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WHO / CDC / USAID community-based TB care project in Africa: protocol development workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 11-21 November 1996. WHO Report.
[Unpublished] 1996. Issued by World Health Organization [WHO]. 12,  p. (WHO/TB/96.219)The protocol development workshop held on November 11-21, 1996, in Entebbe, Uganda, focuses on "Community-based Tuberculosis (TB) Care Operational Research (OR)" project in Africa as part of the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). Such protocol development was initiated by country participants through presentation of international TB experts, group and plenary discussions and group work guided by mentor. Issues highlighted in the development of OR protocols include: importance of the existence of effective NTP in the chosen project sites; integration of OR development and implementation in NTP activities; significance of describing and evaluating the process of developing community contribution to TB care; comparison between outcomes in an intervention population and control population; and variation of community group involved in TB care in chosen project sites and countries. After the workshop, the participants agreed to pursue follow-up actions such as further development of OR protocols by country groups, visits of mentor to countries, development of Terms of Reference for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for health educationalist; and assessment of protocols for funding.
Egypt. Programme review and strategy development report. Program review and strategy development mission to the Arab Republic of Egypt, 28 October - 29 November 1996.
Cairo, Egypt, UNFPA, 1996. vii, 93 p.This is a report on a program review and strategy development exercise undertaken by the government of Egypt in cooperation with the UN Population Fund. The report analyzes the current status and needs of the country in the area of population and development, assesses the achievements of the past population and development program, reviews national and international support, and recommends future activities for an overall national population strategy. Chapters I, II, and III discuss the population and development situation (in terms of demographic, economic and social trends), present a review of the national population program, and propose national population program strategies, respectively. Also mentioned are reproductive health, fertility, mortality, education, living standards, women's status, gender issues, and family planning. A brief summary is also provided together with recommendations on population and development. Current financial project allocations to population and health projects in Egypt are presented in table by type of project and donor channel. The government has provided the framework for these strategic interventions by indicating the need for desirable policies and programmatic measures.
TDR NEWS. 1996 Mar; (49):1-2.A UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) expert meeting has concluded that the means already exist with which to eliminate 4 of the 8 diseases which TDR originally identified as public health problems. Elimination in this case refers to reducing the number of cases of disease to a small and routinely manageable number. The diseases capable of being eliminated with existing tools are leprosy, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and Chagas disease. Leprosy can be eliminated through the use of multidrug therapy, onchocerciasis through the administration of ivermectin, lymphatic filariasis through the use of DEC and ivermectin, and Chagas disease through the rational use of insecticides and the control of blood banks. Malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis, however, must await better tools before their elimination can be attempted. TDR's role in identifying how to eliminate each of these diseases is described. Meeting attendees identified additional avenues of operational research upon which TDR should embark.
Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences.
The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1996. 23 p. (NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series 13)This document contains the text of the 1996 Hofstee Lecture organized by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. The 1996 lecture, entitled "Population and Development Linkages: New Research Priorities after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences," was delivered by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Dr. Sadik suggested that research is needed to explore 1) the interrelations between population, sustainable development, and the environment and 2) to improve design and implementation of more effective reproductive health programs and solve methodological problems. After sketching the linkages between population and development, her lecture analyzed research needs to clarify the population/development relationship in terms of macroeconomic linkages, population/environment linkages (for rural and for urban environments), microeconomic linkages (such as education, poverty, and unintended poverty), and macro-microeconomic linkages. The next part of her lecture presented sociocultural research and operations research proposals to identify the constraints on full access to reproductive health services and to improve quality of care. Dr. Sadik concluded that results of investigations in the areas of methodological development; conceptual clarification; and substantive, theoretical, and applied research should be consolidated into databases to enhance policy development and measurement of progress in meeting the goals of the world population conferences. In response to this lecture, Dr. Piet Bukman of the Netherlands discussed the problem of achieving food security and the urgent need for an effective population policy that will adopt short-term as well as longterm measures to limit global population growth.
In: Issues in essential obstetric care. Report of a technical meeting of the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood, May 31 - June 2, 1995, edited by Diana M. Measham with Virginia D. Kallianes. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996 Mar. 10-1. (Partnership for Safe Motherhood)The World Health Organization (WHO) has learned through 5 years of epidemiological research in safe motherhood that the causes of maternal death are similar around the world and that substandard care is a major contributing factor. The organization's operations research has shown that traditional birth attendant (TBA) training, on its own, has a limited impact upon maternal mortality and morbidity; that antenatal care, on its own, will not reduce maternal mortality; and that communities do not have the information they need to make appropriate decisions on the use of health services. WHO's Mother-Baby Package drew upon these research results. The package is a technical and managerial tool developed to accelerate country-level action to improve maternal health. Health care providers are expected to adapt the package to their own contexts. Minimum interventions are defined in the Mother-Baby Package to which all women must have access, presenting a more integrated approach to maternal health care within a broader reproductive health framework. The package describes where different elements of essential obstetric care (EOC) can be provided. The author stresses that the successful delivery of EOC requires a functioning system which links communities with health services.
In: Issues in essential obstetric care. Report of a technical meeting of the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood, May 31 - June 2, 1995, edited by Diana M. Measham with Virginia D. Kallianes. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996 Mar. 7-9. (Partnership for Safe Motherhood)Operations research assesses the impact of an intervention upon an outcome. Since the goal of the Safe Motherhood Initiative is to reduce the level of maternal mortality, the level of maternal mortality is the outcome measure at issue. Interventions have been designed to both prevent complications which lead to maternal mortality and to prevent given complications from being fatal. The author explains that any successful intervention will have a clearly defined intervention and outcome, and be limited in scope. She discusses some operations research activities of the World Health Organization (WHO), Columbia University's Prevention of Maternal Mortality (PMM) Network, the Population Council, two MotherCare projects in Indonesia, and operations research among midwives in Matlab Thana, Bangladesh.