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Networks for urban action. A guide on who's, what, and where on urban management in Asia and the Pacific.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Urban Management Programme for Asia and the Pacific, 1996. , 37 p.The Urban Management Program for Asia and the Pacific (UMPAP) of the UN Development Programme is guided by the vision of urban management growth to improve living standards and reduce poverty in ways that are socially just, ecologically sustainable, politically participatory, economically productive, and culturally vibrant. The UMPAP seeks to respond to the urban challenge through effective, directed and unambiguous programs, carried out at all levels of urban society. This network guide presents a list of major global and regional initiatives that have an impact on activities in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the organizations and programs described in this guide are the Asia Pacific 2000, Asia Women and Shelter Network, Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation, Asian Coalition for Housing Rights, Asian Development Bank, and the Asia Pacific Forum of Environmental Journalists.
PEOPLE AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES. 1996 Sep; 3(6):13-4.On the occasion of his retirement as Director of Programs for the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) East, South-East Asia, and Oceania Region (ESEAOR), Pritam Singh noted that the region initiated many innovative activities during his tenure. These included the 1973 Finance and Administration Workshop, the 1974 Forward Planning and Evaluation Workshop, the Evaluation Workshop, and the Community-based Distribution Workshop. ESEAOR also created the concept of Overall Program Evaluation and was among the first few regions to implement the Three Year Plan Review. Pritam brought 19 years of experience as a teacher and headmaster to his job with IPPF and became known as ESEAOR's "guru." Among Pritam's many contributions to the IPPF were his work in developing the Program, Planning, Budgeting, and Reporting System; introducing the Strategic Thinking, Planning, and Management process; and serving as a resource person for innumerable regional workshops on a wide range of subjects. Pritam feels that his greatest contribution was his ability to develop appropriate programs to meet the unmet family planning (FP) needs of various communities. He describes the 1960s and 1970s as the "heyday" of FP and predicts that FP will soon be completely integrated with other initiatives.
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL. 1996 Sep; 11(3):219-26.This paper reviews 10 years of experience in using health goals, targets, and objectives as a planning mechanism. The US was the first country to develop national health goals in 1980. In 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) produced a defined set of "Targets for Health for All." This review includes the experiences in the US, Australia, New Zealand, England and Wales, and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. These countries used different approaches in defining targets and in achieving the defined targets. Each country's approaches are described. The WHO uses goals and targets in order to define differences in health status between populations and to reduce these differences. Better data are now available for improving the understanding of the personal, economic, environmental, social, and health service factors associated with health. Monitoring of defined targets in the US over a 10-year period has resulted in more improvements in targeted areas than nontargeted areas. In 1988 Australia established national targets. Targets in Australia influenced the formulation of its first national health policy. A stronger infrastructure for health promotion was developed. The evidence that links objective setting to health improvement is not readily available. It appears that target setting may result in a focus on a comprehensive health policy, changes in resource allocation, and methods and structures for improving population health. All countries were concerned about greater efficiency in health system investment. Wales is developing less emotional methods for decision making about health services. The US spent more time on data collection than on implementation. Australia was preoccupied with health issues where there were data. A balance between these two approaches is desirable. New Zealand's program priorities and resource allocation changed with changes in politics. Health goals should be used to guide and measure the results of health system investments.
In: Report of the Third Meeting of Directors of WHO Collaborating Centres for Traditional Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 23-26 October 1995, sponsored by the World Health Organization [WHO] and China. State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. 25-30. (WHO/TRM/96.1)Within the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Western Pacific Region, traditional medicine takes the form of simple family remedies and a system of traditional medicine that has been developed and documented over thousands of years. Traditional medicine is an integral part of the community, and its practitioners are well-patronized and valued. Traditional medicine is accessible and affordable in developing countries. Even in developed countries in the region, traditional medicine is available as an alternative to modern medicine, and medicinal plants are studied as potential sources for pharmaceuticals. While the field of traditional medicine is vast, the WHO has chosen to concentrate on herbal medicine and acupuncture because these aspects have the most to contribute to national health services. In this region, traditional medicine is an integral part of the national health care systems in China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Viet Nam, and the WHO regional office will promote the formulation of relevant national policies in these and the other countries it serves. Efforts to promote the safe and effective use of traditional medicine for primary health care include the development of training materials and courses in Viet Nam, selection of medicinal plants in Laos and the Philippines, and promotion of health among the elderly using traditional means in Viet Nam. Efforts in the areas of research, information exchange, and quality control have contributed to improved delivery of traditional health care services. Despite these achievements, the potential impact of the services of traditional practitioners is far from being met. Training of both traditional and modern practitioners requires strengthening, increased information exchange, assured government involvement, and financial support.
JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE. 1996 May; 41(5 Suppl):419-25.This article reviews recent epidemiological data assessing the risk of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer in women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). A review is also provided of epidemiological and biostatistical concepts which relate to the literature on the relationship between the use of hormonal contraception and cancer. Breast cancer is a common and lethal disease in the US, and evidence suggests that gonadal steroids play a role in the development of breast cancer. Two major case control studies (one in New Zealand and the other under the auspices of the World Health Organization [WHO]) as well as a pooled analysis of these studies found no increased overall breast cancer risk in DMPA users. A currently unexplained pattern of increased risk in recent users mimics that seen with oral contraceptive (OC) use and term pregnancy. A WHO hospital-based study of the relationship between endometrial cancer and DMPA use found a protective effect of DMPA which appeared to be longterm and as great as that associated with OCs. Whereas it is plausible that DMPA, which suppresses ovulation, would lower the risk of ovarian cancer in users, a WHO case-control and hospital-based study failed to uncover such a protective effect. Studies of the routine use of DMPA in nulliparous women (who have higher risk of ovarian cancer) will shed more light on any effect DMPA may have on ovarian cancer. The unique epidemiology of cervical cancer (including number of sexual partners, use of barrier contraception, and frequent screening) makes it difficult to assess any association with contraceptive use. However, a large population-based, case-control study in Costa Rica; a WHO hospital-based, case-control study in Thailand, Mexico, and Kenya; and a study in New Zealand indicate that the risk of cervical neoplasia does not appear to be affected by DMPA use. While some issues regarding DMPA and the risk of reproductive tract carcinoma remain to be resolved, clinicians can be reassured that, for appropriately selected clients, the substantial benefits of DMPA outweigh any risks.
POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1996 Mar-Apr; (251):5.In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a UNFPA representative told participants that recent series of international conferences have acknowledged that development must focus on meeting human needs. The increasing urban population is in need of education, housing, employment, health care, improved water supply, sanitation, and public transportation. Countries of the Asia-Pacific region must deal with meeting these urban needs over the next quarter century. Urban population growth and urban poverty are part of the global agenda for the 21st century. Future UNFPA aid will center on helping individual countries achieve the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development by 2015. These goals revolve around education (especially for girls); reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health services. UNFPA aims to continue to work with governments, ESCAP, and nongovernmental organizations in reducing poverty through sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.