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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 10 p. (Facts about UNAIDS)National governments have the primary responsibility for dealing with HIV/AIDS within their own borders, even though many individuals and groups -- from government as well as the wider society -- must be part of the national response. The role of UNAIDS is to strengthen the ability of countries to respond to the epidemic, and to coordinate the UN system's support to that end. To be effective, the national response must be broad-based and multisectoral. AIDS remains an important health issue, but many of the causes and consequences of the epidemic lie outside the health sector. With its unique, collaborative approach, UNAIDS can support countries in the following ways as they mount an expanded response to the epidemic: By advocating more effectively for the introduction of AIDS issues into the country's health, economic and social development agendas. Each UN organization can work with its major counterparts to promote cross-sectoral collaboration; By involving a greater number of partners in AIDS activities. Each UN organization can help involve partners not yet participating in the response to the epidemic, including government departments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector; By allocating resources more efficiently and effectively in support of national efforts. Working together, the UN organizations can identify overlaps, gaps and opportunities for integrating AIDS into related programmes; By making better use of local and regional technical expertise available in the UN system. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1996. 9 p. (Facts about UNAIDS)Around 6 million people worldwide have died of AIDS since the start of the epidemic. Well over 20 million are living with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Already, there are communities and even whole cities where one out of every three adults is infected, and the repercussions of these dense clusters of illness and death will linger for decades. The epidemic and its impact are becoming a permanent challenge to human ingenuity and solidarity. Since the first of January 1996, UNAIDS -- the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS -- has carried the main responsibility within the UN system for helping countries strengthen their long-term capacity to cope with this challenge. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the new programme is cosponsored by six organizations of the UN family -- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank. Together with its cosponsors and other partners around the world, UNAIDS is hard at work on its mission -- leading and catalysing an expanded response to the epidemic to improve prevention and care, reduce people's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and alleviate the epidemic's devastating social and economic impact. (excerpt)
[An action program for children: its municipal and urban dimension] Un programme d'action pour les enfants: sa dimension municipale et urbaine.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1996. 12 p. (Urban Issue Vol. 22)The Mayors, defenders of children movement, launched in Dakar, Senegal, in 1992, made local officials aware of children s needs and the need to respect their rights in cities. International meetings of mayors facilitated the creation of a network of contacts through which local agents could share their concerns and organize development efforts in the interests of urban women and children. Mobilization activities at the international level encouraged the development of pilot development activities at the local level and gave rise to the exchange of early experiences at the regional level. The situation of children is discussed with focus given to areas of intervention, health and nutrition, drinking water and health services, education, children in particularly difficult situations, strategies for the implementation of a program to help children, community participation, the management of financial resources, cooperation with nongovernmental organizations, private sector partnership, urban programs, intergovernmental coordination, the role of women, children s participation, the choice of goals, the exchange of statistical information, the need to take personal responsibility for children, communications, municipal administration, and training.
Inter-Agency Working Group on Participation meetings hosted by UNDP, September 17-18, 1996, New York City, NY.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1996.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-00-93-00031-00)This report pertains to BASICS participation at a meeting of the Interagency Learning Group on Participation (IGP) hosted by the UN Development Program in New York City, on September 17-18, 1996. Participants included UNICEF, the World Bank, Overseas Development Assistance, Asian Development Bank, USAID, and other international organizations. This was the first time that BASICS was included in the meetings to share their community participatory experiences and to explore opportunities for collaboration. The meeting was the third of its kind. IGP is a voluntary group without a budget who represent multilateral, bilateral, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The IGP is concerned with institutional change and creating awareness of the value of participatory approaches; training and country-level capacity building; information and dissemination; and monitoring and evaluation. The UNDP administrator emphasized the need to focus on more information disclosure for donors and NGOs, the context of increasing decentralization, legal frameworks for the empowerment of women, and the importance of democratization. Most of the presentations focused on the internal institutional constraints to promoting and implementing participation in the field. The logical framework approach does not lend itself to participatory development. UNICEF ran workshops in 3 countries on how to use a more participatory manner in country programs, but after 6 months trainees still had difficulty with applications. Internal policies and procedures, lack of tools for monitoring, a need to change staff attitudes, specific country context, and institutional capacity to identify and work with the right partners were all problems. An NGO in India, cautioned against too much participation. Smaller plenary discussions focused on dealing with conflict, outcomes, redistribution of power, the public good, and village logbooks.
Bangkok, Thailand, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1996. , 30 p.This document contains the report of the activities undertaken by the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1990-96. The report opens with a message from the AFPPD's chairman noting that the AFPPD has been instrumental in organizing international conferences to allow parliamentarians from other parts of the world to explore population, development, and gender issues. Messages from the Secretary-General of the AFPPD and the Deputy Executive Director of the UN Population Fund stress the importance of political commitment for population programs. The report continues with a description of the formation of the AFPPD in 1981 for the purpose of contributing to the establishment of world peace and improving the standard of living and welfare of people in Asia. The next sections of the report describe the structure of the organization and provide a profile of its membership and a brief description of its activities. A more in-depth review of country activities is then given for India, Viet Nam, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Fiji, and Australia. A summary is also provided of the international initiatives undertaken by the AFPPD, which took the form of four international conferences (one in 1994, two in 1995, and one in 1996). The report ends by identifying the AFPPD's current officers and the addresses of its full-time offices.
Family Health International 25th Anniversary Symposium: Improving Reproductive Health Worldwide, November 23, 1996, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 1996. , 22 p.This report of the 25th Anniversary Symposium of Family Health International (FHI) opens with an overview that summarizes three presentations: 1) a description of FHI's organization presented by its President; 2) a commentary on FHI's first 25 years and future challenges using Thailand as a model of a developing country that achieved strong economic development, slower population growth, and lower mortality during this period; and 3) a sketch of the US Agency for International Development's involvement in population programs. The second part of the report reproduces three more detailed reports on the operation of FHI. The first detailed essay relates the history of FHI's efforts in the area of contraceptive research and defines four distinct time periods: the early 1970s when FHI collected data, the later 1970s to early 1980s when FHI initiated strategies to improve research, the mid-1980s when FHI began to focus on achieving regulatory approval of new products, and the 1990s when research has expanded into new areas. The second essay covers FHI's research into ways to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, including the evaluation of barrier methods and vaccine trials. The third essay describes how women's perspectives are incorporated into research following the principles that women's rights are human rights and that women's welfare is an end in itself. The report ends with a summary of the closing comments of the FHI's Chief Executive Officer who noted that FHI has grown tremendously in 25 years but that the agency continues its mandate to collect first-class data for use by policy-makers while pursuing new activities.
One year after Cairo. Keeping the promises of the UN International Conference on Population and Development: a country-by-country progress report. 2nd ed.
New York, New York, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1996. viii, 157,  p. (1996 Earth Summit Watch Report)In March 1995, Earth Summit Watch initiated a widespread and intensive effort to obtain data for reports on activities undertaken as a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). This report contains information on activities in 65 countries (36% of attending nations) and documents the fact that significant progress has been made in implementing the goals of the ICPD in responding countries. National leaders in Peru and Haiti have taken strong positions promoting family planning (FP) and reproductive health; efforts to increase public participation in population policy-making have begun in Ireland, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe; increased resources have been earmarked for primary health care, basic education, and FP services in many countries (although the US is planning a dramatic reduction in population and development spending); and a few nations have begun efforts to reduce waste and pollution. The goals of this report are to demonstrate the importance of monitoring national implementation and to highlight the role that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can play at all levels of implementing follow-up to the ICPD. The first chapter of the report contains an introduction, an overview of the country reports, and a discussion of the UN structure for national reporting on ICPD follow-up. Chapter 2 presents the country reports which include information on reporting to the nation about the ICPD, the structure for ICPD follow-up, specific new initiatives and resources, the involvement of women/NGOs, satisfying the demand for services, and assessment of overall impact.
PEOPLE AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES. 1996 Sep; 3(6):13-4.On the occasion of his retirement as Director of Programs for the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) East, South-East Asia, and Oceania Region (ESEAOR), Pritam Singh noted that the region initiated many innovative activities during his tenure. These included the 1973 Finance and Administration Workshop, the 1974 Forward Planning and Evaluation Workshop, the Evaluation Workshop, and the Community-based Distribution Workshop. ESEAOR also created the concept of Overall Program Evaluation and was among the first few regions to implement the Three Year Plan Review. Pritam brought 19 years of experience as a teacher and headmaster to his job with IPPF and became known as ESEAOR's "guru." Among Pritam's many contributions to the IPPF were his work in developing the Program, Planning, Budgeting, and Reporting System; introducing the Strategic Thinking, Planning, and Management process; and serving as a resource person for innumerable regional workshops on a wide range of subjects. Pritam feels that his greatest contribution was his ability to develop appropriate programs to meet the unmet family planning (FP) needs of various communities. He describes the 1960s and 1970s as the "heyday" of FP and predicts that FP will soon be completely integrated with other initiatives.
Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1996. 48 p.This report provides an overview of the UN and then identifies and describes UN organizations in the field of population and reproductive health. UN organizations are grouped by function: policy making and research organizations, organizations with major involvement in population and reproductive health, and organizations with complementary programs. Expenditure data are given by organization for 1992, for the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) for the period 1971-95, and by executive agency of the UNFPA for 1994. Each organization responded to a survey request for basic information on its goals, structure, and population-related activities. This compilation is based on interviews, surveys, and other documents. The authors made an effort to provide accurate and up-to-date information. Policy-making groups appear within the Economic and Social Council, the UN Secretariat, the Commission on Population and Development, the Task Force on ICPD Implementation, and the Regional Economic Commissions. The UN Population Division and the UN Statistical Division are under the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the UN Secretariat. Organizations with major population and reproductive health involvement include the UN Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS, and the UN Children's Fund. Complementary programs include the UN Development Program, the International Labor Organization, the Food and Agricultural Organization, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the UN Development Fund for Women, the UN Industrial Development Organization, the UN Center for Human Settlements, the World Food Program, and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
CURRENT ISSUES IN PUBLIC HEALTH. 1996 Jun; 2(3):138-42.This article discusses some needed changes to the functioning and management of the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO is unable to meet new challenges and needs reform. The Executive Board of WHO initiated an internal review in 1992 that led to a management-related focus, while informal groups within the agency tackled funding constraints. Some governments and nongovernmental groups have proposed reorganization of international health assistance. The authors urge that the public health sector and researchers join the reform effort. WHO was established in 1948 and was the sole global health agency. The demand for greater international health cooperation has increased over time. WHO is an association of sovereign states. WHO demonstrated success in eliminating smallpox, promotion of health policy, collection and dissemination of epidemiologic information, and establishment of standards in health care and medical ethics. WHO staff comprises about 5000 persons. The annual budget is too small at about US$900 million. In 1995 only 56% of receipts were collected. WHO's constitution mandates complete health for all, but there has been a widening gap between rich and poor and those with access to health services and those without. Absolute and relative poverty are the main determinants of premature mortality and ill health. The major challenge for health policy is this disparity; the focus of international collaboration should be on this issue. The machine metaphor of organizational structure no longer works in today's world. The authors propose that WHO limit functions in health development and create a full mandate for dealing with determinants of health. WHO should be participatory, open to constituents, autonomous, and flexible. Member states must be more powerful in policy formulation. Program implementation should occur in independent programs in a decentralized system.