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POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 22(3):594-600.This article discusses and reproduces two documents that outline the population goals of the UN. The first document is the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) new mission statement, which was revised in April 1996 to reflect the strategy contained in the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The mission statement defines the three areas of concern to UNFPA as 1) working toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health by the year 2015, 2) supporting capacity-building in population programming, and 3) promoting awareness of population and development issues and advocating for the mobilization of resources and political will to address these issues. The mission statement affirms the commitment of UNFPA to reproductive rights, gender equity and male responsibility, and the empowerment of women as development goals. Finally, the statement acknowledges the responsibility of UNFPA in overseeing the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and in assisting in the mobilization of resources to meet the ICPD goals. The second document is the "Common Advocacy Statement on Population and Development" adopted to establish a commonly-shared language for the entire UN system and to integrate population into all UN development strategies. This statement defines sectoral linkages between population and poverty eradication, environmental protection, food security, women's empowerment, employment, education, and health. The ICPD Programme of Action's quantitative goals in the areas of education, mortality reduction (covering infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy), and reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health) are annexed to the statement.
Action Programme 1997-1999. Resolutions and recommendations adopted at the IAW XXX Congress, Calcutta, India, December 1996. Declaration of principle. Programme d'Action 1997-1999 base sur les resolutions et les recommandations adoptees au 30eme Congres Triennal de l'AIF de Calcutta, en Indes, en Decembre 1996. Declaration de principe.
[Unpublished] 1996.  p.This document, which presents the priority action program for 1997-99 of the International Alliance of Women (IAW), opens by affirming the principle that women's rights are human rights and that human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. The document also calls on all affiliate and associate organizations to monitor fulfillment of the commitment of 189 UN-member states to implementation of the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific priority actions are then described in five areas. First, governments and IAW member organizations are urged to promote the maximum participation of women in political life by supporting women's civil and political rights. Second, governments and the mass media are asked to eradicate illiteracy among women (and promote legal literacy) and overcome the prejudice that bars girls' access to schools. Third, the document notes that poverty disproportionately affects women and requests governments, communities, and member organizations to take specific steps to help women overcome poverty. Next, the document calls for establishment of an International Convention on the Elimination of Violence against Women and Children and identifies steps that should be taken to eradicate trafficking in women and children, domestic violence, and violence in general. Finally, the document calls on governments to protect women's health by taking specific actions, such as implementing reproductive rights, promoting healthy nutrition, and eradicating substance abuse.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. , 90 p. (WHO/HRH/96.4)This booklet contains the report of a 1995 Interregional Meeting on New Public Health convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to 1) consider the new challenges to public health rising from globalization, new diseases and epidemics, entrenched public health concerns, changing societal values, and the lack of new social sector resources and 2) formulate possible responses to these challenges. After an introduction, the report opens by reprinting a paper on the new public health and WHO's ninth general program of work, which was prepared to stimulate discussion at the meeting. The next section summarizes discussions during the meeting. Consideration of the context of public health looked at 1) the new public health and key determinants of health; 2) poverty, equity, and intersectoral partnerships; and 3) the role of WHO. Consideration of the content of public health included 1) a semantic debate on the "new" public health; 2) the content of the new public health; and 3) new public health challenges and responses. A discussion of education and research focused on training venues, the core content of training, and diversity of the public health work force. For each of these topics, the report includes specific statements adopted by the meeting. Finally, the report offers four recommendations to schools of public health, four to the WHO, and five to national governments.
EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 June 12; 13.UNICEF Senior Urban Advisor, Ximena de la Barra, spoke at the conference, "Women and Children in Urban Poverty - What Way Out?," on the need to fight the social and economic circumstances which are conducive to poor health. She also discussed how the promotion of productivity, rather than well-being, often results in the exploitation of the poor, including children. Economic growth within the framework of the current development model is failing to reduce poverty. Rather, society has simply become more polarized. It is inexcusable that half of child mortality in Southeast Asia is due to malnutrition, especially when the US and some European countries block other countries from producing food which could otherwise be consumed abroad by people in need. Countries need to invest in their women and children. Field Director for PLAN International and the President of Dunn Nutrition Group also spoke at the UNICEF workshop.
In: A woman's world: beyond the headlines, edited by Mary Van Lieshout. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 119-28.This document, the 11th chapter in a book that conceptualizes a woman's world by focusing on women's daily battle for basic rights as well as their challenge to global poverty and violence, describes Oxfam interventions in Afghanistan, where the ongoing conflict has created a "semipermanent emergency." The introduction outlines the setting and the source of the current instability in Afghanistan as well as Oxfam's work in Afghanistan since 1989. The next section describes the situation encountered by the people living in Kabul and the specific effects of the conflict and degrees of poverty suffered by the most vulnerable groups (widows and their families, disabled people and their families, elderly people living alone, and urban nomads). In the next section, the chapter looks at the restrictions faced by women and the results of an informal exercise carried out by Oxfam that examined the lives of women in the area of the city that had been most affected by the conflict. Anecdotal information gathered for this exercise from more than 800 women during October and November of 1995 shed light on the difficulty women were having in securing an income, the measures taken to assure survival, the contribution of children, and difficulties in securing adequate shelter. The chapter ends with a consideration of the difficulties faced by international agencies that are working in Kabul and are attempting to meet large-scale needs without a bilateral aid regime and in the absence of any long-term UN development program.
EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 May 30; 5.This article summarizes Nafis Sadik's UN Population Fund (UNFPA) report entitled "The 1996 State of the World Population." The report was released immediately preceding the international summit on Habitat II in Istanbul, Turkey. The 76 page report focused on descriptions of the urbanization process, city life, and strategies and issues for improving cities. The report includes only 9 pages of tables. The UNFPA director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, commented to a reporter that the report was key to alerting the world to urban issues. The report reminds countries of their obligations and commitments made at earlier international conferences. During 1990-96, there have been a number of UN conferences that focused on world issues. The Children's Summit was held in 1990. At that time, the goal was on shifting the international development agenda's focus toward the needs of people and on intercountry cooperation. Many national issues have a global dimension. The issues of gender equality/equity emerged as key to achieving development objectives. Human rights should not be obstructed by cultural, social, or religious values imposed on women. The 1995 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was successful through the inputs of nongovernmental organizations and women. ICPD and the Beijing Conference reinforced the need to invest in and equip people for dealing with their own futures. Dr. Sadik encouraged governments to increase funding for development assistance. UNFPA wants more people to protest female genital mutilation.
Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences.
The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1996. 23 p. (NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series 13)This document contains the text of the 1996 Hofstee Lecture organized by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. The 1996 lecture, entitled "Population and Development Linkages: New Research Priorities after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences," was delivered by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Dr. Sadik suggested that research is needed to explore 1) the interrelations between population, sustainable development, and the environment and 2) to improve design and implementation of more effective reproductive health programs and solve methodological problems. After sketching the linkages between population and development, her lecture analyzed research needs to clarify the population/development relationship in terms of macroeconomic linkages, population/environment linkages (for rural and for urban environments), microeconomic linkages (such as education, poverty, and unintended poverty), and macro-microeconomic linkages. The next part of her lecture presented sociocultural research and operations research proposals to identify the constraints on full access to reproductive health services and to improve quality of care. Dr. Sadik concluded that results of investigations in the areas of methodological development; conceptual clarification; and substantive, theoretical, and applied research should be consolidated into databases to enhance policy development and measurement of progress in meeting the goals of the world population conferences. In response to this lecture, Dr. Piet Bukman of the Netherlands discussed the problem of achieving food security and the urgent need for an effective population policy that will adopt short-term as well as longterm measures to limit global population growth.
[Unpublished] 1996 Jun.  p. (WFS 96/TECH/10)This provisional document on food requirements and population growth was prepared for the World Food Summit by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. By the year 2000, the global food situation will be characterized by even broader disparities in regional food availability and dietary patterns. A projected 72% increase in the world's population between 1992 and 2050 will require major shifts in food production systems and natural resource use patterns. However, the distribution of natural resources needed for agricultural production does not correspond to the geographic distribution of the population. Elimination of chronic undernutrition could require a 30-40% increase in food distribution in Africa, a 15% increase in Asia, and a 10% increase in Latin America. To achieve a well-balanced diet, plant-derived energy must be increased in the Third World by 174%. In countries where land and water are scarce, yield increases will be achieved largely through productivity increases and the development of human capacities. As long as developing countries remain dependent on agricultural production, the struggle against poverty will be linked to increased food production and enabling women to produce food under better conditions. A major and unprecedented change in the scale of food security and human capital development, including resolution of gender issues that impact on food security, must occur.
Household and intrahousehold impact of the Grameen Bank and similar targeted credit programs in Bangladesh.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1996. vii, 109 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 320)This paper is one of several World Bank papers examining the sustainability and household and intrahousehold impact of credit programs for the poor in Bangladesh. The aim of the paper is to develop a method for estimating the costs and benefits of group-based credit programs and to determine under what conditions group-based credit programs are sustainable. Household outcome measures include school enrollment of boys and girls, the labor supply of women and men, the asset holdings of women, recent fertility and contraceptive use, consumption, and the anthropometric status of children. Findings indicate that credit to women was more likely to influence 7 out of 8 outcome behaviors than credit to men (3 out of 8). Three credit programs are evaluated: Grameen Bank, the BRAC, and the BRDB's RD-12. The methods include a comparison of ordinary least squares and complex econometric methods using a quasi-experimental design. The comparison served to highlight the importance of accounting for endogeneity in evaluating credit programs in order to avoid mistaken conclusions drawn from "naive" estimates. Findings indicate that credit was a significant determinant of household behavior. Credit in the Grameen Bank program had the greatest positive impact on outcomes associated with household wealth and women's status. Grameen Bank's credit to women had the largest impact on girls' schooling, women's labor supply, and total household expenditure. Grameen Bank's credit to men had the largest impact on fertility. Women's credit from the BRBD had the largest impact on boys' schooling and the value of women's assets. Credit did not impact on the anthropometric status of children. The effect of credit programs on contraceptive use was measured differently in the two methods. Also, the "naive" method underestimated the effect on increasing total household expenditure. Policy should consider that the credit program empowered women, decreased poverty, and had beneficial effects from credit given to men.
FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT. 1996 Dec; 8-11.Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.
MODERN MIDWIFE. 1996 Sep; 6(9):10-3.Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are higher than previously estimated and exceed 1000/100,000 live births in approximately 21 developing countries. While conditions of war increase maternal deaths, the leading direct causes are hemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labor, eclampsia, and abortion. The World Health Organization (WHO) has prepared a video on the topic that states that nobody knows the extent of the problem of maternal mortality, nobody cares enough to ensure that women's needs are met, and nobody prepares, because not enough people understand the need to prepare for a healthy pregnancy and birth or how to respond to an obstetric emergency. The WHO has identified "gatekeepers" at every level to family planning, prenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and essential obstetric care, and it has created a series of midwifery education modules to promote safe motherhood. Conditions of poverty and low status for women are the prime indirect causes of maternal mortality and maternal morbidity (which is compounded in developing countries by inaccessible or unaffordable health care). Activities to improve this situation include the provision of obstetric supply packs to families, birth spacing programs, discouragement of female genital mutilation and early marriage, use of a picture card or drama and song to illustrate maternal complications, improved postabortion care, international study for midwife teachers, establishment of maternity waiting homes near hospitals, and use of the radio for health education.
The condition of young children in sub-Saharan Africa: the convergence of health, nutrition, and early education.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1996. xiii, 43 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 326; Africa Technical Department Series)Persistent poverty, rapid population growth, urbanization, a changing family structure, internal civil strife, and growing numbers of orphans and displaced women have had devastating consequences for children in sub-Saharan Africa. The Africa Region's Initiative on Early Childhood Development (ECD) seeks to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of poverty and promote child survival, school efficiency, economic productivity, and social equity by targeting the critical period between birth and school enrollment. Intensive exposure to a well-planned child care intervention project (especially one that serves both child and family and provides integrated health, nutrition, and education services) can have important implications for intellectual development and subsequent school and social adaptation. The Africa ECD Initiative, described in full in this report, entails a three-pronged strategy: 1) knowledge generation and dissemination, 2) prototype program development, and 3) institutional capacity building, with an emphasis on expanding the traditional role of the female child beyond that of care giver. Given the limited financial resources in sub-Saharan Africa, ECD programs must take advantage of existing health and education programs, mobilize additional community resources, or reallocate the current budget. A second study on policy, programmatic, and financial efforts of both governmental and nongovernmental organizations to address the needs of children at risk is underway.
WORLD OF WORK. 1996 Sep-Oct; (17):12-3.According to an International Labor Organization (ILO) study, approximately 130,000 children work in India's hand-knotted carpet industry. In one-loom enterprises, children comprise 14% of all weavers; in businesses with five or more looms, this rate increases to 33%. India's Factories Act, which applies costly health, safety, and labor regulations to larger firms, has led to a proliferation of cottage industries. The finding that children are more likely to work on low-quality rather than highest-quality carpets refutes the "nimble fingers" argument used by apologists of child labor. Although child and adult weavers have similar productivity, children earn less while apprentices than trained weavers and serve to depress wages throughout the industry. According to ILO estimates, replacing the 22% of the work force currently occupied by children with adults would cause wages to rise by about 5%. The overall savings in production costs from the use of child labor are very small when compared to the foreign retail price of the carpets, which is often four times the Indian export price. The ILO has urged an international approach to the elimination of child labor, in which all carpet-producing countries simultaneously implement a no-child-labor strategy to avoid placing any one country at a competitive disadvantage. Given the thousands of cottages where one or two carpets are woven per year, strategies such as labelling and regulation are likely to be ineffective. Solutions that address the general problems of poverty, while developing alternative sources of education and employment, are most likely to be effective in reducing child labor in countries such as India.
WORLD OF WORK. 1996 Sep-Oct; (17):4-7.Despite expanded global female employment (45% of women aged 15-64 years are economically active), women still comprise 70% of the world's 1 billion people living in poverty. Moreover, women's economic activities remain largely confined to low-wage, low-productivity forms of employment. A report by the International Labor Organization (ILO), prepared as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and the World Summit for Social Development, identified discrimination in education as a central cause of female poverty and underemployment. Each additional year of schooling is estimated to increase a woman's earnings by 15%, compared to 11% for a man. At the workplace, women face inequalities in terms of hiring and promotion standards, access to training and retraining, access to credit, equal pay for equal work, and participation in economic decision making. In addition, even women in higher-level jobs in developing countries spend 31-42 hours per week in unpaid domestic activities. The ILO has concluded that increasing employment opportunities for women is not a sufficient goal. Required are actions to improve the terms and conditions of such employment, including equal pay for work of equal value, improved occupational safety and health, enhanced security in informal or atypical forms of work, guarantees of freedom of association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, and appropriate maternity protection and child care provisions. Finally, taxation and social welfare policies must be rewritten to accommodate the reality that women are no longer the dependent or secondary earner in families.
UN CHRONICLE. 1996; 33(2):74-6.In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.
POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1996 Mar-Apr; (251):5.In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a UNFPA representative told participants that recent series of international conferences have acknowledged that development must focus on meeting human needs. The increasing urban population is in need of education, housing, employment, health care, improved water supply, sanitation, and public transportation. Countries of the Asia-Pacific region must deal with meeting these urban needs over the next quarter century. Urban population growth and urban poverty are part of the global agenda for the 21st century. Future UNFPA aid will center on helping individual countries achieve the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development by 2015. These goals revolve around education (especially for girls); reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health services. UNFPA aims to continue to work with governments, ESCAP, and nongovernmental organizations in reducing poverty through sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.