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In: African primary health care in times of economic turbulence, edited by J. Chabot, J.W. Harnmeijer, P.H. Streefland. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Royal Tropical Institute, 1995. 119-48.The authors review and summarize evidence from the recent literature on the current crisis in sub-Saharan Africa's health sector, especially in primary health care. Focus is given to the relationship between crises, the functioning of the health sector, and people's health status. Where possible, linkages are made with the structural adjustment policies (SAP) being pursued in the respective countries. A theoretical framework for the discussion is first presented. Policy options for governments to respond to the health sector crisis and their potential effectiveness are then reviewed in the third section. The last section of the paper presents a discussion of the role which international organizations and donor agencies have played in the health sector in recent years and some of the dilemmas they face.