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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Analysis, Research and Assessment, 1996. iv, 51 p. (WHO/ARA/96.1)This booklet presents the WHO global initiative for equity in health and health care that aims to promote and support practical policies and action to reduce avoidable social gaps in health and health care. The initiative builds on work conducted over the last 3 decades, towards health for all by the WHO and other agencies, but is based on a critical reassessment of needs and strategies in view of current economic, social and political conditions prevailing throughout the world. The objectives of the initiative are 1) to make the reduction of social gaps in health and health care a priority on the agendas for policy and action of national and international organizations; 2) to support targeted research and ongoing monitoring activities needed to develop and evaluate effective and efficient policies to reduce social gaps in health and health care; and 3) to promote and support international exchange of experiences likely to be effective and efficient in reducing social gaps in health and health care. In coordination with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the WHO has funded initial planning and development and projects that are now under way in one African country and one Asian country. Meanwhile, nongovernmental and governmental organizations in several other countries have expressed interest in participating. Additional sources of support are needed to expand and further develop the initiative, linking it with complementary effort.
Reproductive health programs supported by USAID: a progress report on implementing the Cairo Program of Action.
[Washington, D.C.], USAID, 1996 May. , 20 p.This report details progress made by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in implementing the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The report contains an introduction and an overview of the USAID program. USAID reproductive health programs have: 1) provided leadership for a supportive policy environment through multilateral, regional, and country-level initiatives; 2) developed innovative techniques for operations, biomedical, social science research and for evaluation; and 3) implemented reproductive health programs that promote access and quality in family planning and other reproductive health services, maternal health, women's nutrition, postabortion care, breast feeding, sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention and control, integrated reproductive health programs, programs and services for youth, prevention of such harmful practices as female genital mutilation, male involvement, reproductive health for refugees and displaced people, and involvement of women in the design and management of programs. USAID programs to advance girls' and women's education and empowerment have forwarded women's legal and political rights, increased access to credit, and developed integrated programs for women. Priority challenges and directions for the future include: 1) determining the feasibility, costs, and effectiveness of reproductive health interventions; 2) improving understanding of reproductive health behavior; 3) continuing development of service delivery strategies; and 4) mobilizing resources for reproductive health.