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EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 13; 1, 10.Various concepts of the family, reproductive health, and women's empowerment, issues thought settled at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Beijing Conference, were again debated in Istanbul. The family was recognized at the ICPD as the basic unit of society, albeit with its varying forms around the world. Beijing reaffirmed the definition after some discussion. However, during the Habitat II preparatory process, an attempt was made to focus upon the concept of the family as the basic societal unit and to place the reference to its various forms elsewhere. While paragraph 18 of the Habitat Agenda which deals with the issue was largely cleared at the third preparatory meeting, the language on various forms of the family remains in brackets, to be negotiated in Istanbul. References to reproductive health are in brackets in paragraphs 87 and 96. Debate over the definition of gender in Beijing and during the Habitat process was finally settled in favor of the existing UN understanding of the meaning of the word. Other controversies on gender issues remain to be settled.
Reproductive health programs supported by USAID: a progress report on implementing the Cairo Program of Action.
[Washington, D.C.], USAID, 1996 May. , 20 p.This report details progress made by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in implementing the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The report contains an introduction and an overview of the USAID program. USAID reproductive health programs have: 1) provided leadership for a supportive policy environment through multilateral, regional, and country-level initiatives; 2) developed innovative techniques for operations, biomedical, social science research and for evaluation; and 3) implemented reproductive health programs that promote access and quality in family planning and other reproductive health services, maternal health, women's nutrition, postabortion care, breast feeding, sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention and control, integrated reproductive health programs, programs and services for youth, prevention of such harmful practices as female genital mutilation, male involvement, reproductive health for refugees and displaced people, and involvement of women in the design and management of programs. USAID programs to advance girls' and women's education and empowerment have forwarded women's legal and political rights, increased access to credit, and developed integrated programs for women. Priority challenges and directions for the future include: 1) determining the feasibility, costs, and effectiveness of reproductive health interventions; 2) improving understanding of reproductive health behavior; 3) continuing development of service delivery strategies; and 4) mobilizing resources for reproductive health.
HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1996 Apr; 6(1):101-3.The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action mainly focuses upon empowering women so that they can make their own reproductive decisions using contraception and health care provided by health systems. However, male reproductive health also should be considered, thereby requiring attention to urology and infertility, as well as gynecology in the reproductive health services. The program of action, however, fails to consider men except for when they are asked to support women. Men are asked to support and not interfere with women, consistent with the North American feminist demand that women have total control. The authors consider the truth about the prevailing generalities about men's and women's roles and relationships. Their positions are based upon ethnographic field research among working-class people in Istanbul during 1994 and 1995. The narratives assembled through their research warn against presuming knowledge of whether the man or the woman controls fertility. One cannot say that the use of male methods of contraception means that men have absolute power over fertility control.