health in CCEE/NIS (including the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS) and a summary of the relevant research activities in the Region, participants presented their training programmes and discussed training objectives for the future. Two working groups were formed to address clinical/research and management/behavioural training needs, respectively. Finally, the participants drew conclusions and made recommendations on ways to better coordinate training activities and facilitate twinning arrangements between relevant organizations, calling for coordination by WHO and the establishment of a clearing-house based in the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Governments, donors and individuals were called upon to support and advocate reproductive health programmes and services. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Trends in substance use and associated health problems.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996 Aug. 6 p. (Fact Sheet N 127)

    This fact sheet presents trends in substance use and associated health problems, facts about alcohol, tobacco addiction, and WHO programs that address these social problems.
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  3. 3

    Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2nd ed. Volume 2. Health criteria and other supporting information.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. International Programme on Chemical Safety

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. xvi, 973 p.

    The first edition (1984-85) of guidelines for drinking water quality was intended for use as a basis for the development of national standards to ensure the elimination--or significant reduction--of constituents of water known to be hazardous to health. This revised edition includes many drinking water contaminants not included in the earlier book and revises some of the recommended guideline values in light of new scientific information. This volume explains how guideline values for drinking water contaminants are to be used; defines the criteria used to select the chemical, physical, microbiological, and radiological contaminants included; and evaluates the effects of these substances on human health. The guidelines presented were developed by over 200 experts from 40 countries. It is emphasized that guideline values should be considered in the context of environmental, social, economic, and cultural conditions rather than as absolutes. Moreover, guideline values are recommended only when control techniques are available to remove or reduce contaminant concentrations to desired levels. Source protection is almost invariably the best method of ensuring safe drinking water.
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  4. 4

    Malaria control in Africa: a framework for the implementation of the regional malaria control strategy 1996-2001.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 1996. 35 p.

    Nearly 18% of Africans live under the threat of epidemic malaria and 30-35% of health service consultations are malaria-related. About 70-80% of malaria cases in Africa are currently treated outside the formal health care system, with traditional medicine or self-medication. The Interregional Malaria Conference, held in Brazzaville in 1991, adopted a new regional strategy for malaria control in Africa based on early diagnosis and prompt treatment, anti-vector activities wherever sustainable and cost-effective, forecast and prevention of epidemics, and integration of antimalarial activities into primary health care. This document assesses progress toward these goals and outlines a malaria prevention and control strategy for 1996-2001. The action strategy for the coming period focuses on reducing malaria-related mortality and morbidity and socioeconomic losses through a gradual strengthening of local and national capacities. Key strategies include integration of malaria control in overall disease control at the district level, strengthening the community role, and formation of partnerships. This will require support for program and case management, training in malariology, monitoring and supervision, and technical and financial support to African countries. Monitoring indicators at the district level are the percentage of properly treated cases of malaria among children under 3 years old, availability of antimalarial drugs, and number of health workers trained in the management of different forms of malaria.
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  5. 5

    New challenges for public health. Report of an interregional meeting, Geneva, 27-30 November 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [2], 90 p. (WHO/HRH/96.4)

    This booklet contains the report of a 1995 Interregional Meeting on New Public Health convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to 1) consider the new challenges to public health rising from globalization, new diseases and epidemics, entrenched public health concerns, changing societal values, and the lack of new social sector resources and 2) formulate possible responses to these challenges. After an introduction, the report opens by reprinting a paper on the new public health and WHO's ninth general program of work, which was prepared to stimulate discussion at the meeting. The next section summarizes discussions during the meeting. Consideration of the context of public health looked at 1) the new public health and key determinants of health; 2) poverty, equity, and intersectoral partnerships; and 3) the role of WHO. Consideration of the content of public health included 1) a semantic debate on the "new" public health; 2) the content of the new public health; and 3) new public health challenges and responses. A discussion of education and research focused on training venues, the core content of training, and diversity of the public health work force. For each of these topics, the report includes specific statements adopted by the meeting. Finally, the report offers four recommendations to schools of public health, four to the WHO, and five to national governments.
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  6. 6

    Healthy Marketplaces.

    Moy G; Kaferstein FK; Motrajemi Y; Miyagawa S; Miyagishima K; Reilly A


    This article discusses approaches of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Healthy Cities Program (HCP) to create environments that are supportive to good health. Creation of healthy marketplaces is part of the HCP strategy. Marketplaces offer consumers low-cost fresh produce and other foods direct from the producers and ready-to-eat foods prepared by vendors. Marketplaces serve an important social role for exchanging ideas and information. These locations offer an opportunity for health education. Many marketplaces set a poor example with unsanitary conditions and unhygienic practices. A Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-WHO Expert Committee on Food Safety recommends drafting and enforcing food laws, provision of infrastructure and services, training and education of vendors, and increased consumer awareness. Hygiene should be equal to requirements for fixed facility retail stores. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a cost-effective method for assessing food safety and controlling health hazards. HACCP priorities take into consideration the physical and socioeconomic context and cultural characteristics of vendors and customers. A first step in ensuring food safety is the establishment of an organizational structure for implementing controls. Healthy marketplaces should include market administration, healthy sanitation and drainage, waste disposal, and education of food vendors and customers. The physical layout should provide the best conditions for preventing contamination.
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  7. 7

    WHO Healthy Cities Programme.

    Goldstein G; Kickbusch I


    This article identifies some urban health challenges and discusses World Health Organization (WHO) concepts of public health, a Municipal Health Plan, and the WHO Healthy Cities Program (HCP). A healthy city is defined as one that continually creates and improves the physical and social environment and expands community resources for enabling the mutual support among population groups for living. Urbanization is advancing rapidly, but government resources are not keeping pace with people's needs. By 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries faced life and health threats. There is poverty, inadequate food and shelter, insecure tenure, physical crowding, poor waste disposal, unsafe working conditions, inadequate local government services, overuse of harmful substances, and environmental pollution. Poor people in cities frequently must satisfy all their basic needs in health, welfare, and employment. There is exposure to early sexual activity of adolescents, transient relationships, high levels of prostitution, and limited birth control. Unsustainable use of natural resources and environmental destruction pose threats to urban productivity and restrict future development options. The WHO launched a "Health for All" campaign in 1978, based on 4 basic principles. The HCP, which is based on these principles, has expanded to many cities. It measures the health burden and makes health issues relevant and understandable to local agencies through analysis and policy advocacy. The Municipal Health Plan facilitates awareness of environmental and health problems in schools, work and marketplaces, health services, and among other organizations.
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  8. 8

    World Health Day 1996. Healthy cities for better life. Message from the Director-General of the World Health Organisation.

    Nakajima H


    This article describes the Healthy Cities Program (HCP) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Urban population is expected to continue to increase. Already, urban populations experience living conditions that are detrimental to their health. In 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries experienced the threat of lack of food, clean water, or shelter. City life poses routine risks of overcrowding, inadequate waste disposal, hazardous working conditions, polluted air, and street violence. By the year 2000, over 50% of global population will live in cities. The HCP aims to promote the implementation of conditions for improving urban health and solving environmental problems through local government action and community participation. In over 1000 cities, the HCP has been adopted as a viable model for promoting urban health, especially among low income groups. The concept has been expanded to other sectors. The program relies on multisectoral and participatory approaches, shared experiences, and national/regional networks that serve in the exchange of goods, services, technology, and information. A global network is emerging that includes WHO, the UN Center for Human Settlements, UNDP, the International Labor Organization, and the World Bank. Habitat II will be held in 1996, in Istanbul, and will focus on the HCP. The health of urban population poses challenges to local government authorities.
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  9. 9

    The world health report 1996: fighting disease, fostering development. Report of the Director-General.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. vi, 137 p.

    The World Health Report 1996 confirms that infectious diseases have not only become the world's leading cause of premature death, but they also threaten to cripple social and economic development in Third World countries. An estimated 17 million persons die from these largely preventable diseases each year. The spread of infectious diseases has been intensified by changes in human behavior, climate, ecology, land use patterns, economic development, international migration, and travel, as well as by inadequate public health infrastructures for monitoring and responding to disease outbreaks and overuse of antibiotics. Recommended is a global response comprised of a renewed attack on diseases that are already targets for eradication or elimination, improved surveillance and laboratory facilities for rapid recognition, intensive research on new and emerging diseases, and health education on personal hygiene and food safety. Recent outbreaks of cholera, plague, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever led the World Health Organization to set the goal of having a team of experts at the location of an outbreak within 24 hours of notification. The first priority in infectious disease control should be continuation of efforts to eradicate or eliminate diseases such as poliomyelitis, guinea worm, leprosy, neonatal tetanus, and Chagas disease. The second priority, related to "old" diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria that are acquiring drug resistance, entails removing the disease source and researching better treatment regimens. Finally, the third priority area concerns research on the source and natural history of newly emerging diseases.
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  10. 10

    Assessing the human rights impact.

    Gruskin S

    In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 337-8.

    The Global AIDS Policy Coalition and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have created an international working group to assess the human rights impact of policies, programs, and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In mid-1995, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the Francis-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights (Harvard University) published "AIDS, Health, and Human Rights," which includes an explanation of a methodology for balancing public health objectives with human rights norms. This brief article displays a schematic diagram in 2 x 2 format; human rights quality is on the vertical axis, while public health quality is on the horizontal axis. Both axes range from poor (negative) to excellent (positive). The quadrants, beginning in the upper right and moving vertically down, are labelled A and B, respectively; those beginning in the upper left and moving vertically down, are labelled C and D, respectively. The process involves four steps: 1) locate the proposed policy or program on the horizontal axis (public health) based entirely on health benefits, risks, and harms that will ensue; 2) locate the proposed policy or program on the vertical axis (human rights) based entirely on the potential benefits and burdens on human rights that will ensue; 3) determine an approach that best moves the policy or program into quadrant A, achieving the optimal balance between protection of public health and protection and promotion of human rights and dignity (minimizing the burdens on human rights); 4) review the approach, determined in step 3, searching for better alternative approaches.
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