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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1996 Jan. 35 p. (UNAIDS/96.5)These guidelines are destined for policy makers and programme planners wishing to introduce national external quality assessment schemes (NEQAS) for serological testing for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). They describe some important basic principles and the main practical aspects of NEQAS. The objectives of external quality assessment schemes are briefly discussed below and elsewhere (References 1 and 2 in bibliography, Annex 2). It is now widely accepted that quality assurance, quality control and quality assessment constitute an essential part of HIV testing and of diagnostic testing in general. Quality assessment is one component of a total quality assurance programme. The availability of excellent HIV tests does not automatically guarantee reliable laboratory results. Many steps are involved between the moment when a specimen enters the laboratory and the moment when the result of the test is reported to the physician, and at each step something can go wrong. Therefore each government should ensure that sufficient support is made available for a National Reference Laboratory to provide a suitable programme to monitor and if necessary improve the quality of HIV testing in the country. A well-functioning national programme is an important step towards achieving high-quality laboratory performance nationwide. (excerpt)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Jan. 34 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 746)This paper accepts the premise that positive sum games exist in all dimensions of North-South economic contacts but that the management of conflicts concerning the distribution of the gains requires careful attention. It then proceeds to analyze the current state of play and the character of these conflicts in each of the main arenas, focussing heavily on trade, but also discussing public and private capital movements, technology transfer and intellectual property rights issues and labor mobility. It concludes with a discussion of possible changes in international institutions and governance. (author's)
Fuera del Closet. 1996 Sep; (10):4-5.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (a human being under the age of 18) declared the right of children to health and protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. This was reiterated by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights. The Declaration of the Conference on Human Rights urged the governments to step up their efforts to protect and promote the human rights of women and children. It called for the elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation. (excerpt)
Fuera del Closet. 1996 Sep; (10):6-7.Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), including HIV/AIDS, represent more than 10% of the diseases suffered by men and women worldwide. The World Health Organization recognizes that these diseases are most common in young, sexually active people between the ages of 15 and 24, and their incidence is on the rise. (excerpt)
[Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.
In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996.  p. (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.8)A Technical Working Group on Antenatal Care was convened in Geneva, 31 October - 4 November 1994, by the World Health Organization. The original objectives of the Technical Working Group were: 1. To review current antenatal care practices and make recommendations for the identification of high-risk pregnancies and their management, taking into account the timing of the pregnancy, resources available, and skills of the health worker; 2. To draw up recommendations on antenatal care and specifically outline the tasks and procedures health workers are expected to perform at different levels of the health care system; 3. To review the basic equipment, procedures, and supplies used in antenatal care from the point of view of cost, maintenance, scientific validity, and skills required to employ them appropriately; 4. To examine how to optimize antenatal care in terms of clinical tasks and procedures in relationship to the timing of the visits, distance to referral centres, and frequency of attendance. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Child Health and Development, 1996 Nov.  p. (Update No. 22)The question of whether breastfeeding plays a significant role in the transmission of hepatitis B has been asked for many years. It is important given the critical role of breastfeeding and the fact that about 5% of mothers worldwide are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Examination of relevant studies indicates that there is no evidence that breastfeeding poses any additional risk to infants of HBV carrier mothers. The use of hepatitis B vaccine in infant immunization programmes, recommended by WHO and now implemented in 80 countries, is a further development that will eventually eliminate risk of transmission. This document discusses the issues relevant to breastfeeding and HBV transmission, and provides guidance from a WHO perspective. (excerpt)
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996.  p. (EUR/ICP/CMDS 96 06 01 03)The WHO/UN Children's Fund Strategy for diphtheria control includes three main recommendations: 1) mass immunization; 2) early diagnosis and proper treatment of cases; and 3) management of close contacts by the use of antibiotics. Whereas the first two recommendations have been implemented in all New Independent States having epidemic diphtheria, in some countries there is a controversial discussion regarding the use of antibiotics for close contacts. Therefore, WHO, with assistance of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and US Agency for International Development/Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival has drafted guidelines regarding the antibiotic prophylaxis of contacts of diphtheria cases based on international experience. The guidelines include reprints of publications demonstrating the success of this strategy. (author's)
Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2nd ed. Volume 2. Health criteria and other supporting information.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. xvi, 973 p.The first edition (1984-85) of guidelines for drinking water quality was intended for use as a basis for the development of national standards to ensure the elimination--or significant reduction--of constituents of water known to be hazardous to health. This revised edition includes many drinking water contaminants not included in the earlier book and revises some of the recommended guideline values in light of new scientific information. This volume explains how guideline values for drinking water contaminants are to be used; defines the criteria used to select the chemical, physical, microbiological, and radiological contaminants included; and evaluates the effects of these substances on human health. The guidelines presented were developed by over 200 experts from 40 countries. It is emphasized that guideline values should be considered in the context of environmental, social, economic, and cultural conditions rather than as absolutes. Moreover, guideline values are recommended only when control techniques are available to remove or reduce contaminant concentrations to desired levels. Source protection is almost invariably the best method of ensuring safe drinking water.
Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations, International Symposium, Geneva, 21-24 April 1996.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for Migration, 1996. 128 p.This report provides a summary of proceedings and papers presented at the 1996 UN Conference on the Interactions between Mass Migrations and Environmental Impacts. The conference was organized and funded by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration, and the Refugee Policy Group. The conference aimed to determine how to break the mutually reinforcing cycle of environmental damage and mass migration. The discussions focused on the development of policy guidelines that would minimize detrimental impacts and designation of responsible entities for initiating and coordinating action. There was a consensus on a Statement of Principles for preventing and mitigating environmentally induced population displacement and for addressing the negative environmental consequences of mass migration. The Statement of Principles focused on descriptions of the problems and a framework for action for environmentally induced population displacements, environmental impacts of mass migrations, and breaking the cycle. The Summary of Proceedings included the warning in the closure statement that environmental degradation was an international and not a local problem that was linked to political strife, conflict over natural resources, and international political arrangements. The 13 background papers are summarized. Background papers focused on issues such as satellite monitoring and aerial photography, assorted case studies, failures in settlement planning and shelter management, remote sensing and geographic information systems technology, and approaches that mitigate the environmental impact of refugees. Environmental changes are charted for natural causes and man-made causes by time frame of the impact, scale and intensity of impact, predictability, reversibility, and main organizations involved. These two charts help match policy options to the problem.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1996; (861):i-v, 1-68.This volume presents the report of a World Health Organization (WHO) study group on the integration of health care delivery that met in October 1994. The objectives of the study group were 1) to review, analyze, and compare successful and innovative experiences in the development of integrated health systems (IHS) (particularly at the district level); 2) to identify the major issues requiring attention; and 3) to propose a model of a functional IHS, a strategy for countries to adopt, and recommendations about ways the WHO can support these efforts. Accordingly, this volume opens with an introduction that provides background information. The second chapter sets out the above objectives. Chapter 3 provides a framework for analysis of IHS that includes a definition of IHS, presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of integration, and examples of integration. The fourth chapter discusses the evolution toward integration in terms of the development of primary health care (PHC) as an IHS, current trends and issues, and changes in health policies affecting integration. Chapter 5 reviews country experiences of IHS and looks at outcomes and expected gains in efficiency, productivity, health status, user satisfaction, user convenience, and equity. The sixth chapter provides a model of a district-level IHS based on PHC that includes its components and implementation issues such as planning, decentralization, community involvement, objectives, goals, priority-setting, indicators, human resources, and multisectoral integration. Chapter 7 considers issues affecting integration including problems (caused by changing public health slogans, the definition of PHC, the top-down approach to health planning, and piecemeal solutions to complex problems), challenges (such as the relationship between health care institutions, capacity-building, incentives, developing unity of purpose, community action for integration, and health systems research), and obstacles to change. The final chapter contains a plan of action that proposes guidelines for international action to promote IHS and for national and district-level strategies and plans of action.
SAfAIDS News. 1996 Jun; 4(2):2-6.The interrelationship between AIDS and the military is fraught with ironies and contradictions. High levels of militarization exacerbate the spread of HIV and AIDS, just as civil unrest and wars disrupt a nation's health and welfare services and its capacity to deal with infection. In addition, HIV and AIDS may be a factor increasing civil unrest and destabilization and, at the same time, decreasing military readiness to cope with the unrest. In addition, high levels of HIV in a nation's armed forces transform the military's protective role into one of risk to the civilian population…This article explores the HIV risk in the military and its consequences for military and civilian populations and looks at potential responses. It also documents the development and focus of the Civil- Military Alliance to Combat HIV and AIDS, an initiative by Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and the WHO. (excerpt, modified)
FAO yearbook, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO annuaire, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO anuario 1995. Vol 49. Produccion.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1996. xxxvii, 235 p. (FAO Statistics Series No. 133)This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Yearbook is a compilation of statistical data on basic agricultural products and related information in all countries and territories of the world. Presented in tabular form, information included in the Yearbook consists of data series on area, yield and production of numerous crops; on livestock numbers and products; and on population, land use, irrigation and farm machinery. Moreover, the Yearbook provides index numbers that highlight trends in food and agricultural production across all countries and continents. The statistical information presented is based primarily on data provided to the Statistics Division of FAO by countries through questionnaires or official statistical publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.
[Women and reproductive rights: reflection and the fight for a new society] Mujeres y derechos reproductivos: reflexion y lucha para una nueva sociedad.
In: Cumbres, consensos y despues. Seminario Regional "Los Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres en las Conferencias Mundiales". / Reuniao de cupula, consensos e depois. Seminario Regional "Os Direitos Humanos de Mulheres nas Conferencias Mundiais", edited by Roxana Vasquez Sotelo. Lima, Peru, Comite de America Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer [CLADEM], 1996 Nov. 69-111.This examination of women and reproductive rights begins by assessing competing definitions of reproductive rights and scrutinizing documents from the UN world conferences and other international instruments that affirm unquestioned and unconditional protection of reproductive rights. The existence of the documents does not guarantee respect for reproductive rights, and much remains to be done to assure their universal observance. Past population policies implemented by national governments that have violated reproductive rights are then surveyed. Contributions of the women’s movement to the political debate about reproductive rights are examined; feminist thought influenced both the study of reproductive rights and their ultimate recognition as human rights. The women’s movement has sought to claim sexuality as an integral part of affective life, to decouple it from reproduction and to construct an identity for women not exclusively based on reproduction. Against the argument that these are purely private concerns, feminists launched the slogan “the personal is political”. Reproductive rights might be defined as the power to make informed decisions regarding family size, the raising and education of children, gynecological health, and sexual activity, and the resources to put the decisions into practice safely and effectively. Issues that remain unsettled are then discussed, beginning with questions about the scope and concept of reproductive rights. Specific themes in debate are discussed, including new technologies for infertility, formation of families by homosexuals, mental health and reproductive rights, and induced abortion. The final section discusses the need for mechanisms to mediate between social arrangements and individual decisions in order to help individuals exercise their rights of all kinds.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.This paper provides a chronology on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) being tackled by the UN and its agencies since the early 1950s. In 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights raised the issue of FGM for the first time. In 1980, the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women, in Copenhagen, appealed to African governments and Women's Organizations to seek solutions to the problem of female circumcision and infibulation. The WHO in 1982 made a formal statement of its position regarding FGM to the UN Human Rights Commission. In addition, it expressed unequivocal opposition to the medicalization of the practice in any setting, readiness to support national efforts aimed at eliminating the practice, and strongly advises health workers not to perform female circumcision under any conditions. Moreover, in 1995, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen refers to FGM, reinforcing the International Conference on Population and Development recommendations. The Platform of Action of the World Conference on Women in Beijing includes a section on the girl child and urged governments, international organizations and nongovernmental groups to develop policies and programs to eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child including FGM.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.The WHO is concerned with the traditional practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); therefore, it has carried out activities that combat this practice. Over the last 15 years, these activities have included: preparation of informational material by staff members and consultants, particularly on the health consequences and the epidemiology of FGM; support to incorporate this material into appropriate training courses for various categories of health workers; technical and financial support to national surveys; convening and collaborating in conferences and seminars on FGM; holding consultations to clarify and unify approaches; and disseminating information on FGM. All these efforts have culminated in the adoption, by the World Health Assembly 1994, of Resolution WHA 47.10, urging governments to take measures to eliminate traditional practices harmful to the health of women and children, particularly FGM.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.Traditional birth attendants or traditional practitioners are the ones who perform female genital mutilation (FGM) in most rural communities. Due to the increasing awareness of the adverse health consequences, health workers have become involved in performing FGM, which has led to the “medicalization” of the procedure in a number of countries. This paper discusses the efforts of the WHO, together with other UN agencies to prevent the medicalization of all forms of FGM. The WHO has assured governments of its readiness to support national efforts towards the elimination of FGM, to continue collaboration in research related to prevalence, types and consequences of FGM and to disseminate information about the findings.
Paris, France, NGO Standing Committee at UNESCO, .  p.This paper summarizes the contributions and the 15 propositions of the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Standing Committee at UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the Habitat II-City Summit. It also includes the international NGO seminar at UNESCO on "City Dweller, Citizen" held on March 1996. In accordance with its ethical mission, UNESCO has oriented its action for the Habitat II towards the themes of solidarity and of citizenship in the spirit of peace and of conservation of the environment. The Permanent Committee of NGOs accredited to UNESCO, elected by the Conference of the 585 NGOs having official relationships with UNESCO, is deeply involved in the programs and research undertaken by UNESCO.
Advancement of women: report of the Third Committee. Traffic in women and girls. Adopted Resolution II (51/66).
[Unpublished] 1996 Nov 27. Fifty-first session, Agenda item 103.  p. (A/51/612)This paper presents the report of the 3rd Committee during the 51st session of the UN General Assembly concerning the issue of trafficking in women and girls. In recognizing the increasing number of women and girls who are victims of trafficking, the General Assembly is convinced of the need to eliminate all forms of violence and sexual trafficking, including prostitution and other forms of commercial sex. The Assembly realizes the urgent need for the adoption of effective measures to protect women and girls from this nefarious traffic. Governments and countries of origin, transit and destination, and regional and international organizations are called to implement the Platform for Action of the 4th World Conference on Women. In addition, governments are invited to accord standard minimum humanitarian treatment to trafficked persons, consistent with human rights standards, and to support the UN in formulating manuals for training of personnel who take charge of victims of gender-based violence, including trafficking. Relevant UN organizations are likewise encouraged to support this effort. It also calls upon all governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls and to condemn and penalize all offenders. Governments concerned are further urged to take steps to assist women and children victims of transnational trafficking to return home and be reintegrated in their home societies. In addition, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights is invited to address the obstacles to the realization of human rights of women.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Analysis, Research and Assessment, 1996. iv, 51 p. (WHO/ARA/96.1)This booklet presents the WHO global initiative for equity in health and health care that aims to promote and support practical policies and action to reduce avoidable social gaps in health and health care. The initiative builds on work conducted over the last 3 decades, towards health for all by the WHO and other agencies, but is based on a critical reassessment of needs and strategies in view of current economic, social and political conditions prevailing throughout the world. The objectives of the initiative are 1) to make the reduction of social gaps in health and health care a priority on the agendas for policy and action of national and international organizations; 2) to support targeted research and ongoing monitoring activities needed to develop and evaluate effective and efficient policies to reduce social gaps in health and health care; and 3) to promote and support international exchange of experiences likely to be effective and efficient in reducing social gaps in health and health care. In coordination with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the WHO has funded initial planning and development and projects that are now under way in one African country and one Asian country. Meanwhile, nongovernmental and governmental organizations in several other countries have expressed interest in participating. Additional sources of support are needed to expand and further develop the initiative, linking it with complementary effort.
The effects of armed conflict on girls. A discussion paper for the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children.
Monrovia, California, World Vision International, 1996 Jul. 35 p. (World Vision Staff Working Paper No. 23)This preliminary discussion paper on The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls undertaken within the context of the UN Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, aimed to determine whether girls suffer more, less, or at least differently from boys. In conducting the study it was attempted to pull together the experiences of various World Vision programs working with girls in the following areas: 1) their active participation in armed conflicts; 2) the particular vulnerabilities they face due to displacement; 3) their health and nutrition; 4) their traditional roles; and 5) the targeting of girls for violence and abuse. The evidence that was collected indicated that while there was commonality in the experiences of boys and girls, girls were affected in different ways to boys by armed conflict. The most significant differences were the targeting of girls for sexual abuse and rape, with the psychological and physical needs this induces, and the lack of reproductive health services to meet even the most basic needs of girls and women. The paper helps to raise awareness of some of the particular vulnerabilities of girls in armed conflicts, and highlights some possible research hypotheses for more comprehensive study.
UNESCO SOURCES. 1996 Nov; (84):1-21.The November 1996 issue of the UN Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Source journal covers issues concerning governance, bioethics, environment, and education. In addition to its regular letter to the editor, insights, page and screen, and people were presented wherein it paid tribute to the organizer of Black Art Festival, Mr. Leopold Sedar Senghor. Specifically, in the Governance section, it reports the unusual gathering of politicians and political activists to examine the viability of democracy in Latin America. In Bioethics, it tackles the tough decisions arising with new reproductive technologies while the Environment section presents the agenda for the 21st century to save planet Earth. The Education section reports the outcome of the International Conference on Education held in Geneva, which restores teachers to their rightful places in Education. The global water crisis is the main feature of this paper.
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1996; 5(4):13.This article reviews the major international efforts developed over the decade to save the world's forests. As a result of the growing fears about the world's forests, powerful nongovernmental movements interested in safeguarding natural and old growth forests around the world were created. Some of the major initiatives addressing the global forest crisis include 1) the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit); 2) the Commission on Sustainable Development; 3) the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests; 4) the UN Food and Agricultural Organization's Tropical Forestry Action Plan; and 5) the International Tropical Timber Organization. These different initiatives tackled diverse problems of the environment and development; however, they have all failed to either achieve their own aims or create sustainable results. In contrast to these initiatives, the Forest Stewardship Council is a wholly independent, non profit-making, nongovernmental, membership organization. It seeks to promote good forest management worldwide, based on a set of principles and criteria designed to ensure that forests of all kinds are managed in ways that are environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable. Moreover, it enjoys the support of the World Wildlife Fund, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, and a wide range of other nongovernmental organizations.
Note presented by the Director-General of UNESCO. United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II City Summit, Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1996. 23 p. (SHS-96/WS/4)The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Director-General presented this paper at the 1996 UN Conference on Human Settlements held in Istanbul on June 3-14, 1996. Chapter 1 focuses on the diagnosis and prospects of cities in the 21st century, wherein cities are regarded as the focal point of social transformations. Urban revolution is also bringing about a qualitative shift, which can link to the globalization of the economy and technologies, and this in turn, makes far-reaching transformations whose consequences remain to be gauged. Chapter 2 describes the role played by UNESCO in the construction of the city of the 21st century, particularly on two fronts: knowledge and action in the field. Humanizing the city is the ethical message of UNESCO. The major aim is to provide shelter for every citizen, wherein homes are built by recognizing the right of every citizen to adequate housing. Chapter 3 discusses the directions and modalities of action undertaken by UNESCO. UNESCO will make every effort to ensure that the Habitat II Global Plan of Action will be implemented by adopting a partnership approach that involves nongovernmental organizations, cities and local authorities, universities and the world of research. The capacity for contribution, innovation, and action must be supported and enhanced through education, training, information, and communication. UNESCO has already undertaken this crucial mission by getting involved in the training of city technicians and decision-makers, setting up information networks and data banks, and communication activities designed for the media.
[New York, New York], UNFPA, 1996 Jun 3. 76 p.This document reports the interest of the United Nation's Population Fund (UNFPA) in the Habitat II conference and, in particular, in the plan of action that will be decided upon in Istanbul. The Fund's primary objective is to increase awareness that the demographic future is not inevitable, that previous UN conferences have set out guideposts for reaching a more favorable outcome by addressing the basic social needs of individuals and families. In order to bring population-settlement linkages to the fore, UNFPA has actively involved itself in preparatory activities for Habitat II. The list of UNFPA activities includes participation in the Habitat Preparatory Committee and the intersessional Informal Drafting Group. UNFPA has rendered support to the general work of the conference secretariat by financing one senior post on a temporary basis. To move these linkages, UNFPA also sponsored various preparatory meetings, both globally and regionally. The Symposium on International Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries concerned: Implications for Habitat II held by UNFPA to proposed recommendations addressing issues on urban population growth and policies; vulnerable groups; sustainable land use; poverty reduction and employment creation; environmentally sustainable and healthy human settlement; improving urban economies; and balanced development in rural settlements. Aside from that, UNFPA also co-sponsored, along with the UN Center for Human Settlements (Habitat), another symposium entitled From Cairo to Istanbul: International Symposium on Human Settlements to draft recommendations on the linkages with the environment and implications of aging population.