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  1. 1
    282343

    Successes and failures of development experience since the 1980s.

    Ranis G

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Sep. 28 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 762)

    This paper reviews the development experience since the 1980's and finds room for guarded optimism about what we can learn from it. Firstly, a global consensus is emerging on the need for macro-economic stability through prudent fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies. However, at the micro or structural level, while governments need to decentralize their decision- making authority more fully than they have thus far, in reaction to the recent reappraisal of the East Asian model there is some danger that development policy will swing too far in rejecting liberalization and returning to government intervention. Secondly, the paper points out that, while there exists a well-recognized causal nexus between exports and growth, the reverse causation also holds, i.e. domestic growth patterns conditioned by education and R&D expenditures and policies determine whether or not a country can take full advantage of existing export opportunities. Finally, although fast-disbursing policy-based loans have not been as successful as they could be, largely because of the World Bank's chosen modus operandi, they represent potentially highly effective instruments that should not be abandoned. Rather, the Bank should help render such loans more fully "owned" by recipients, replace country-specific lending quotas by aid ballooning related to carefully worked out reform packages, and develop a better division of labor with other multilateral and bilateral donors. (author's)
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  2. 2
    292999

    International thinking on population policies and programmes from Rome to Cairo: Has South Africa kept pace?

    Ndegwa DG

    South African Journal of Demography. 1996; 6(1):49-56.

    This paper reviews global thinking on population policy expressed at the world conferences on population matters from 1954 to 1994. The review is complemented by an overview of trends in South Africa that constituted a de jure population policy during the apartheid era. There is also a brief discussion of the Population Green Paper tabled in 1995, aimed at the establishment of a national population policy for South Africa. This is evaluated against the Programme of Action decided on at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. There is an indication that finally, South Africa can be said to be genuinely moving in the direction of respect for human rights in its population policies in harmony with global convention. In a sense, it is catching up with global trends in the population field after years of isolation resulting from sanctions against the apartheid government. (author's)
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  3. 3
    128436

    The United Nations and Rwanda, 1993-1996.

    United Nations. Department of Public Information

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 1996. [4], 739 p. (United Nations Blue Books Series, Vol. 10)

    Part 1 of the first section of this book on the UN involvement in Rwanda during the period 1993-96 opens with an overview that is followed in part 2 by provision of background information on Rwanda's colonial period, the role of the UN in supporting Rwandan independence, the domination of ethnic rivalries in Rwanda's social and political life, and the deteriorating conditions in the early 1990s that led the government and opposition forces to initiate peace talks. Part 3 traces the UN involvement in these negotiations that led to a peace agreement and the creation of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to help implement this agreement. The fourth part describes the efforts of the UN and others to maintain the momentum of the peace process, and part 5 chronicles the resumption of civil conflict in 1994, including the massacre of Rwandan civilians, attempts by the UN to negotiate a cease-fire, and the decision that led the Security Council to reduce the size of UNAMIR and then to deploy UNAMIR II. Part 6 relates the massive migration of refugees from the fighting, the lengthy delays in deploying UNAMIR II, and the decision to authorize deployment of a French-led, multinational intervention. Part 7 discusses efforts to address the violations of humanitarian law, and part 8 details the humanitarian response to the emergency. The ninth part looks at the precarious situation of Rwandan refugees, the militarization of the refugee camps in Zaire, and efforts to create conditions that would encourage repatriation of refugees. Part 10 considers the final stages of the UN peace-keeping mission, the future role of the UN in Rwanda, and efforts of the UN to promote reconciliation and national reconstruction. Part 11 offers conclusions about the UN experience. Section 2 of the book provides a chronology of events and reprints relevant documents.
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  4. 4
    128435

    The United Nations and the advancement of women, 1945-1996. Revised ed.

    United Nations. Department of Public Information

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 1996. [3], 845 p. (United Nations Blue Book Series, Vol. 6)

    The first section of this book traces the history of the UN's efforts to improve the status of women. An overview is presented in the first part, and part 2 chronicles the UN's efforts to secure the legal foundations of women's rights during the period 1945-62. Part 3 traces the stage of the UN's work (1963-75) that began with recognition of the indispensable role of women in development and of the gulf between the existence of women's legal rights and women's ability to exercise these rights. Part 4 follows developments through the UN Decade for Women (1976-85), and part 5 describes actions taken from 1986-96 to respond to the failure of the Decade for Women to achieve improvements in the priority areas of employment, health, and education. Part 6 concludes this section by remarking on the strategies and issues that will dominate the UN's next 50 years of work in improving women's status and eliminating gender-based discrimination and by noting that the Platform for Action from the 1996 Fourth World Conference on Women serves as a tool in the empowerment of women but that the formal recognition of women's rights has yet to lead to a practical improvement in their status. The remainder of the book contains 1) a chronology of events, 2) a chronology of UN conferences and seminars, and 3) a selection of documents on women published by the UN that form a comprehensive record of UN involvement in the campaign to promote women's rights, including the complete texts of the major conventions, treaties, and declarations.
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  5. 5
    121846

    From Bucharest to Cairo: 20 years of United Nations population conferences.

    Kuroda T

    Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1996 Dec. 33 p. (APDA Resource Series 2)

    This paper presents an overview of the distinguishing features of the 20th century by focusing on the decades between the first and third World Population Conferences (1974-94). The essay opens with a prologue which describes the increasing concern about population growth which served as the background to the development of the progressive World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in 1974 and presents current population projections and annual growth rate data. The next topic is the adoption of the WPPA, with its last minute attention to family planning programs, at the Bucharest Conference. This is followed by consideration of the "Bucharest effect" which included reversals by China and India which led to their adoption of new policies to control growth. Discussion of the "quiet gathering" at Mexico City which adopted recommendations to further implement the WPPA in 1984 is augmented with a look at the ripple caused by the denial of the US delegation of the possibility of achieving demographic goals before achieving economic development. The three global upheavals experienced in the 20th century after the watershed of World War II are then identified as the world population explosion, the destruction of the global environment, and the conflicts which followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. The ensuing discussion then considers the three most important aspects of the world population crisis: the population growth rate, the size of the annual increases, and total global population. Finally, the paper looks at the Fourth International Conference on Population and Development during which the WPPA became a Programme of Action which embraced a revolutionary strategy calling for the empowerment of women to achieve population stability and development, emphasizing reproductive health care, and establishing targets to reduce death rates. The essay concludes by calling for a revolution in thinking to derive ways to cope with the upcoming 30 years of rapid population growth.
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