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    Human rights and responses to HIV / AIDS.

    Gruskin S; Hendriks A; Tomasevski K

    In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 326-40.

    This book chapter examines the human rights aspects of responses to HIV/AIDS. The chapter opens by tracing the three phases which have characterized the relationship between human rights and HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts (the proposed application of stringent public health measures, a recognition that discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS is counterproductive to prevention efforts, and the perspective that a lack of human rights increases vulnerability to infection). The discussion continues with an examination of the responses of nongovernmental organizations and the intergovernmental system to violations of human rights related to AIDS. A review of current controversies which have a human rights component includes HIV testing; the rights of migrants with HIV/AIDS; and human rights aspects of national laws, policies, and practices relating to AIDS. Finally, the results of a survey of national laws and practices are reported as showing that involuntary testing of "high-risk" individuals is still part of many AIDS prevention and control programs and that other policies which infringe on human rights are being enacted without legal justification. It is concluded that discrimination against people with HIV, people with AIDS, and people considered at high risk of acquiring the infection remains an important problem and that vigilance and enormous effort will be required to bring organizations at every level into compliance with international consensus on nondiscriminatory approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention and control.
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