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    Gender and development: rethinking modernization and dependency theory.

    Scott CV

    Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996. v, 151 p. (Women and Change in the Developing World)

    This book presents a feminist analysis of gender, tradition, and modernity as conceptualized in modernization and Marxist dependency theories and applied by the World Bank and challenged in Southern Africa. The aim is to enlighten those who attempt to offer improvements on the two paradigms or to blend the two paradigms prematurely. Modernization theory makes "artificial" distinctions between traditional and modern societies. Modernization theory formulates a system for ensuring multinational control of trade and capital without restriction from nation states. Dependency theory offers a materialistic account of the expansion and change of capitalism and class consciousness. Women's roles in capitalist development and in revolutions are defined. This study suggests that feminist standpoint theory, such as that proposed by Harding and Hennessy, can be valuable. Social systems must be understood in terms of economic, political, and ideological systems and structures of power, such as capitalism, patriarchy, or colonialism. This author seeks to move beyond a masculine conception of modernity, development, and dependence. This study is based on interpretive analysis and implicit and contextual meanings of texts. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the book's direction and purpose. Chapter 2 discusses the two approaches of modernization theory, the psychocultural and the structural-functional. The work of Inkeles and Smith is discussed in comparison to other psychocultural approaches of Lerner and McClelland. The structural approaches of Rostow, Parsons, and a committee of the US Social Science Research Council are interpreted. Chapter 3 discusses soft-state approaches of African countries that are theorized by Hyden and others. World Bank practices are interpreted in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 focuses on Frank, Amin, and other texts on dependency theory. Challenges to dependency and counterrevolution in Southern Africa are the focus in Chapter 6. Prospects for rereading and rewriting development theory that centers on the household are proposed in Chapter 7.
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