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    133552

    Gender inequality in human development: theories and measurement.

    Anand S; Sen A

    In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 1-19.

    This background note, prepared for the 1995 version of the UN Development Program's "Human Development Report," 1) explores and makes specific recommendations about a methodology for developing a framework for "gender-equity-sensitive indicators" of achievements and freedoms; 2) considers the formulation and utilization of measures of gender equality and inequality; and 3) looks at the identification of efforts and contributions made by women that have gone unrecognized in standard national income and employment statistics. After an introductory section, the paper develops equations that focus on gender differentials in achievement in areas such as literacy where the "potentials" of men and women do not differ. The next section considers equations that integrate a differential scaling into the general evaluative scheme of gender-equity-sensitive indexes to take into account cases where the "potentials" do differ, such as mortality rates and life expectancy. Section 4 presents the case for differentiating the earnings of women and men, and the next section offers a "corrected" version of the Human Development Index that considers the extent of social preference for equality and results in a "gender-related development index." After applying a more intense look to the type of information offered through use of the gender-equity-sensitive indicators and pointing out that this proposed methodology does not depend upon use of the classic human development indicators, three appendices offer a more general discussion and proofs of the major results.
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