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  1. 1

    WHO / CDC / USAID community-based TB care project in Africa: protocol development workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 11-21 November 1996. WHO Report.

    Fourie B; Harries A; Maher D

    [Unpublished] 1996. Issued by World Health Organization [WHO]. 12, [13] p. (WHO/TB/96.219)

    The protocol development workshop held on November 11-21, 1996, in Entebbe, Uganda, focuses on "Community-based Tuberculosis (TB) Care Operational Research (OR)" project in Africa as part of the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). Such protocol development was initiated by country participants through presentation of international TB experts, group and plenary discussions and group work guided by mentor. Issues highlighted in the development of OR protocols include: importance of the existence of effective NTP in the chosen project sites; integration of OR development and implementation in NTP activities; significance of describing and evaluating the process of developing community contribution to TB care; comparison between outcomes in an intervention population and control population; and variation of community group involved in TB care in chosen project sites and countries. After the workshop, the participants agreed to pursue follow-up actions such as further development of OR protocols by country groups, visits of mentor to countries, development of Terms of Reference for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for health educationalist; and assessment of protocols for funding.
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  2. 2

    Four TDR diseases can be "eliminated".

    TDR NEWS. 1996 Mar; (49):1-2.

    A UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) expert meeting has concluded that the means already exist with which to eliminate 4 of the 8 diseases which TDR originally identified as public health problems. Elimination in this case refers to reducing the number of cases of disease to a small and routinely manageable number. The diseases capable of being eliminated with existing tools are leprosy, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and Chagas disease. Leprosy can be eliminated through the use of multidrug therapy, onchocerciasis through the administration of ivermectin, lymphatic filariasis through the use of DEC and ivermectin, and Chagas disease through the rational use of insecticides and the control of blood banks. Malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis, however, must await better tools before their elimination can be attempted. TDR's role in identifying how to eliminate each of these diseases is described. Meeting attendees identified additional avenues of operational research upon which TDR should embark.
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  3. 3

    Essential obstetric care -- its role and importance in the Mother-Baby Package.

    AbouZahr C

    In: Issues in essential obstetric care. Report of a technical meeting of the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood, May 31 - June 2, 1995, edited by Diana M. Measham with Virginia D. Kallianes. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996 Mar. 10-1. (Partnership for Safe Motherhood)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has learned through 5 years of epidemiological research in safe motherhood that the causes of maternal death are similar around the world and that substandard care is a major contributing factor. The organization's operations research has shown that traditional birth attendant (TBA) training, on its own, has a limited impact upon maternal mortality and morbidity; that antenatal care, on its own, will not reduce maternal mortality; and that communities do not have the information they need to make appropriate decisions on the use of health services. WHO's Mother-Baby Package drew upon these research results. The package is a technical and managerial tool developed to accelerate country-level action to improve maternal health. Health care providers are expected to adapt the package to their own contexts. Minimum interventions are defined in the Mother-Baby Package to which all women must have access, presenting a more integrated approach to maternal health care within a broader reproductive health framework. The package describes where different elements of essential obstetric care (EOC) can be provided. The author stresses that the successful delivery of EOC requires a functioning system which links communities with health services.
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  4. 4

    Operations research in Safe Motherhood with special reference to emergency obstetric care.

    Fortney J

    In: Issues in essential obstetric care. Report of a technical meeting of the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood, May 31 - June 2, 1995, edited by Diana M. Measham with Virginia D. Kallianes. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996 Mar. 7-9. (Partnership for Safe Motherhood)

    Operations research assesses the impact of an intervention upon an outcome. Since the goal of the Safe Motherhood Initiative is to reduce the level of maternal mortality, the level of maternal mortality is the outcome measure at issue. Interventions have been designed to both prevent complications which lead to maternal mortality and to prevent given complications from being fatal. The author explains that any successful intervention will have a clearly defined intervention and outcome, and be limited in scope. She discusses some operations research activities of the World Health Organization (WHO), Columbia University's Prevention of Maternal Mortality (PMM) Network, the Population Council, two MotherCare projects in Indonesia, and operations research among midwives in Matlab Thana, Bangladesh.
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