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Epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe. Report of a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 13-15 May 1996.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. , 14 p. (EUR/ICP/CMDS 08 01 01)In response to the alarming rise in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the newly independent states, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, WHO headquarters and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS organized a meeting of experts from the most affected countries to exchange information and to identify priority actions for the control of the epidemic. The participants included 15 experts from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The participants called for urgent action, including a careful assessment of the existing systems for STD control, reallocation of resources among the various activity areas and strong advocacy to generate awareness at the top level of government and strengthen its support for the recommended initiatives. They also urged that national coordination of programmes to promote sexual health and prevent STDs and HIV be strengthened, that statutory services be made more accessible and acceptable to patients and that efforts be made to ensure that all health workers managing patients with STDs, including those in the private sector, provide high-quality care. (author's)
Family Health International 25th Anniversary Symposium: Improving Reproductive Health Worldwide, November 23, 1996, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 1996. , 22 p.This report of the 25th Anniversary Symposium of Family Health International (FHI) opens with an overview that summarizes three presentations: 1) a description of FHI's organization presented by its President; 2) a commentary on FHI's first 25 years and future challenges using Thailand as a model of a developing country that achieved strong economic development, slower population growth, and lower mortality during this period; and 3) a sketch of the US Agency for International Development's involvement in population programs. The second part of the report reproduces three more detailed reports on the operation of FHI. The first detailed essay relates the history of FHI's efforts in the area of contraceptive research and defines four distinct time periods: the early 1970s when FHI collected data, the later 1970s to early 1980s when FHI initiated strategies to improve research, the mid-1980s when FHI began to focus on achieving regulatory approval of new products, and the 1990s when research has expanded into new areas. The second essay covers FHI's research into ways to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, including the evaluation of barrier methods and vaccine trials. The third essay describes how women's perspectives are incorporated into research following the principles that women's rights are human rights and that women's welfare is an end in itself. The report ends with a summary of the closing comments of the FHI's Chief Executive Officer who noted that FHI has grown tremendously in 25 years but that the agency continues its mandate to collect first-class data for use by policy-makers while pursuing new activities.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1996; 17:359-82.This overview describes current growth in the population of the world as well as the momentum which keeps populations expanding even after fertility rates decline. This background information precedes a discussion of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) which includes the preparatory activities, the position of the ICPD in the context of previous decennial population conferences, major innovations included in the Program of Action, and the process used to reach consensus. The following six major reproductive health concerns which arose from the ICPD are then considered: gender inequality; access to contraceptive services; sexually transmitted disease (including HIV/AIDS) prevalence, health effects, and programmatic effects; maternal mortality; unsafe abortion; and adolescent pregnancy. It is concluded that the ICPD was of enormous significance because it managed to gain consensus on some of the most controversial topics in the area of reproductive health and to mirror some of the most pressing population problems of the decade. The major drawback of the Program of Action is seen as the fact that its success will depend upon the political and financial will of governments.